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Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015) | Viewed by 128477

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, Susan and Henry Samueli College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Interests: E-waste; global health and development; toxic environmental pollution; microbial diversity and ecological functions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Through natural selection, the avoidance of hazardous waste has become a hardwired behavior in animals. In many parts of the world, the behavior is manifested through the expression of repugnance and special treatment of infectious domestic waste, such as fecal materials. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the types of hazardous waste that pose risks to human health have expanded tremendously. For example, electronic waste (e-waste) has emerged as one of the fastest growing categories of hazardous solid wastes worldwide. Unfortunately, scientific expertise, industrial activities, government regulations, and public knowledge are not currently fully developed to cope with the new risks.

More than two decades ago, the British Medical Association published a report with the same title as this Special Issue: “Hazardous Waste and Human Health” (1991, Oxford University Press, ISBN-10: 0192177826). A few monographs on related topics have appeared since then, but most focus rather narrowly on chemicals and toxic waste. However, there have been numerous articles published on various topics and in broad-ranging journals.

The field is overripe for a comprehensive treatise that addresses the well-known categories of hazardous waste, such as domestic, medical, toxic, and radioactive wastes. The treatise should also deal with emerging waste categories and present an interdisciplinary approach. This Special Issue is planned in response to the urgent need to protect the most vulnerable populations through various forms of preventive strategies.

We welcome rigorous and insightful contributions from all disciplines related to hazardous waste and human health, including waste characterization, exposure assessment, source reduction, remediation, and regulatory policies.

Dr. Oladele A. Ogunseitan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • hazardous
  • medical waste
  • toxic waste
  • radioactive
  • particulate
  • domestic waste
  • regulatory policies
  • health impact assessments
  • source reduction
  • remediation
  • environmental impacts
  • vulnerable populations
  • economic costs
  • sustainable materials

