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Oral Cavity in Pediatric Population as Target for Interdisciplinary Treatment

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 32902

Special Issue Editors

1. Department of Interdisciplinary Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University, 70111 Szczecin, Poland
2. Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
Interests: epidemiology; pediatric dentistry; orthodontics; colorimetry; oral surgery; icon; minimally invasive intervention; minimally invasive dentistry; MIH; pediatric oral surgery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental therapy aims to improve oral health, occlusion, appearance and quality of life. Contemporary pediatric dental care is facing everyday challenges. The provision of interdisciplinary dental care to pediatric patients should be based on a good understanding of changes associated with growth and development. Psychosocial conditions significantly influence the level of cooperation, which is not always optimal. Poor nutritional habits and insufficient oral hygiene are important risk factors for oral diseases. Thus, preventive measures must be undertaken. Intense prophylaxis should be introduced in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy. High demands/expectations referring to the results of treatment are often inconsistent with the level of patient and parent education, which is of special importance.

Symptoms of congenital conditions caused by genetic or environmental factors appear during the developmental period, which require proper early diagnosis and adequate intervention. An increasing number of pediatric patients with congenital and acquired systemic diseases is a challenge for the public dental health care system. Optimal management of patients with complex treatment needs requires interdisciplinary treatment planning in order to address functional and esthetic oral health problems.

Dr. Joanna Janiszewska-Olszowska
Dr. Marta Mazur
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oral health, jaw development, interdisciplinary dental treatment, dental prophylaxis, dental abnormalities, white spot lesions
  • enamel pathology and damage

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 7233 KiB  
Article
Influence of Primary Palatal Surgery on Craniofacial Morphology in Patients with Cleft Palate Only (CPO)—Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114006 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Background: Cleft palate only (CPO) is the second most prevalent cleft type. Both the cleft and palatal scarring may affect craniofacial growth. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize scientific evidence on effect of palatal surgery on craniofacial morphology in CPO. [...] Read more.
Background: Cleft palate only (CPO) is the second most prevalent cleft type. Both the cleft and palatal scarring may affect craniofacial growth. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize scientific evidence on effect of palatal surgery on craniofacial morphology in CPO. Methods: A search was conducted in PubMed, PMC, WoS, Scopus, Embase, using the keywords: “cleft palate” AND (“craniofacial morphology” OR “cephalometric analysis”) NOT “lip” with inclusion and exclusion criteria ensuring confident, direct comparison between study groups. The quality assessment was performed with Arrive’s scale for radiologic examinations. Results: Of 713 potential articles, 19 were subjected to qualitative analysis and 17 to meta-analysis, which confirmed reduced SNA in unoperated CPO versus non-cleft individuals. No scientific evidence was found directly assessing the effect of surgery on craniofacial morphology. The negative effect of palatal surgery was seen indirectly: in treated CPO versus non-cleft, the size effect of SNA is bigger than in untreated CPO versus non-cleft. A high heterogeneity came from a few non-European publications. Conclusions: CPO is associated with sagittal maxillary deficiency resulting both from the cleft and from primary surgery, disregarding cleft severity in operated CPO patients. Ethnic differences influence craniofacial morphology in CPO. This research received no external funding. Study protocol number in PROSPERO database: CRD42021268957. Full article
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9 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Effect of an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Concentration of Salivary Immunoglobulin A
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105786 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF MF) therapy is effective in the treatment of injury, inflammation and postoperative complications. Its clinical applications relate to bone unification, pain reduction, soft tissue oedema and the decrease of electric potentials in the oral cavity. It enhances regeneration [...] Read more.
Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF MF) therapy is effective in the treatment of injury, inflammation and postoperative complications. Its clinical applications relate to bone unification, pain reduction, soft tissue oedema and the decrease of electric potentials in the oral cavity. It enhances regeneration of periapical bone lesions. It is obvious that cells (leukocytes, platelets, keratinocytes, osteoblasts) and proteins (fibrin, collagen, elastin and growth factors) exhibit alterations when exposed to an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF MF) on the parotid gland on the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A. The study group consisted of 24 patients, aged 14–16, who underwent ELF MF on the parotid gland region. The control group comprised 25 matching persons. The IgA concentration in saliva samples was established using radial immunodiffusion. Following ELF MF, a statistically significant increase in the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A was found in the study group, whereas in the control group, no statistically significant differences were noted. It can be concluded that an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field increases the activity of the immune system of the parotid gland. Full article
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12 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Orthodontic Retainers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095775 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
Orthodontic retention is the final important stage of orthodontic treatment, the aim of which is to consolidate the functional and aesthetic position of teeth. Among adults, fixed retainers made of different types of wires are the most common. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Orthodontic retention is the final important stage of orthodontic treatment, the aim of which is to consolidate the functional and aesthetic position of teeth. Among adults, fixed retainers made of different types of wires are the most common. The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanical properties of a new generation of fixed orthodontic retainers—printed by 3D printers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using samples made of Nextdent MFH C&B N1 resin in the form of cuboid bars with nominal dimensions of width b = 3 mm, thickness d = 0.8 mm; 1 mm; 1.2 mm, length l = 30 mm for each type. The influence of the thickness of the retainers on their strength under loaded conditions was evaluated. Flexural strength, elastic properties, deflection, and creep were compared. The samples were aged in an artificial saliva bath at 37 ± 1 °C during the strength tests. Results: It was shown that differences in the thickness of the samples affected their elastic and strength properties. The highest average flexural modulus, the highest deflection, creep, and strength was characteristic of the samples with the highest thickness (1.2 mm). Samples with an average thickness of 1 mm had the lowest modulus of elasticity. Conclusions: The mechanical properties of 3D printed retainers show that they can be an alternative to metal retainers and the procedure of making new retainers, especially when patients have aesthetic requirements or allergies to metals. Full article
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12 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
Gingival Phenotype Changes and the Prevalence of Mucogingival Deformities during the Early Transitional Dentition Phase—A Two-Year Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073899 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Thin gingival phenotype (GPh) may contribute to periodontal tissue breakdown and recession development. Thus, the early identification of thin GPh in children can allow proper preventive care and the identification of children at risk during orthodontic treatment. The present long-term study aimed to [...] Read more.
Thin gingival phenotype (GPh) may contribute to periodontal tissue breakdown and recession development. Thus, the early identification of thin GPh in children can allow proper preventive care and the identification of children at risk during orthodontic treatment. The present long-term study aimed to monitor GPh changes, i.e., thickness (GT) and width of attached gingiva (AGW) during the early transitional dentition phase, as well as its potential associations with the mucogingival deformities. Materials and Methods: 83 systematically healthy children were examined twice with an interval of 2 years. Probing depth, GT and AGW at mandibular incisors, vestibular depth, type of lower lip frenum attachment and mucogingival defects were recorded. Results: 95.2% of participants at baseline and 93.9% at 2-year examination expressed thin GPh. During the transition from the deciduous to permanent dentition, GT and AGW declined, but the GT of permanent incisors already erupted at the baseline examination increased in the observation period. Conclusions: Gingival phenotype undergoes changes in the early transitional dentition phase. In spite of the thin gingival phenotype, only single pseudo-recessions and primary shallow vestibule were noticed. Full article
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11 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
Effect of Tooth Agenesis on Mandibular Morphology and Position
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211876 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Congenital missing teeth (OMIM #106600) is the most common dental abnormality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of tooth agenesis on the total mandibular length, length of the mandibular body and alveolar process, and the mandibular anteroposterior position. The [...] Read more.
Congenital missing teeth (OMIM #106600) is the most common dental abnormality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of tooth agenesis on the total mandibular length, length of the mandibular body and alveolar process, and the mandibular anteroposterior position. The material was obtained from the Department of Orthodontics, Medical University of Warsaw. The study group included 116 patients aged 9–18 years with a congenital absence of at least two permanent tooth buds in the maxilla and/or mandible (mean: 6.2 teeth missing/patient). All patients were Caucasians: 68 (59%) females and 48 (41%) males. The control group included 115 patients without tooth agenesis matched with the age and gender of the study group. A cephalometric analysis was performed, and it was focused on assessing anteroposterior mandibular measurements. This assessment was based on 17 measurements (12 linear and 5 angular). Statistical analysis of the cephalometric measurements between the study group and the control group showed significant changes regarding selected mandibular measurements. Tooth agenesis does not affect the total length of the mandible and the length of the mandibular body, but it might reduce the length of the mandibular arch length and result in a more retrusive mandibular position. Full article
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8 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Association of ABCA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in the Polish Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111483 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Background: Non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common congenital condition with a complex aetiology reflecting multiple genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA4 have been associated with NSCL/P in several studies, although there are some inconsistent results. [...] Read more.
