Special Issue "Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Women's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Juan Miguel Martínez Galiano
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nursing, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: maternal and child health; reproductive sexual health; intimate partner violence; women's health
Prof. Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
Interests: epidemiology; public health; reproductive health; meta-analysis; methodology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A thematic collection is being organized on the policies and strategies implemented and to be carried out in sexual and reproductive health. For detailed information on the journal, please refer to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has, as one of its strategic lines of action, sexual and reproductive health (SRH). For this purpose, it carries out a strategic approach to strengthen SRH policies and programs in order to fulfill the ideals of the Millennium Development Goals. In line with this, the WHO has implemented programs, action plans, and strategies on different aspects that are part of the SRH: Global Strategy of the Health Sector against sexually transmitted infections, WHO Recommendations for childbirth care, WHO Maternal Health Program, Recommendations on selected practices for contraceptive use, Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women, WHO Resolution on female genital mutilation, etc. At present, from different organizations, associations, and scientific societies, an important task is being carried out to adapt the care provided in SRH to care that is marked by scientific evidence and the recommendations based on it. There is an increase in interest, both in research and by clinical professionals, in SRH; this increased interest is found in all disciplines (medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, physiotherapy, etc.) and from all levels of care (primary and specialized), as well as in the approach that is made of this from, including prevention, promotion, treatment and recovery. This thematic collection is open to all topics related to SRH.

Prof. Juan Miguel Martínez Galiano
Prof. Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sexual and reproductive health
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Birth
  • Pregnancy
  • Contraception
  • Abortion
  • Women's Health
  • Female genital mutilation
  • Prenatal care
  • Humanization of childbirth care

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Their Association with Gestational Weight Gain and Nutrient Adequacy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217908 (registering DOI) - 28 Oct 2020
Abstract
Several epidemiologic studies have shown an association between Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) and offspring complications. The GWG is directly linked to maternal dietary intake and women’s nutritional status during pregnancy. The aim of this study was (1) to assess, in a sample of [...] Read more.
Several epidemiologic studies have shown an association between Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) and offspring complications. The GWG is directly linked to maternal dietary intake and women’s nutritional status during pregnancy. The aim of this study was (1) to assess, in a sample of Spanish pregnant women, the association between maternal dietary patterns and GWG and (2) to assess maternal dietary patterns and nutrient adequate intake according to GWG. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 503 adult pregnant women in five hospitals in Eastern Andalusia (Spain). Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric values, and dietary intake were collected from clinical records by trained midwives. Usual food intake was gathered through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis. Nutrient adequacy was defined according to European dietary intake recommendations for pregnant women. Regression models adjusted by confounding factors were constructed to study the association between maternal dietary pattern and GWG, and maternal dietary patterns and nutritional adequacy. A negative association was found between GWG and the Mediterranean dietary pattern (crude β = −0.06, 95% CI: −0.11, −0.04). Independent of maternal dietary pattern, nutrient adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin B9, D, E, and iodine was related to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (p < 0.05). A Mediterranean dietary pattern is related to lower GWG and better nutrient adequacy. The promotion of healthy dietary behavior consistent with the general advice promoted by the Mediterranean Diet (based on legumes, vegetables, nuts, olive oil, and whole cereals) will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies to control GWG and ensure adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Sexually Transmitted Infections and Associated Factors in Southeast Spain: A Retrospective Study from 2000 to 2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207449 - 13 Oct 2020
Abstract