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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3069 KiB  
Article
Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana
by Russell Dowling, Bret Ericson, Jack Caravanos, Patrick Grigsby and Yaw Amoyaw-Osei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13587-13601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121013587 - 27 Oct 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7443 | Correction
Abstract
Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant [...] Read more.
Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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1325 KiB  
Article
Biodegradation of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) by Crude Enzyme Extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
by Yu Liu, Ai-Jun Gong, Li-Na Qiu, Jing-Rui Li and Fu-Kai Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 11829-11847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120911829 - 18 Sep 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6615
Abstract
The biodegradation effect and mechanism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) by crude enzyme extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The results demonstrated that crude enzyme extract exhibited obviously higher degradation efficiency and shorter biodegradation time than Pseudomonas aeruginosa itself. Under the optimum conditions of [...] Read more.
The biodegradation effect and mechanism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) by crude enzyme extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The results demonstrated that crude enzyme extract exhibited obviously higher degradation efficiency and shorter biodegradation time than Pseudomonas aeruginosa itself. Under the optimum conditions of pH 9.0, 35 °C and protein content of 2000 mg/L, 92.77% of the initial BDE-209 (20 mg/L) was degraded after 5 h. A BDE-209 biodegradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the biodegradation products identified by GC-MS analysis. The biodegradation mechanism showed that crude enzyme extract degraded BDE-209 into lower brominated PBDEs and OH-PBDEs through debromination and hydroxylation of the aromatic rings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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2818 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Feasibility Assessment of Recycled Paper Mill Sludges for Land Application in Relation to the Environment
by Rosazlin Abdullah, Che Fauziah Ishak, Wan Rasidah Kadir and Rosenani Abu Bakar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9314-9329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809314 - 7 Aug 2015
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 7570
Abstract
The disposal of industrial paper mill sludge waste is a big issue and has a great importance all over the world. A study was conducted to determine the chemical properties of recycled paper mill sludge (RPMS) and assess its possibilities for land application. [...] Read more.
The disposal of industrial paper mill sludge waste is a big issue and has a great importance all over the world. A study was conducted to determine the chemical properties of recycled paper mill sludge (RPMS) and assess its possibilities for land application. RPMS samples were collected from six different paper mills in Malaysia and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 13C-NMR spectra and for the presence of dioxins/furans. The RPMS was dewatered, sticky with a strong odour, an average moisture of 65.08%, pH 7.09, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 14.43 cmol (+) kg–1, N 1.45, P 0.18, K 0.12, Ca 0.82, Mg 0.73, Na 0.76 and Al, 1.38%. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals levels were below the standard Class 2 limits. The dioxin and furan were in below the standard concentration of Class 1. The most prominent peak in the 13C-NMR spectra of RPMS was centered at 31 ppm, proving the presence of methylene (-CH2) groups in long aliphatic chains, with lipids and proteins. The signal at 89 ppm and highly shielded shoulder at 83 ppm were due to presence of cellulose carbon C-4, and the peak at 63 and 65 ppm was due to the cellulose carbon spectrum. The RPMS therefore contains significant amount of nutrients with safe levels of heavy metals and PAHs for environment and can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment for land application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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440 KiB  
Article
Cr(VI) Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash
by Avelino Núñez-Delgado, María José Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Laura Cutillas-Barreiro, JuanCarlos Nóvoa-Muñoz and Manuel Arias-Estévez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 8849-8860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120808849 - 29 Jul 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5592
Abstract
The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VI)ŸL−1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% and 66%, respectively). Sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich and Lineal models. In view of the results, both materials can be considered of very limited value to remove Cr from polluted soil and water, which can be of relevance regarding its appropriate use as biosorbents and recycled by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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2681 KiB  
Communication
Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant
by Atsunao Marui and Adrian H. Gallardo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 8498-8503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120708498 - 21 Jul 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5494
Abstract
The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the [...] Read more.
The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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1250 KiB  
Article
A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China) Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation
by Hui Hu, Xiang Li, Anh Dung Nguyen and Philip Kavan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7593-7614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707593 - 8 Jul 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 9202
Abstract
With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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765 KiB  
Article
Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits
by Tony J.H. Chan, Carolina Gutierrez and Oladele A. Ogunseitan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6771-6787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606771 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5950
Abstract
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of [...] Read more.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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2637 KiB  
Article
Toxic Releases and Risk Disparity: A Spatiotemporal Model of Industrial Ecology and Social Empowerment
by Hannah Aoyagi and Oladele A. Ogunseitan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6300-6318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120606300 - 2 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5204
Abstract
Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation [...] Read more.
Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square = 0.034–0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square = 63.315, p = 0.022, df = 42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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2487 KiB  
Article
Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash
by Na Wei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4992-5005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120504992 - 7 May 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5673
Abstract
Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were [...] Read more.
Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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475 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge
by Feng Yu, Ruimin Fu, Yun Xie and Wuling Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4214-4230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120404214 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 10970
Abstract
Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered [...] Read more.
Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm). The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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683 KiB  
Article
Emissions of Escherichia coli Carrying Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Resistance from Pig Farms to the Surrounding Environment
by Lili Gao, Yeke Tan, Xiaodan Zhang, Jiaqing Hu, Zengmin Miao, Liangmeng Wei and Tongjie Chai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 4203-4213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120404203 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5881
Abstract
The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from food-producing animals to the surrounding environment has attracted much attention. To determine the emissions of ESBL-producing E. coli from pig farms to the surrounding environment, fecal and environmental samples from [...] Read more.
The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from food-producing animals to the surrounding environment has attracted much attention. To determine the emissions of ESBL-producing E. coli from pig farms to the surrounding environment, fecal and environmental samples from six pig farms were collected. In total, 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from feces, air samples, water, sludge and soil samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that the ESBL-producing isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and isolates of different origin within the same farm showed similar resistance phenotypes. Both CTX-M and TEM ESBL-encoding genes were detected in these isolates. CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15 were the predominant ESBL genes identified. ESBL producers from feces and environmental samples within the same farm carried similar CTX-M types. The results indicated that the ESBL-producing E. coli carrying multidrug resistance could readily disseminate to the surrounding environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
1367 KiB  
Article
A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium
by Harshad Lade, Avinash Kadam, Diby Paul and Sanjay Govindwar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3480-3505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120403480 - 25 Mar 2015
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 9889
Abstract
Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis [...] Read more.
Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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2159 KiB  
Article
Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China
by Zhihong Huang, Wenhua Xiang, Yu'e Ma, Pifeng Lei, Dalun Tian, Xiangwen Deng, Wende Yan and Xi Fang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1726-1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120201726 - 3 Feb 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6032
Abstract
The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints [...] Read more.
The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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Review