Background: Non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common congenital condition with a complex aetiology reflecting multiple genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA4 have been associated with NSCL/P in several studies, although there are some inconsistent results. This study aimed to evaluate whether two SNPs in ABCA4, namely rs4147811 and rs560426, are associated with NSCL/P occurrence in the Polish population. Methods: The study included 627 participants: 209 paediatric patients with NSCL/P and 418 healthy newborn controls. DNA was isolated from the saliva of NSCL/P patients and from umbilical cord blood in the controls. Genotyping of rs4147811 and rs560426 was performed using quantitative PCR. Results: The rs4147811 (AG genotype) SNP in ABCA4 was associated with a decreased risk of NSCL/P (odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.84; p = 0.004), whereas the rs560426 (GG genotype) SNP was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.31–3.48; p = 0.002). Limitations: This study—based on the correlation between single genetic variants and the occurrence of different phenotypes—might have limited power in detecting relevant, complex inheritance patterns. ORs are often low to moderate when investigating the association of single genes with the risk of a complex trait. Another limitation was the small number of available NSCL/P samples. Conclusions: The results suggest that genetic variations in ABCA4 are important risk markers of NSCL/P in the Polish population. Further investigation in a larger study group is warranted. Full article
9 pages, 912 KiB  
Article
Sella Turcica Abnormalities, Dental Age and Dental Abnormalities in Polish Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910101 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
The frequency of some sella turcica abnormalities on cephalometric radiographs is age related. Chronological age might not overlap with growth; however, no studies could be found on the association between sellar morphology and dental age. Although an association exists between sella turcica bridging [...] Read more.
The frequency of some sella turcica abnormalities on cephalometric radiographs is age related. Chronological age might not overlap with growth; however, no studies could be found on the association between sellar morphology and dental age. Although an association exists between sella turcica bridging and dental abnormalities, no studies have been found correlating sellar abnormalities other than bridging with dental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to find any correlations between sella turcica abnormalities and dental age or dental abnormalities. Methods: Lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 206 children aged 6–15 years were analyzed for sela turcica abnormalities, Demirijan dental age, and dental abnormalities. Results: The prevalence of dental abnormalities in patients with sela turcica abnormalities was 16.98%, while in those with normal sella, it was 3%. The differences between dental and chronological age were higher in patients with sella turcica abnormalities (p = 0.002). Dental abnormalities were more prevalent (p = 0.001) in patients with sellar abnormalities other than sellar bridging than in those with sellar bridging or normal sella. Conclusions: Sella turcica abnormalities are correlated with delayed dental age. Dental abnormalities are more frequent in patients with sellar abnormalities. Dental abnormalities are less frequent in subjects with sellar bridges compared to those with other sellar abnormalities. Full article
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10 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Equation for Tooth Size Prediction from Mixed Dentition Analysis for Taiwanese Population: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126356 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
Background: In mixed dentition analysis, estimation of the mesiodistal width of unerupted permanent canines and premolars is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment planning. The present study aimed to develop a simple linear equation to predict permanent tooth sizes from mixed dentition analysis [...] Read more.
Background: In mixed dentition analysis, estimation of the mesiodistal width of unerupted permanent canines and premolars is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment planning. The present study aimed to develop a simple linear equation to predict permanent tooth sizes from mixed dentition analysis for Taiwanese people. Methods: The sample comprised 200 dental casts, derived from Taiwanese patients (100 males and 100 females; age, 12–35 years). Mesial distal tooth widths were measured in dental casts with a digital caliper. A student’s t-test was conducted to detect tooth size correlations with gender-specific differences, as well as intra-arch counterparts. Standard linear regression was conducted to develop a simple equation representing predictions of canine-premolar relationships. Results: All teeth were not significantly different between the left and right sides, regardless of gender and upper or lower arches. In terms of types of teeth, males had larger tooth dimensions in both arches than females. New regression equations for estimating the dimensions of the unerupted canines and premolars in the Taiwanese population were developed. Conclusions: Using a sample of Taiwanese people, new models derived for females and males separately were developed, which should provide highly accurate predictions for unerupted canines and premolars in the Taiwanese population. Full article
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14 pages, 1461 KiB  
Article
Nasal Morphology and Its Correlation to Craniofacial Morphology in Lateral Cephalometric Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063064 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3135
Abstract
Nose shape, size, and inclination influence facial appearance, but few studies concern the relationship between the nasal profile and craniofacial structures. The objective of this study was to analyze association of nasal cephalometric variables with skeletal structures, age, and sex. Cephalometric and nasal [...] Read more.