The World Health Organization estimates that more than one million people acquire a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) every day, compromising quality of life, sexual and reproductive health, and the health of newborns and children. It is an objective of this study to identify [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization estimates that more than one million people acquire a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) every day, compromising quality of life, sexual and reproductive health, and the health of newborns and children. It is an objective of this study to identify the factors related to a Sexually Transmitted Infection diagnosis in the province of Granada (Spain), as well as those better predicting the risk of acquiring such infections. In this study, 678 cases were analyzed on a retrospective basis, which were treated at the Centre for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation in Granada, between 2000–2014. Descriptive statistics were applied, and by means of binary logistic regression, employing the forward stepwise-likelihood ratio, a predictive model was estimated for the risk of acquiring an STI. Sex, age, occupation, economic crisis period, drug use, number of days in which no condoms were used, number of sexual partners in the last month and in the last year, and number of subsequent visits and new subsequent episodes were associated with an STI diagnosis (p < 0.05). The risk of being diagnosed with an STI increased during the economic crisis period (OR: 1.88; 95%-CI: 1.28–2.76); during the economic crisis and if they were women (OR:2.35, 95%- CI: 1.24–4.44); and if they were women and immigrants (OR: 2.09; 95%- CI:1.22–3.57), while it decreased with age (OR: 0.97, 95%-CI: 0.95–0.98). Identification of the group comprised of immigrant women as an especially vulnerable group regarding the acquisition of an STI in our province reflects the need to incorporate the gender perspective into preventive strategies and STI primary health care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Counselling for Oral Emergency Contraceptive Pills—A Simulated Patient Study in German Community Pharmacies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186720 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background: In Germany, there are two different active substances, levonorgestrel (LNG) and ulipristal acetate (UPA), available as emergency contraception (the “morning after pill”) with UPA still effective even 72 to 120 h after unprotected sexual intercourse, unlike LNG. Emergency contraceptive pills have been [...] Read more.
Background: In Germany, there are two different active substances, levonorgestrel (LNG) and ulipristal acetate (UPA), available as emergency contraception (the “morning after pill”) with UPA still effective even 72 to 120 h after unprotected sexual intercourse, unlike LNG. Emergency contraceptive pills have been available without a medical prescription since March 2015 but are still only dispensed by community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to determine the counselling and dispensing behaviour of pharmacy staff and the factors that may influence this behaviour in a scenario that intends that only the emergency contraceptive pill containing the active substance UPA is dispensed (appropriate outcome). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the form of a covert simulated patient study in a random sample of community pharmacies stratified by location in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and reported in accordance with the STROBE statement. Each pharmacy was visited once at random by one of four trained test buyers. They simulated a product-based request for an emergency contraceptive pill, stating contraceptive failure 3.5 days prior as the reason. The test scenario and the evaluation forms are based on the recommended actions, including the checklist from the Federal Chamber of Pharmacies. Results: All 199 planned pharmacy visits were carried out. The appropriate outcome (dispensing of UPA) was achieved in 78.9% of the test purchases (157/199). A significant correlation was identified between the use of the counselling room and the use of a checklist (p < 0.001). The use of a checklist led to a significantly higher questioning score (p < 0.001). In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, a higher questioning score (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.22–1.63; p < 0.001) and a time between 12:01 and 4:00 p.m. (AOR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.13–5.73; p = 0.024) compared to 8:00 to 12:00 a.m. were significantly associated with achieving the appropriate outcome. Conclusions: In a little over one-fifth of all test purchases, the required dispensing of UPA did not occur. The use of a counselling room and a checklist, the use of a checklist and the questioning score as well as the questioning score and achieving the appropriate outcome are all significantly correlated. A target regulation for the use of a counselling room, an explicit guideline recommendation about the use of a checklist, an obligation for keeping UPA in stock and appropriate mandatory continuing education programmes should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Advancing Prevention of STIs by Developing Specific Serodiagnostic Targets: Trichomonas vginalis as a Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165783 - 10 Aug 2020
Abstract
Point-of-Care (POC) serum antibody screening of large cohorts of women and men at risk for the sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Trichomonas vaginalis requires the availability of targets with high specificity. Such targets should comprise epitopes unique to T. vaginalis immunogenic proteins [...] Read more.
