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Special Issue "Oral Health and Care in Children"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022 | Viewed by 8661

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sherry Shiqian Gao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Stomatology, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Interests: dental caries; clinical trials; systematic review; qualitative research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Chun Hung Chu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
Interests: preventive dentistry; community dentistry; fluorides; dental caries
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although dental care technology has generally improved in recent decades, oral diseases still affect a considerable number of children worldwide. Dental caries is the most common noncommunicable disease among children. The prevalence of early childhood caries is high in preschoold children particularly in developing countries. Traumatic dental injuries are not uncommon. Malocclusion caused by abnormal habits, aberrant soft tissue and premature contact should be identified and correct early. Those oral diseases and conitions if remain untreated can cause deleterious effects on children such as pain and infection, interfered chewing ability, reduced nutrition intake, malolcclusion, unsatisfactory growth and development of the child. To address the oral health problems in children, dentists, dental researchers and dental public health sectors should understand the oral health situations of children, assess their oral health care needs and develop effective oral health care strategies.

This Special Issue welcomes original research, reviews and case reports (with good quality photos) related to oral health and care in children, which can include but not limited to oral health promotion, assessment or management of the oral health diseases and conditions of children, oral health care strategies and programmes for children, and novel oral health care protocols for children. The oral health care strategies can be considered in both individual and community levels.

This Special Issue will provide readers with up-to-date information on oral health and care in children and raise the awareness of clinical practitioners and dental researchers regarding the importance of children’s oral health and care.

Dr. Sherry Shiqian Gao
Prof. Chun Hung Chu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Children
  • Pediatric dentistry
  • Early childhood caries
  • Dental trauma
  • Traumatic dental injuries
  • Malocclusion
  • Oral health care