Nose shape, size, and inclination influence facial appearance, but few studies concern the relationship between the nasal profile and craniofacial structures. The objective of this study was to analyze association of nasal cephalometric variables with skeletal structures, age, and sex. Cephalometric and nasal analysis was performed in 386 Polish orthodontic patients (aged 9–25 years). Student t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used to compare quantitative variables and Pearson’s or Spearman’s correlation coefficients—to find correlations. Soft tissue facial convexity angle correlates to Holdaway ratio, ANB (A-Nasion-B), and Wits appraisal. Nasal dorsum axis, nose length, nose depth (1) and nose depth (2), nose hump, lower dorsum convexity, and columella convexity increase with age. Nasal base angle, nasolabial angle, nasomental angle, soft tissue facial convexity and nasal bone angle decrease with age. Nasal base angle and nasomental angle are smaller in females. Thus, a relationship exists between nasal morphology and sagittal jaw configuration. Nasal parameters significantly change with age. Sexual dimorphism characterizes nasal bone angle and nasomental angle. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 1427 KiB  
Review
Clinical Indications to Germectomy in Pediatric Dentistry: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020740 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Germectomy is a procedure often required in patients at developmental age. It is defined as the surgical removal of the third molar at a very specific stage of development. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature in terms of [...] Read more.
Germectomy is a procedure often required in patients at developmental age. It is defined as the surgical removal of the third molar at a very specific stage of development. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature in terms of clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Scopus from 1952 to 30 June 2021. The study protocol was registered after the screening stage (PROSPERO CRD42021262949). The search strategy identified 3829 articles: 167 from PubMed, 2860 from Google Scholar, 799 from Cochrane Library and 3 from Scopus. Finally, eight full-text papers were included into the qualitative analysis. Based on the included studies, clinical indications for germectomy were mainly related to orthodontic causes, infectious and cariogenic causes and prophylaxis. Based on these results, it is not possible to present evidence-based clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Clinical trials on this subject focused specifically on patients at developmental age are awaited. Full article
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9 pages, 2063 KiB  
Review
The Role of the Pediatric Dentist in the Multidisciplinary Management of the Cleft Lip Palate Patient
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189487 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3556
Abstract
The focus of this paper is the pediatric dental care of Cleft Lip and Palate (CLP) children and the role of the pediatric dentist in the CLP team. The management of children with cleft lip and palate presents many challenges and a multidisciplinary [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is the pediatric dental care of Cleft Lip and Palate (CLP) children and the role of the pediatric dentist in the CLP team. The management of children with cleft lip and palate presents many challenges and a multidisciplinary and prepared team is always required. Affected individuals present a multiplicity of problems: effective management involves a wide range of specialities. The value of a multidisciplinary team is widely known and mentioned in the literature, but very few papers focus on the role and the importance of the pediatric dentist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to underline the role of the pediatric dentist as a member of the cleft lip and palate team which ranges from prenatal counseling, presurgical prevention and orthopedics, to post-treatment rehabilitation and restoration. Full article
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15 pages, 934 KiB  
Review
Sella Turcica Morphology on Cephalometric Radiographs and Dental Abnormalities—Is There Any Association?—Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094456 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
Background: The sella turcica is a saddle-like structure in the middle cranial fossa on the intracranial surface of the sphenoid bone, visible on lateral cephalograms routinely conducted for orthodontic diagnosis. The development of facial structures follows similar traits to the sella turcica: glandular [...] Read more.
Background: The sella turcica is a saddle-like structure in the middle cranial fossa on the intracranial surface of the sphenoid bone, visible on lateral cephalograms routinely conducted for orthodontic diagnosis. The development of facial structures follows similar traits to the sella turcica: glandular anomalies may be associated with functional disorders, e.g., altered hormonal levels, thus influencing dental development. The aim of this study is to find out if there is any association between the morphology of the sella turcica on cephalometric radiographs and the presence of dental abnormalities. (2) Methods: The search was conducted on 27 January 2021 in four search engines: Medline (PubMed Central), Scopus, Web of Science, Embase. The keywords used in the search strategy were as follows: “sella turcica” AND (“dental abnormalities” OR “dental anomalies” OR “malocclusion”). Since all the studies finally included were retrospective case–control studies, the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Form for Case–Control Studies was applied. (3) Results: The search strategy identified 465 articles: 289 from PubMed, 121 from Scopus, 32 from Web of Science and 23 from Embase. Finally, 10 full-text papers were included into qualitative analysis. (4) Conclusions: Sella turcica bridging is very frequent among orthodontic patients. A clear association exists between dental abnormalities and sella turcica bridging. Full article
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