Special Issue "Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José Vicente Ríos-Santos
Website
Guest Editor
Periodontology & Comprehensive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Universisty of Seville, Seville C/ Avicena S/N 41009, Spain
Interests: periodontology; dental implants
Dr. Mariano Herrero-Climent
Website SciProfiles
Assistant Guest Editor
Porto Dental Institute, 4150-518 Oporto, Portugal
Interests: periodontology; dental implants
Prof. Dr. Marco Orsini
Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Universidad Complutense Madrid-Spain Dept. Periodontics. Private practice: Via Nardis, 5 67100 L’Aquila-ITALY
Interests: periodontology; dental implants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental implantology has greatly improved in recent years, with rapid and effective changes for the use of new technologies.

A long time ago, initial implant treatments were intended to simplify the process of repositioning the teeth that were missing, without taking care of other relevant and important factors. At first, the implants were placed where the professional saw the bone. Then, dentists realized that the implants had to be placed where the prosthesis is needed (furthermore in cases where there is no bone there may be the option to regenerate it) to achieve a biomechanical relationship that guarantees success.

In pace with society’s advancement, more demands were placed on implant treatments. Now, procedures have been achieved which are stable, well maintained, and successful over time. Moreover, patients are looking for highly aesthetic results of their treatments. Overall, all these parameters have established new requirements for dental office treatments (e.g., immediate loading protocols).

The advance of digital technology also assists the development of treatments, and has changed our daily dental practice. This all implies an increasingly demanding use of the technology that surrounds the field of oral implantology. For all these reasons, we want to provide the scientific community with this opportunity to present their original research or review articles in this Special Issue, on the following topics:

  • Morphology and biomechanics of dental implants.
  • Management and monitoring of the stability of the implants in the different phases of the treatment.
  • Digital applications in implantology.
  • Immediate loading protocols.

Prof. Dr. José Vicente Ríos-Santos
Prof. Dr. Mariano Herrero-Climent
Prof. Dr. Marco Orsini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dental implants
  • Stability of implants
  • Immediate loading
  • Digital dental application
  • Resonance frecuency analysis
  • Desing of dental implants
  • Accuracy implant cast
  • Digital dental impression