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Symptoms of the Eruption of Permanent Teeth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063301 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
This prospective study examined a population of 520 urban and rural children aged 5 to 9 years. Every 2–4 weeks, the clinical symptoms accompanying primary tooth replacement such as a cough, a runny nose, pain, and body temperature were assessed in each child’s [...] Read more.
This prospective study examined a population of 520 urban and rural children aged 5 to 9 years. Every 2–4 weeks, the clinical symptoms accompanying primary tooth replacement such as a cough, a runny nose, pain, and body temperature were assessed in each child’s medical records. The authors were able to show in a statistically significant manner that the frequency, time, and type of cough were strongly related to the type of erupting teeth (p < 0.001 for each relationship). A cough dependent on the type of erupting teeth was observed in 86% to 92% of the examined children, with a morning bronchial cough being connected with an eruption of the lower teeth, and an eruption of the upper teeth producing an all-day pharyngeal cough caused by mucus secretions dripping down the back of the throat. A statistically significant relationship was also confirmed between the type of erupting teeth and the incidence of a runny nose (p < 0.001), the frequency of a runny nose (p < 0.001), and the time when runny nose symptoms occurred (p < 0.001). This study shows that the period when primary dentition is replaced with permanent teeth in children is characterized by a physiological cough and a runny nose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
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Article
Child-, Family-, and Community-Level Facilitators for Promoting Oral Health Practices among Indigenous Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031150 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Despite the preventive nature of oral diseases and their significance for general wellbeing, poor oral health is highly prevalent and has unfavourable ramifications for children around the world. Indigenous children in Australia experience disproportionate rates of early childhood caries compared to their non-Indigenous [...] Read more.
Despite the preventive nature of oral diseases and their significance for general wellbeing, poor oral health is highly prevalent and has unfavourable ramifications for children around the world. Indigenous children in Australia experience disproportionate rates of early childhood caries compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Therefore, this paper aims to collate parental experiences and generate an understanding of facilitators for Indigenous childhood oral health. This project aggregated stories from parents of Indigenous children across South Australia who were participants in an early childhood caries-prevention trial. This paper explores facilitators for establishing oral health and nutrition behaviours for Indigenous children under the age of three through reflexive thematic analysis. Fisher-Owens’ conceptual model for influences on children’s oral health is utilised as a framework for thematic findings. Child-level facilitators include oral hygiene routines and regular water consumption. Family-level facilitators include familial ties, importance of knowledge, and positive oral health beliefs. Community-level facilitators include generational teaching, helpful community resources, and holistic health care. Recommendations from findings include the following: exploration of Indigenous health workers and elder participation in oral health initiatives; inclusion of Indigenous community representatives in mainstream oral health discussions; and incorporation of child-level, family-level, and community-level facilitators to increase support for efficacious oral health programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
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Article
Prevalence of Untreated Early Childhood Caries of 5-Year-Old Children in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211934 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 791
Abstract
This cross-sectional survey investigated untreated early childhood caries (ECC) and its associated factors among 5-year-old children in Hong Kong. Children were recruited using a multistage sampling method. One dentist examined the children in kindergarten to diagnose untreated ECC (dt) at the cavitation level. [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional survey investigated untreated early childhood caries (ECC) and its associated factors among 5-year-old children in Hong Kong. Children were recruited using a multistage sampling method. One dentist examined the children in kindergarten to diagnose untreated ECC (dt) at the cavitation level. Each child’s demographic information, snacking behaviour, and oral health-related practice were collected using a parental questionnaire. The relationships between the untreated ECC and demographic information, snacking behaviours, and oral health-–related practice were analysed by zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis. This survey recruited 404 children. Their dt score was 2.8 ± 3.8. The significant untreated ECC (SiUC) index, which was one-third of the children with the highest dt score, was 7.1 ± 3.6. Their untreated ECC prevalence was 57%, which was associated with the district the child lived in. Most children with untreated ECC (71%, 164/231) had never visited a dentist. Children who brushed without toothpaste had more untreated ECC. Children coming from low-income families and with a lower maternal education level had a higher risk of ECC. In conclusion, untreated ECC was prevalent and unevenly distributed among 5-year-old children in Hong Kong. Its prevalence was associated with toothpaste use, family income, maternal education level and the district they lived in. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
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Article
Dental Caries Status among Yi Preschool Children in Yunnan Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168393 - 08 Aug 2021
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Background: The Yi ethnic group is the sixth largest minority in China. The aim of this study was to investigate dental caries status among Yi preschool children in the Yunnan province, China. Method: This cross-sectional study invited 5-year-old Yi children using multistage cluster [...] Read more.
Background: The Yi ethnic group is the sixth largest minority in China. The aim of this study was to investigate dental caries status among Yi preschool children in the Yunnan province, China. Method: This cross-sectional study invited 5-year-old Yi children using multistage cluster sampling. Two trained and calibrated dentists examined the children in kindergartens. The children’s dental caries experience was assessed using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index. Visual plaque on an indexed tooth of each six sextants was recorded and the oral hygiene status was assessed using the Visible Plaque Index. Parents completed questionnaires that surveyed their educational attainment. The questionnaires also collected information about the children’s demographics, snacking habits, oral-health-related behaviors and dental visit experiences. The associations between caries experiences and potential factors were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression. Results: All 452 invited children (249 boys, 55%) participated in this study with a response rate of 100%. Dental caries prevalence rate was 83%. The mean dmft score and decayed teeth score were 5.2 ± 4.4 and 5.1 ± 4.4, respectively. Almost half of the children (n = 211, 47%) had visible plaque on four or more of the six sextants. Most (n = 366, 81%) of the children had not visited a dentist in the prior 12 months. Regression analysis found the children’s caries experience was associated with their dental visit experience. Conclusion: The great majority of the Yi preschool children experienced dental caries and almost all of the cavities were not restored. Their oral hygiene was poor and visible plaque was commonly found on their teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
