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Article

Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Their Association with Gestational Weight Gain and Nutrient Adequacy

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Complejo Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Nursing, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
5
Department of Noncommunicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK
6
Division of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217908
Received: 2 October 2020 / Revised: 24 October 2020 / Accepted: 25 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Several epidemiologic studies have shown an association between Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) and offspring complications. The GWG is directly linked to maternal dietary intake and women’s nutritional status during pregnancy. The aim of this study was (1) to assess, in a sample of Spanish pregnant women, the association between maternal dietary patterns and GWG and (2) to assess maternal dietary patterns and nutrient adequate intake according to GWG. A retrospective study was conducted in a sample of 503 adult pregnant women in five hospitals in Eastern Andalusia (Spain). Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric values, and dietary intake were collected from clinical records by trained midwives. Usual food intake was gathered through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis. Nutrient adequacy was defined according to European dietary intake recommendations for pregnant women. Regression models adjusted by confounding factors were constructed to study the association between maternal dietary pattern and GWG, and maternal dietary patterns and nutritional adequacy. A negative association was found between GWG and the Mediterranean dietary pattern (crude β = −0.06, 95% CI: −0.11, −0.04). Independent of maternal dietary pattern, nutrient adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin B9, D, E, and iodine was related to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (p < 0.05). A Mediterranean dietary pattern is related to lower GWG and better nutrient adequacy. The promotion of healthy dietary behavior consistent with the general advice promoted by the Mediterranean Diet (based on legumes, vegetables, nuts, olive oil, and whole cereals) will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies to control GWG and ensure adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal dietary patterns; pregnancy; gestational gain weight; offspring maternal dietary patterns; pregnancy; gestational gain weight; offspring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cano-Ibáñez, N.; Martínez-Galiano, J.M.; Luque-Fernández, M.A.; Martín-Peláez, S.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Their Association with Gestational Weight Gain and Nutrient Adequacy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7908. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217908

AMA Style

Cano-Ibáñez N, Martínez-Galiano JM, Luque-Fernández MA, Martín-Peláez S, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Delgado-Rodríguez M. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Their Association with Gestational Weight Gain and Nutrient Adequacy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):7908. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217908

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cano-Ibáñez, Naomi; Martínez-Galiano, Juan M.; Luque-Fernández, Miguel A.; Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel. 2020. "Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Their Association with Gestational Weight Gain and Nutrient Adequacy" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 21: 7908. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217908

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