Special Issue "Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Eui-Bae Jeung
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea
Interests: reproductive toxicology; endocrine disruptors; animal anlternative tests; guidelines of toxicology; calcium metabolism; steroid receptors; stem cells in pharmacological and toxicological test

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are environmental chemicals that interfere with the endocrine systems and adversely affect hormone balance or disrupt normal function of organs that hormones regulate or modulate, leading to detrimental effects in reproductive and developmental processes. Humans and animals come into contact with EDs through a variety of routes, including consumption of food and water, through the skin, by inhalation, and by transfer from mother to fetus across the placenta or mother to infant via lactation. Over the past few decades, the regulation of EDs has been debated among scientists, physicians, regulators, and the public. Key elements for the regulation of EDs are in process, and important discussions are ongoing, especially with regard to the establishment of criteria for the identification of endocrine disrupting substances. In this Special issue, recent progress in all aspects of EDs will be proposed for research, guiding the understanding of EDs. The research will give specific ways in which science can be employed for human health.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a forum to collect most recent progress in all aspects of EDs and their impacts on human health, to discuss possible ways forward, and to increase the level of knowledge and competence.

Prof. Dr. Eui-Bae Jeung
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Endocrine disruptors
  • Environmental chemicals
  • Hormones
  • Epigenetics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Altered Gene Expression in Dioxin-Like and Non-Dioxin-Like PCB Exposed Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122090 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known carcinogenic persistent environmental pollutants and endocrine disruptors. Our aim was to identify the possible dysregulation of genes in PCB exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in order to give more insight into the differential pathophysiological effects of [...] Read more.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known carcinogenic persistent environmental pollutants and endocrine disruptors. Our aim was to identify the possible dysregulation of genes in PCB exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in order to give more insight into the differential pathophysiological effects of PCB congeners and mixtures, with an emphasis on immunological effects and oxidative stress. The PBMCs of a healthy volunteer (male, 56 years old) were exposed to a mixture of dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs (PCB 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, and 189, 250 µg/L resp.) or non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180, 250 µg/L resp.) or single PCB congener (no.28, 138, 153, 180, 250 µg/L resp.). After an incubation period of 24 h, a microarray gene expression screening was performed, and the results were compared to gene expression in control samples (PBMCs treated with the vehicle iso-octane). Treatment of PBMCs with the DL-PCB mixture resulted in the largest number of differentially regulated genes (181 upregulated genes >2-fold, 173 downregulated >2-fold). Treatment with the NDL-PCB mix resulted in 32 upregulated genes >2-fold and 12 downregulated genes >2-fold. A gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on DL-PCB treated PBMCs resulted in an upregulation of 125 gene sets and a downregulation of 76 gene sets. Predominantly downregulated gene sets were involved in immunological pathways (such as response to virus, innate immune response, defense response). An upregulation of pathways related to oxidative stress could be observed for all PCB congeners except PCB-28; the latter congener dysregulated the least number of genes. Our experiment augments the information known about immunological and cellular stress responses following DL- as well as NDL-PCB exposure and provides new information on PCB 28. Further studies should be performed to evaluate how disruption of these pathways contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Depressive Symptoms After PCB Exposure: Hypotheses for Underlying Pathomechanisms via the Thyroid and Dopamine System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060950 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls’ (PCB) exposure has been reported to be associated with depressive symptoms, which is correlated to lower dopamine- (DA) and thyroxine-concentrations (T4). T4 is necessary for DA-synthesis and it binds to transthyretin (TTR) being transported into the brain. PCBs can displace T4 [...] Read more.
Polychlorinated biphenyls’ (PCB) exposure has been reported to be associated with depressive symptoms, which is correlated to lower dopamine- (DA) and thyroxine-concentrations (T4). T4 is necessary for DA-synthesis and it binds to transthyretin (TTR) being transported into the brain. PCBs can displace T4 by binding to TTR itself, being transported into the brain and disturbing DA-synthesis, where depressive symptoms might occur. Consequently, the free T4-concentration (fT4) increases when PCBs bind to TTR. The interaction of PCBs with fT4 and its associations with the main DA metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), and depressive symptoms were investigated. In total, 116 participants (91.6% men) were investigated, who took part in three annual examinations (t1–t3) of the HELPcB health surveillance program. Blood was collected for measuring PCBs, hydroxy PCBs (OH-PCBs), and fT4 and urine for HVA. Depressive Symptoms were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Interactions were tested cross-sectionally with multiple hierarchical regressions and longitudinally with mixed effect models. Related to HVA, an interaction was cross-sectionally found for lower-chlorinated PCBs (LPCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dlPCBs); longitudinally only for LPCBs. Related to depressive symptoms, the interaction was found for LPCBs, dlPCBs, and OH-PCBs; longitudinally again only for LPCBs. The results give first hints that a physiological process involving the thyroid and DA system is responsible for depressive symptoms after PCB exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Bisphenol A Exposure and Sperm ACHE Hydroxymethylation in Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010152 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to impact human sperm quality. The epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effect remain unknown. The acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) gene is a sperm-expressed gene encoding the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase and participates in the apoptosis of cells, including [...] Read more.