Article
Parental Compliance towards Oral Health Education among Preschoolers with Special Healthcare Needs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147323 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Background: Young children with special needs greatly rely on their parents to support their daily living activities; parental compliance may have great impact on the implementation of health promotion activities among those children. This study aimed to investigate the parental compliance towards oral [...] Read more.
Background: Young children with special needs greatly rely on their parents to support their daily living activities; parental compliance may have great impact on the implementation of health promotion activities among those children. This study aimed to investigate the parental compliance towards oral health education (OHE) among children with special healthcare needs (SHCN). Method: The participants were 306 parents whose children had participated in a 24-month OHE program for preschool children with SHCN. The primary outcome of this cross-sectional study was parental compliance towards the OHE program. Parents’ oral health literacy (OHL) was assessed by a validated tool. Parents’ socioeconomic status, attitudes towards OHE topics, perceptions of children’s oral hygiene status, and usefulness of OHE materials were collected via questionnaires. Results: A higher dropout rate was observed among parents who perceived that their children had unfavorable oral hygiene status (p = 0.038), or parents who had poor OHL skills (p = 0.015). Parental noncompliance was more likely to be observed among parents who perceived that the OHE materials were not useful for their children (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.56 to 8.47, p = 0.003), or parents whose children had been diagnosed with developmental delays (OR = 5.45, 95% CI 1.59 to18.74, p = 0.007). Conclusion: Non-compliance existed among parents whose children had received OHE intervention. Parental compliance towards OHE intervention might be associated with parents’ OHL skills, usefulness of OHE materials, and children’s developmental conditions. OHE programs should be individually tailored to support children whose parents are at a higher risk of noncompliant behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
Article
Clinical Consequences of Dental Caries, Parents’ Perception of Child’s Oral Health and Attitudes towards Dental Visits in a Population of 7-Year-Old Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115844 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the occurrence of the consequences of dental caries and factors affecting dental service utilization in a population of 7-year-old children. The research included oral examination of 7-year-old schoolchildren and socio-medical study of their parents/legal caregivers. It was [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the occurrence of the consequences of dental caries and factors affecting dental service utilization in a population of 7-year-old children. The research included oral examination of 7-year-old schoolchildren and socio-medical study of their parents/legal caregivers. It was carried out in five primary schools of two provinces, i.e., Greater Poland and Lubusz. Dental examination was performed in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The socio-medical study consisted of questionnaires with close-ended questions concerning socioeconomic characteristics of the family, reasons and time of the last visit at the dental office, consequences of child’s oral health problems, parents’ attitude towards dental visits, and parental opinion about their child’s teeth. Factors affecting utilization of dental services were statistically analyzed using univariate logistic regression assuming p < 0.05. The pufa index of examined children ranged from 0 to 7 (mean 0.80 ± 1.49), while the dmf index ranged from 0 to 14 (3.86 ± 3.32). Low financial burden of oral health expenditures and university education of at least one of the parents significantly increased the chance of visiting a dentist despite lack of pain (OR = 3.0 and 2.5, respectively). In spite of the availability of free dental care for children, socioeconomic factors still determine the utilization of dental services in Poland. Poor oral health status of examined population and negligence of regular dental check-ups emphasize a need to strengthen oral health literacy of parents and children, promoting proper attitudes towards dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
Article
Oral Health Status of 12-Year-Old Hani Children in the Yunnan Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105294 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the oral health status of Hani 12-year-old children in Yunnan, a province in Southwest China. Method: This study employed a multistage sampling method to recruit children from local primary schools. Two calibrated dentists [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the oral health status of Hani 12-year-old children in Yunnan, a province in Southwest China. Method: This study employed a multistage sampling method to recruit children from local primary schools. Two calibrated dentists examined the status of dental caries, gingival bleeding and dental fluorosis by adopting the diagnosis criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. Results: This study invited 480 Hani children, and recruited 413 children (52% boys) (response rate: 86%). The dental caries prevalence was 52%, and the caries experience associated with the mean (standard deviation) decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score was 1.10 (1.46). Gingival bleeding was diagnosed in 252 children (61%), and dental fluorosis was found in two children (0.5%). The results of the regression model indicated the prevalence of dental caries were associated with sugary snacking habits (p = 0.002). The prevalence of gingival bleeding was related to the mother’s education level as well as the child’s monthly pocket money (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Dental caries and gingival bleeding were prevalent among 12-year-old Hani children in the Yunnan province in China. Dental fluorosis was uncommon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)

Review

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Review
Zirconia Crowns for Primary Teeth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052838 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature regarding the clinical performance of zirconia crowns for primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Four electronic databases, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. Clinical, observational, and laboratory studies were [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature regarding the clinical performance of zirconia crowns for primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Four electronic databases, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. Clinical, observational, and laboratory studies were included. Studies that assessed the performance of zirconia crowns for primary teeth using outcomes such as gingival and periodontal health, parental satisfaction, color stability, crown retention, contour, fracture resistance, marginal integrity, surface roughness, and recurrent caries were included. Risk of bias was assessed using different assessment tools depending on the type of the assessed study. Results: Out of the 2400 retrieved records, 73 full-text records were assessed for eligibility. Thirty-six studies were included for qualitative analysis. The included studies reported that zirconia crowns for primary teeth were associated with better gingival and periodontal health, good retention, high fracture resistance, color stability, high parental acceptance, good marginal adaptation, smooth cosmetic surface, and no recurrent caries. Conclusion: Zirconia crowns are promising alternative to other restorative materials and crowns in the field of pediatric dentistry. They showed higher properties and performance in different clinical aspects and great parental satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Care in Children)
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