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947 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Sequential Extraction in the Characterisation and Management of Wastes from Steel Processing: A Prospective Review
by Kiri J. Rodgers, Andrew Hursthouse and Simon Cuthbert
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 11724-11755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120911724 - 18 Sep 2015
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 7197
Abstract
As waste management regulations become more stringent, yet demand for resources continues to increase, there is a pressing need for innovative management techniques and more sophisticated supporting analysis techniques. Sequential extraction (SE) analysis, a technique previously applied to soils and sediments, offers the [...] Read more.
As waste management regulations become more stringent, yet demand for resources continues to increase, there is a pressing need for innovative management techniques and more sophisticated supporting analysis techniques. Sequential extraction (SE) analysis, a technique previously applied to soils and sediments, offers the potential to gain a better understanding of the composition of solid wastes. SE attempts to classify potentially toxic elements (PTEs) by their associations with phases or fractions in waste, with the aim of improving resource use and reducing negative environmental impacts. In this review we explain how SE can be applied to steel wastes. These present challenges due to differences in sample characteristics compared with materials to which SE has been traditionally applied, specifically chemical composition, particle size and pH buffering capacity, which are critical when identifying a suitable SE method. We highlight the importance of delineating iron-rich phases, and find that the commonly applied BCR (The community Bureau of reference) extraction method is problematic due to difficulties with zinc speciation (a critical steel waste constituent), hence a substantially modified SEP is necessary to deal with particular characteristics of steel wastes. Successful development of SE for steel wastes could have wider implications, e.g., for the sustainable management of fly ash and mining wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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1400 KiB  
Review
Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”
by Maria Triassi, Rossella Alfano, Maddalena Illario, Antonio Nardone, Oreste Caporale and Paolo Montuori
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1216-1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120201216 - 22 Jan 2015
Cited by 139 | Viewed by 21662
Abstract
The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping [...] Read more.
The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the “triangle of death”, bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms “waste”, “Campania”, “Naples”, “triangle of death” and “human biomonitoring”. Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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Other

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638 KiB  
Commentary
Effective Strategies for Monitoring and Regulating Chemical Mixtures and Contaminants Sharing Pathways of Toxicity
by Arjun K. Venkatesan and Rolf U. Halden
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 10549-10557; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120910549 - 28 Aug 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6978
Abstract
Traditionally, hazardous chemicals have been regulated in the U.S. on a one-by-one basis, an approach that is slow, expensive and can be inefficient, as illustrated by a decades-long succession of replacing one type of organohalogen flame retardants (OHFRs) with another one, without addressing [...] Read more.
Traditionally, hazardous chemicals have been regulated in the U.S. on a one-by-one basis, an approach that is slow, expensive and can be inefficient, as illustrated by a decades-long succession of replacing one type of organohalogen flame retardants (OHFRs) with another one, without addressing the root cause of toxicity and associated public health threats posed. The present article expounds on the need for efficient monitoring strategies and pragmatic steps in reducing environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts. A promising approach is to combine specific bioassays with state-of-the-art chemical screening to identify chemicals and chemical mixtures sharing specific modes of action (MOAs) and pathways of toxicity (PoTs). This approach could be used to identify and regulate hazardous chemicals as classes or compound families, featuring similar biological end-points, such as endocrine disruption and mutagenicity. Opportunities and potential obstacles of implementing this approach are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
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