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Adipose Tissue and Exercise in Health and Disease

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health-Related Quality of Life".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 4335

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universiteit Hasselt, 3500 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Interests: adipose tissue physiology and exercise; training intervention; obesity; diabetes; heart failure

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent worldwide, contributing to high morbidity and mortality. One of the common factors contributing to the development of these cardiometabolic diseases is insulin resistance, a physiological state in which adipose tissue function is often disturbed. Still, the link between adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic diseases is multifaceted, in which physical activity behavior or exercise (amongst others) plays an important role. However, gaining a detailed insight into physiological phenotypes and their exercise responses is required to understand the complex interactions between individual metabolic profiles, adipose tissue, and its metabolic consequences. These understandings may contribute to tailored and personalized feedback and the optimization of exercise modalities in these individuals, in order to (further) improve risk factors and prevention and management of cardiometabolic diseases.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the role of adipose tissue during exercise or training intervention in different physiological phenotypes (health and disease status), and may include both acute or chronic exercise-induced changes in adipose tissue (function). Adipose tissue may comprise specific locations (i.e. normal, physiological storage locations) or specific organs (e.g., ectopic adipose tissue in liver, skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas). Clinical as well as physiological research papers and reviews addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue.

Dr. Kenneth Verboven
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adipose tissue
  • adipocyte physiology
  • exercise
  • insulin resistance
  • ectopic fat

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
The Effects of 10-Week Strength Training in the Winter on Brown-like Adipose Tissue Vascular Density
by Riki Tanaka, Sayuri Fuse-Hamaoka, Miyuki Kuroiwa, Yuko Kurosawa, Tasuki Endo, Ryotaro Kime, Takeshi Yoneshiro and Takafumi Hamaoka
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610375 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
There is no evidence of the effect of exercise training on human brown-like adipose tissue vascular density (BAT-d). Here, we report whether whole-body strength training (ST) in a cold environment increased BAT-d. The participants were 18 men aged 20–31 years. They were randomly [...] Read more.
There is no evidence of the effect of exercise training on human brown-like adipose tissue vascular density (BAT-d). Here, we report whether whole-body strength training (ST) in a cold environment increased BAT-d. The participants were 18 men aged 20–31 years. They were randomly assigned to two groups: one that performed ST twice a week at 75% intensity of one-repetition maximum for 10 weeks during winter (EX; n = 9) and a control group that did not perform ST (CT; n = 9). The total hemoglobin concentration in the supraclavicular region determined by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy was used as a parameter of BAT-d. ST volume (Tvol) was defined as the mean of the weight × repetition × sets of seven training movements. The number of occasions where the room temperature was lower than the median (NRcold) was counted as an index of potential cold exposure during ST. There was no significant between-group difference in BAT-d. Multiple regression analysis using body mass index, body fat percentage, NRcold, and Tvol as independent variables revealed that NRcold and Tvol were determined as predictive of changes in BAT-d. An appropriate combination of ST with cold environments could be an effective strategy for modulating BAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue and Exercise in Health and Disease)
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12 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Aberrant Mechanical Efficiency during Exercise Relates to Metabolic Health and Exercise Intolerance in Adolescents with Obesity
by Wouter M. A. Franssen, Guy Massa, Bert O. Eijnde, Paul Dendale, Dominique Hansen and Kenneth Verboven
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010578 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Background. Mechanical efficiency (ME) might be an important parameter evaluating cardiometabolic health and the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in individuals with obesity. However, whether these cardiometabolic risk factors may relate to ME in adolescents with obesity is not known yet. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Background. Mechanical efficiency (ME) might be an important parameter evaluating cardiometabolic health and the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in individuals with obesity. However, whether these cardiometabolic risk factors may relate to ME in adolescents with obesity is not known yet. Therefore, this study aims to compare the mechanical efficiency during maximal exercise testing between adolescents with obesity and lean adolescents, and to examine associations with exercise tolerance and metabolic health. Methods. Twenty-nine adolescents with obesity (BMI SDS: 2.11 ± 0.32, age: 13.4 ± 1.1 years, male/female: 15/14) and 29 lean (BMI SDS: −0.16 ± 0.84, age: 14.0 ± 1.5 years, male/female: 16/13) adolescents performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test from which the net mechanical efficiency (MEnet) and substrate oxidation (carbohydrates and lipids) were calculated. Indicators for peak performance were collected. Biochemistry (lipid profile, glycaemic control, inflammation, leptin) was studied in fasted blood samples. Regression analyses were applied to examine relations between MEnet and exercise tolerance or blood variables in the total group. Results. Peak work rate (WRpeak), oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak)/WRpeak, ME, and MEnet were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in adolescents with obesity compared to their lean counterparts (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a reduced MEnet was independently related to a lower WRpeak (SC β = 2.447; p < 0.001) and elevated carbohydrate oxidation during exercise (SC β = −0.497; p < 0.001), as well as to elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SC β = −0.275; p = 0.034) and fasting glucose (SC β = −0.256; p = 0.049) concentration. Conclusion. In adolescents with obesity, the mechanical efficiency is lowered during exercise and this relates to exercise intolerance and a worse metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue and Exercise in Health and Disease)
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