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to impact human sperm quality. The epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effect remain unknown. The acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) gene is a sperm-expressed gene encoding the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase and participates in the apoptosis of cells, including sperm. This study aimed to examine whether BPA exposure is associated with the hydroxymethylation level of the sperm ACHE gene. A total of 157 male factory workers were studied, among whom 74 had BPA exposure in the workplace (BPA exposure group) and 83 had no BPA exposure in the workplace (control group). Urine samples were collected for BPA measurement and semen samples were collected to assay for ACHE hydroxymethylation. Sperm ACHE hydroxymethylation level was higher in the BPA exposure group (p = 0.041) compared to the control group. When subjects were categorized according to tertiles of detected BPA level, higher ACHE hydroxymethylation levels were observed for the lowest, middle, and top tertiles compared to those with BPA below the limit of detection (LOD). In a linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders, a positive linear association between urine BPA concentration and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) rate of the sperm ACHE gene was observed, although the association did not reach statistical significance in all categories after being stratified by the BPA tertile. In conclusion, 5hmC of the sperm ACHE gene was positively associated with BPA exposure, which may provide supportive evidence for BPA’s effects on male fertility or other health endpoints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dialysis Membranes Influence Perfluorochemical Concentrations and Liver Function in Patients on Hemodialysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112574 - 17 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Introduction: Perfluoro-octanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) are two toxic perfluorochemicals (PFCs) commonly used as surfactants. PFCs are difficult to be eliminated from the body. We investigated the influence of different dialysis membranes on the concentrations of PFCs in patients under hemodialysis. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Perfluoro-octanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) are two toxic perfluorochemicals (PFCs) commonly used as surfactants. PFCs are difficult to be eliminated from the body. We investigated the influence of different dialysis membranes on the concentrations of PFCs in patients under hemodialysis. Method: We enrolled 98 patients. Of these, 58 patients used hydrophobic polysulfone (PS) dialysis membranes, and the other 40 had hydrophilic membranes made by poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) or cellulose triacetate (CTA). Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry coupled was used with isotope dilution to quantify PFOA and PFOS. Results: The predialysis concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in patients with hydrophobic PS dialysis membranes were 0.50 and 15.77 ng/mL, respectively, lower than the concentrations of 0.81 and 22.70 ng/mL, respectively, in those who used hydrophilic membranes (such as CTA or PMMA). Older patients have higher PFOS and poorer body function, with lower Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPSS) scores. The demographic data of the two groups were similar. However, patients with hydrophobic PS dialysis membranes had lower predialysis aspartate transaminase (AST) (p = 0.036), lower glucose levels (p = 0.017), and better body function (nonsignificantly higher KPSS scores, p = 0.091) compared with patients who used other membranes. These differences may be associated with the effects of different membranes, because PFOA positively correlated with AST, while PFOS negatively correlated with body function. Conclusions: This is the first study comparing PFC levels in uremic patients with different dialysis membrane. PS membrane may provide better clearance of PFCs and may, therefore, be beneficial for patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Bisphenol A and 4-tert-Octylphenol on Embryo Implantation Failure in Mouse
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081614 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Miscarriage due to blastocyst implantation failure occurs in up to two-thirds of all human miscarriage cases. Calcium ion has been shown to be involved in many cellular signal transduction pathways as well as in the regulation of cell adhesion, which is necessary for [...] Read more.
Miscarriage due to blastocyst implantation failure occurs in up to two-thirds of all human miscarriage cases. Calcium ion has been shown to be involved in many cellular signal transduction pathways as well as in the regulation of cell adhesion, which is necessary for the embryo implantation process. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDs) during early gestation results in disruption of intrauterine implantation and uterine reception, leading to implantation failure. In this study, ovarian estrogen (E2), bisphenol A (BPA), or 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), with or without ICI 182,780 (ICI) were injected subcutaneously from gestation day 1 to gestation day 3 post-coitus. The expression levels of the calcium transport genes were assessed in maternal uteri and implantation sites. The number of implantation sites was significantly low in the OP group, and implantation sites were absent in the E2, ICI and EDs + ICI groups. There were different calcium transient transport channel expression levels in uterus and implantation site samples. The levels of TRPV5 and TRPV6 gene expression were significantly increased by EDs with/without ICI treatment in utero. Meanwhile, TRPV5 and TRPV6 gene expression were significantly lower in implantation sites samples. NCX1 and PMCA1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by OP and BPA in the implantation site samples. Compared to vehicle treatment in the uterus, both the MUC1 mRNA and protein levels were markedly high in all but the BPA group. Taken together, these results suggest that both BPA and OP can impair embryo implantation through alteration of calcium transport gene expressions and by affecting uterine receptivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Persistent Organic Pollutant-Mediated Insulin Resistance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030448 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have become wide-spread environmental contaminants as a consequence of their extensive use, long-range transport, and persistence. Because POPs are highly resistant to metabolic degradation, [...] Read more.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have become wide-spread environmental contaminants as a consequence of their extensive use, long-range transport, and persistence. Because POPs are highly resistant to metabolic degradation, humans bioaccumulate these lipophilic and hydrophobic pollutants in fatty tissues for many years. Previous studies have demonstrated that POPs including PCBs are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest an association between POP burden and DM type 2/metabolic syndrome. In addition, several experimental studies have provided additional evidence supporting the association between POP exposure and DM type 2 or insulin resistance. Epidemiological and experimental studies have provided compelling evidence indicating that exposure to POPs increases the risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying POP-induced insulin resistance is yet to be elucidated. In this article, we review literature that has reported on the association between POP burden and insulin resistance and the mechanism underlying POP-induced insulin resistance, and discuss implications for public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Exposure on Human Health)
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