Point-of-Care (POC) serum antibody screening of large cohorts of women and men at risk for the sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Trichomonas vaginalis requires the availability of targets with high specificity. Such targets should comprise epitopes unique to T. vaginalis immunogenic proteins detected by sera of women and men patients with trichomonosis but not uninfected controls. Three enzymes to which patients make serum IgG antibody were identified as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (A), α-enolase (E), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G). Epitopes within these proteins were identified that had no sequence identity to enzymes of humans and other pathogens. Therefore, I constructed a chimeric recombinant String-Of-Epitopes (SOE) protein consisting of 15-mer peptides, within which are the epitopes of A, E, and G. This novel protein of ~36-kD is comprised of two epitopes of A, ten epitopes of E, and seven epitopes of G (AEG::SOE2). The AEG::SOE2 protein was detected both by immunoblot and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using highly reactive sera of women and men but not negative serum unreactive to T. vaginalis proteins. Finally, AEG::SOE2 was found to be immunogenic, as evidenced by serum IgG from immunized mice. I discuss how this approach is important in relation to infectious disease diagnostic targets for detection of serum IgG antibody in exposed and/or infected individuals and how such novel targets may have potential as subunit vaccine candidates against microbial pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Women’s Views of Birth Labor Satisfaction Questionnaire (WOMBLSQ4) in the Spanish Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155582 - 02 Aug 2020
Abstract
The satisfaction of women with the birth experience has implications for the health and wellness of the women themselves and also of their newborn baby. The objectives of this study were to determine the factor structure of the Women’s Views of Birth Labor [...] Read more.
The satisfaction of women with the birth experience has implications for the health and wellness of the women themselves and also of their newborn baby. The objectives of this study were to determine the factor structure of the Women’s Views of Birth Labor Satisfaction Questionnaire (WOMBLSQ4) questionnaire on satisfaction with the attention received during birth delivery in Spanish women and to compare the level of satisfaction of pregnant women during the birth process with that in other studies that validated this instrument. A cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire of 385 Spanish-speaking puerperal women who gave birth in the Public University Hospitals of Granada (Spain) was conducted. An exploratory factor analysis of the WOMBLSQ4 questionnaire was performed to identify the best fit model. Those items that showed commonalities higher than 0.50 were kept in the questionnaire. Using the principal components method, nine factors with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted after merging pain-related factors into a single item. These factors explain 90% of the global variance, indicating the high internal consistency of the full scale. In the model resulting from the WOMBLSQ4 questionnaire, its nine dimensions measure the levels of satisfaction of puerperal women with childbirth care. Average scores somewhat higher than those of the original questionnaire and close to those achieved in the study carried out in Madrid (Spain) were obtained. In clinical practice, this scale may be relevant for measuring the levels of satisfaction during childbirth of Spanish-speaking women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Chronic Fatigue to Psychosocial Status and Quality of Life in Spanish Women Diagnosed with Endometriosis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113831 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
Aim: To analyze the levels of chronic fatigue in Spanish women with endometriosis and its relationship with their psychosocial status and quality of life (QoL). Methods: A total of 230 Spanish women with a clinical diagnosis of endometriosis were recruited. Chronic fatigue (Piper [...] Read more.
Aim: To analyze the levels of chronic fatigue in Spanish women with endometriosis and its relationship with their psychosocial status and quality of life (QoL). Methods: A total of 230 Spanish women with a clinical diagnosis of endometriosis were recruited. Chronic fatigue (Piper Fatigue Scale) and pelvic pain (Numeric Rating Scale) were evaluated. An on-line battery of validated scales was used to assess psychosocial status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Scale for Mood Assessment, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, Female Sexual Function Index and Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey] and QoL [Endometriosis-Health Profile questionnaire-30]. Associations between fatigue and both psychosocial and QoL outcomes were explored through multivariate regression models. Results: One-third and one-half of women showed moderate and severe fatigue, respectively. Fatigue was associated with higher anxiety and depression, poorer sleep quality, poorer sexual functioning, worse gastrointestinal health, higher catastrophizing thoughts, higher anger/hostility scores and lower QoL (p-values < 0.050). Moreover, fatigue and catastrophizing thoughts showed a mediating effect on the association between pelvic pain and QoL. Conclusion: This work reveals the important role of fatigue in the association between pain, psychosocial status, and QoL of Spanish women with endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Laws Restricting Access to Abortion Services and Infant Mortality Risk in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113773 - 26 May 2020
Abstract
Objectives: Since the US Supreme Court′s 1973 Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion, states have enacted laws restricting access to abortion services. Previous studies suggest that restricting access to abortion is a risk factor for adverse maternal and infant health. The objective of [...] Read more.
Objectives: Since the US Supreme Court′s 1973 Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion, states have enacted laws restricting access to abortion services. Previous studies suggest that restricting access to abortion is a risk factor for adverse maternal and infant health. The objective of this investigation is to study the relationship between the type and the number of state-level restrictive abortion laws and infant mortality risk. Methods: We used data on 11,972,629 infants and mothers from the US Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Files 2008–2010. State-level abortion laws included Medicaid funding restrictions, mandatory parental involvement, mandatory counseling, mandatory waiting period, and two-visit laws. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether type or number of state-level restrictive abortion laws during year of birth were associated with odds of infant mortality. Results: Compared to infants living in states with no restrictive laws, infants living in states with one or two restrictive laws (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99–1.18) and those living in states with 3 to 5 restrictive laws (AOR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01–1.20) were more likely to die. Separate analyses examining the relationship between parental involvement laws and infant mortality risk, stratified by maternal age, indicated that significant associations were observed among mothers aged ≤19 years (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.00–1.19), and 20 to 25 years (AOR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03–1.17). No significant association was observed among infants born to older mothers. Conclusion: Restricting access to abortion services may increase the risk for infant mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Open AccessArticle
Psychometric Properties of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale among Young Colombians
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113762 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale among Colombian youth. (2) Method: A total of 2873 men and women between 18 and 26 years old (M = 21.45, SD = 2.26) took part in this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale among Colombian youth. (2) Method: A total of 2873 men and women between 18 and 26 years old (M = 21.45, SD = 2.26) took part in this study. All participants answered a socio-demographic survey, the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale, the UCLA Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale, The Condom Use Errors and Problems Scale, and the Sexual Assertiveness Scale. Sampling was web-based, and the survey was distributed via Facebook. (3) Results: The Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale demonstrated adequate reliability (ordinal α ranged = 0.76 to 0.92). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure with an explained variance of 69%. This dimensionality was also invariant across gender. Moreover, positive attitudes toward condom use were significantly associated with appropriation and assertiveness. Two dimensions (appropriation and partner disapproval) showed significant gender differences. (4) Conclusions: The Spanish–Colombian version of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale is a psychometrically adequate instrument to measure perceived condom use self-efficacy. This scale can be used in both research and professional settings to measure self-efficacy at using condoms in young people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Son Preference and the Reproductive Behavior of Rural-Urban Migrant Women of Childbearing Age in China: Empirical Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093221 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
Son preference has been shown to influence the childbearing behavior of women, especially in China. Existing research has largely focused on this issue using cross-sectional data of urban or rural populations in China, while evidence from the rural-urban migrant women is relatively limited. [...] Read more.
Son preference has been shown to influence the childbearing behavior of women, especially in China. Existing research has largely focused on this issue using cross-sectional data of urban or rural populations in China, while evidence from the rural-urban migrant women is relatively limited. Based on the data of China Migrants Dynamic Survey in 2015, we used logistic regression models to explore the relationship of son preference and reproductive behavior of rural-urban migrant women in China. The results show that the son preference of migrant women is still strong, which leads women with only daughters to have significantly higher possibility of having another child and results in a higher imbalance in the sex ratio with higher parity. Migrant women giving birth to a son is a protective factor against having a second child compared to women whose first child was a girl. Similarly, the effects of the gender of the previous child on women’s progression from having two to three children showed the same result that is consistent with a preference for sons. These findings have implications for future public strategies to mitigate the son preference among migrant women and the imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Open AccessArticle
Healthcare Providers’ Knowledge and Attitude Towards Abortions in Thailand: A Pre-Post Evaluation of Trainings on Safe Abortion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093198 - 04 May 2020
Abstract
Although physicians in Thailand can carry out abortions legally, unsafe abortion rates remain high and have serious consequences for women’s health. Training programs for healthcare providers on the ‘Care of unplanned and adolescent pregnancies for the prevention of unsafe abortions’ have been implemented [...] Read more.
Although physicians in Thailand can carry out abortions legally, unsafe abortion rates remain high and have serious consequences for women’s health. Training programs for healthcare providers on the ‘Care of unplanned and adolescent pregnancies for the prevention of unsafe abortions’ have been implemented in Thailand with the aim of providing information and challenging negative attitudes about abortions. This study investigated the participants of the training courses in order to: (i) evaluate their knowledge and attitudes towards safe abortions; and (ii) investigate the factors that determine their knowledge and attitudes. A pre-post study design was applied. Descriptive statistics were calculated to provide an overview of the data. Bivariate analysis, a Wilcoxon signed rank test and a multivariable analysis using multiple linear regression were applied to determine the changes in attitudes and assess the likelihood of behaviour change towards adolescents and women experiencing unplanned pregnancy and abortions, according to demographic and professional characteristics. Having had the training, healthcare providers’ change in attitudes towards adolescents and women experiencing unplanned pregnancies and abortions were found to be 0.67 points for the nine responses of attitudes and 0.79 points for the 14 responses on various abortion scenarios. Changes in attitude were significantly different among the varying health professional types, with non-doctors increasing by 0.53 points, non-obstetricians and non-gynaecologists increasing by 0.46 points and obstetricians and gynaecologists (OBGYN) increasing by 0.32 points. Positive attitudes towards unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and attitudes towards abortion scenarios significantly increased. The career type of the health professional was a significant factor in improving attitudes. The training program was more effective among non-doctor healthcare providers. Therefore, non-doctors could be the target population for training in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Government Expenditure on Maternal Health and Family Planning Services for Adolescents in Mexico, 2003–2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093097 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess whether government policies to expand the coverage of maternal health and family planning (MHFP) services were benefiting the adolescents in need. To this end, we estimated government MHFP expenditure for 10- to 19-year-old adolescents without [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether government policies to expand the coverage of maternal health and family planning (MHFP) services were benefiting the adolescents in need. To this end, we estimated government MHFP expenditure for 10- to 19-year-old adolescents without social security (SS) coverage between 2003 and 2015. We evaluated its evolution and distribution nationally and sub-nationally by level of marginalization, as well as its relationship with demand indicators. Using Jointpoint regressions, we estimated the average annual percent change (AAPC) nationally and among states. Expenditure for adolescents without SS coverage registered 15% for AAPC for the period 2003–2011 and was stable for the remaining years, with 88% of spending allocated to maternal health. Growth in MHFP expenditure reduced the ratio of spending by 13% among groups of states with greater/lesser marginalization; nonetheless, the poorest states continued to show the lowest levels of expenditure. Although adolescents without SS coverage benefited from greater MHFP expenditure as a consequence of health policies directed at achieving universal health coverage, gaps persisted in its distribution among states, since those with similar demand indicators exhibited different levels of expenditure. Further actions are required to improve resource allocation to disadvantaged states and to reinforce the use of FP services by adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Economic Crisis and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Comparison Between Native and Immigrant Populations in a Specialised Centre in Granada, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072480 - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to analyse the influence of the economic crisis on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the immigrant population compared to the native population. A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing 441 clinical records (329 Spanish nationals and 112 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyse the influence of the economic crisis on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the immigrant population compared to the native population. A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing 441 clinical records (329 Spanish nationals and 112 non-Spanish nationals) of individuals who, between 2000 and 2014, visited an STI clinic in Granada and tested positive for an infection. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and infection rates, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The mean age was 28.06 years (SD = 8.30; range = 16–70). During the period 2000–2014, the risk of being diagnosed with an STI was higher among non-Spanish nationals than among Spanish nationals (odds ratio (OR) = 5.33; 95% CI = 4.78–6.60). Differences between both populations were less marked during the crisis period (2008–2014: OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.32–3.73) than during the non-crisis period (2000–2007: OR = 12.02; 95% CI = 10.33–16.17). This may be due to underreporting of diagnoses in the immigrant population. Immigrants visiting the STI clinic in Granada are especially vulnerable to positive STI diagnoses compared to the native population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Migrant Women Affected by Female Genital Mutilation Using Maternity Services in Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051491 - 26 Feb 2020
Abstract
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a cultural practice defined as the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-therapeutic reasons. Changing patterns of migration in Australia and other high-income countries has meant that maternity care providers and health systems are [...] Read more.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a cultural practice defined as the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-therapeutic reasons. Changing patterns of migration in Australia and other high-income countries has meant that maternity care providers and health systems are caring for more pregnant women affected by this practice. The aim of the study was to identify strategies to inform culturally safe and quality woman-centred maternity care for women affected by FGM who have migrated to Australia. An Appreciative Inquiry approach was used to engage women with FGM. We conducted 23 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. There were four themes identified: (1) appreciating the best in their experiences; (2) achieving their dreams; (3) planning together; and (4) acting, modifying, improving and sustaining. Women could articulate their health and cultural needs, but they were not engaged in all aspects of their maternity care or considered active partners. Partnering and involving women in the design and delivery of their maternity care would improve quality care. A conceptual model, underpinned by women’s cultural values and physical, emotional needs, is presented as a framework to guide maternity services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Relationship Between Prolonged Second Stage of Labor and Short-Term Neonatal Morbidity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217762 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
To evaluate the association between prolonged second stage of labor and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes with a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE were searched using the search strategy “Labor Stage, Second” AND (length OR duration OR prolonged OR [...] Read more.
To evaluate the association between prolonged second stage of labor and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes with a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE were searched using the search strategy “Labor Stage, Second” AND (length OR duration OR prolonged OR abnormal OR excessive). Observational studies that examine the relationship between prolonged second stage of labor and neonatal outcomes were selected. Prolonged second stage of labor was defined as 4 h or more in nulliparous women and 3 h or more in multiparous women. The main neonatal outcomes were 5 min Apgar score <7, admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, neonatal sepsis and neonatal death. Data collection and quality assessment were carried out independently by the three reviewers. Twelve studies were selected including 266,479 women. In nulliparous women, a second stage duration greater than 4 h increased the risk of 5 min Apgar score <7, admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and neonatal sepsis and intubation. In multiparous women, a second stage of labor greater than 3 h was related to 5 min Apgar score <7, admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, meconium staining and composite neonatal morbidity. Prolonged second stage of labor increased the risk of 5 min Apgar score <7 and admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in nulliparous and multiparous women, without increasing the risk of neonatal death. This review demonstrates that prolonged second stage of labor increases the risk of neonatal complications in nulliparous and multiparous women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Association between Sexual Habits and Sexually Transmitted Infections at a Specialised Centre in Granada (Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186881 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
Sexually transmitted infections are an important public health issue. The purpose of this study is to analyse the association between different sexual habits and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in the population of Granada who consult with a specialised centre. An observational, [...] Read more.
Sexually transmitted infections are an important public health issue. The purpose of this study is to analyse the association between different sexual habits and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in the population of Granada who consult with a specialised centre. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted based on the medical records of 678 people from the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, who were diagnosed positively or negatively with a sexually transmitted infection, during the 2000−2014 period. Sociodemographic and clinical data, as well as data on frequency and type of sexual habits, frequency of condom use and sexually transmitted infection positive or negative diagnosis were collected. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. The most popular sexual habits were vaginal intercourse, oral sex (mouth–vagina and mouth–penis) and the least popular were anus–mouth and anal sex. The use of condom is frequent in vaginal and anal sex and less frequent in oral sex. Sexually transmitted infection is associated with mouth–penis (p = 0.004) and mouth–vagina (p = 0.023) oral sex and anal sex (p = 0.031). It is observed that there is a relationship between the presence of STIs and oral sex practices, people having such practices being the ones who use condoms less frequently. There is also a relationship between anal sex and the prevalence of STIs, although in such sexual practice the use of condom does prevail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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