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Reliability of the Resonance Frequency Analysis Values in New Prototype Transepithelial Abutments: A Prospective Clinical Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186733 - 16 Sep 2020
Abstract
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) requires abutment disconnection to monitor implant stability. To overcome this limitation, an experimental transepithelial abutment was designed to allow a SmartPeg to be screwed onto it, in order to determine the prototype abutments repeatability and reproducibility using Osstell ISQ [...] Read more.
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) requires abutment disconnection to monitor implant stability. To overcome this limitation, an experimental transepithelial abutment was designed to allow a SmartPeg to be screwed onto it, in order to determine the prototype abutments repeatability and reproducibility using Osstell ISQ and to assess whether implant length and diameter have an influence on the reliability of these measurements. RFA was conducted with a SmartPeg screwed directly into the implant and onto experimental abutments of different heights of 2, 3.5 and 5 mm. A total of 32 patients (116 implants) were tested. RFA measurements were taken twice for each group from mesial, distal, buccal and palatal/lingual surfaces. Mean values and SD were calculated and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) (p < 0.05, IC 95%). The implant stability quotient (ISQ) mean values were 72.581 measured directly to implant and 72.899 (2 mm), 72.391 (3.5 mm) and 71.458 (5 mm) measured from the prototypes. ICC between measurements made directly to implant and through 2-, 3.5- and 5-mm abutments were 0.908, 0.919 and 0.939, respectively. RFA values registered through the experimental transepithelial abutments achieved a high reliability. Neither the implant length nor the diameter had any influence on the measurements’ reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Evaluation of Dental Implant Failure among Healthy and Well-Controlled Diabetic Patients—A 3-Year Retrospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145253 - 21 Jul 2020
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is known to compromise the various aspects of homeostasis, including the immune response and the composition of oral microflora. One of the oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus is tooth loss and the survival rate of dental implants chosen as a treatment [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is known to compromise the various aspects of homeostasis, including the immune response and the composition of oral microflora. One of the oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus is tooth loss and the survival rate of dental implants chosen as a treatment modality for its rehabilitation is controversial. The current study aims to evaluate and compare the failure rate of dental implants between well-controlled diabetic and healthy patients. A retrospective study of case-control design was conceptualized with 121 well-controlled diabetic and 136 healthy individuals. Records of subjects who had undergone oral rehabilitation with dental implants between the periods of January 2013 to January 2016 were retrieved. Post-operative evaluation was carried out for all patients for about three years to assess the immediate and long-term success of the procedure. From a total of 742 dental implants, 377 were placed in well-controlled diabetic patients (case group) and 365 in healthy subjects (control group). A comparable (9.81%), but non-significant (p = 0.422) failure rate was found in the case group in comparison to the control group (9.04%). A non-significant (p = 0.392) raised number (4.98%) of failure cases were reported among females in comparison to males (4.44%). In respect to arch, the mandibular posterior region was reported as the highest failure cases (3.09%; p = 0.411), with 2.29% of cases reported in the mandibular anterior (p = 0.430) and maxillary posterior (p = 0.983) each. The maxillary anterior region was found to have the least number (1.75%; p = 0.999) of failure cases. More (4.98%; p = 0.361) cases were reported to fail during the functional loading stage in contrast to osseointegration (4.44%; p = 0.365). A well-controlled diabetic status does not impose any additional risk for individuals undergoing dental implant therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Non-Interventional Study Documenting Use and Success of Tissue Level Implants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134816 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Numerous randomised controlled multicentric studies have investigated various responses to different treatment modalities with dental implants. These studies do not always show the results of daily practice as they are performed under controlled and strict clinical conditions. This multicentric, non-interventionist trial aimed to [...] Read more.
Numerous randomised controlled multicentric studies have investigated various responses to different treatment modalities with dental implants. These studies do not always show the results of daily practice as they are performed under controlled and strict clinical conditions. This multicentric, non-interventionist trial aimed to document the behaviour of implants when used in daily dental practice, without inclusion or exclusion criteria. One hundred and ninety-six screw-shaped, tissue-level implants were placed, and each clinician decided which implant, surgical loading and prosthetic protocol to use. At surgery, data related to the implants were recorded. Additionally, the crestal bone level changes were evaluated for up to two years of follow-up. Two implants were lost before they were loaded. The success rate was 98.31%, and the survival rate was 98.79%. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) at surgery was 68.61 ± 10.35 and at 2 years was 74.39 ± 9.64. The crestal–shoulder distances were 1.25 ± 1.09 mm and 1.68 ± 1.07 mm in the mesial and distal aspects on the day of surgery, respectively, and 2.04 ± 0.91 and 2.16 ± 0.99 mm at 2 years, respectively. At 2 years, 69.3% of the patients were highly satisfied. The use of implants under standard conditions seemed to have success rates similar to their placement in controlled studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Implant Designs on Strain and Stress Distribution under Non-Axial Loading: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134738 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Implant design evolved alongside the development of implant therapy. The purpose of this finite element analysis (FEA) study was to analyze the influence of different implant designs on the stress and strain distribution to the implants and surrounding bone. Three implant designs with [...] Read more.
Implant design evolved alongside the development of implant therapy. The purpose of this finite element analysis (FEA) study was to analyze the influence of different implant designs on the stress and strain distribution to the implants and surrounding bone. Three implant designs with the same length and diameter were used. The three-dimensional geometry of the bone was simulated with a cortical bone of three different thicknesses and two medullar bone densities: low density (150 Hounsfield units) and high density (850 Hounsfield units). A 30° oblique load of 150 N was applied to the implant restoration. Displacement and stress (von Mises) results were obtained for bone and dental implants. The strain and stress distributions to the bone were higher for the tissue-level implant for all types of bone. The maximum principal strain and stress decreased with an increase in cortical bone thickness for both cancellous bone densities. The distribution of the load was concentrated at the coronal portion of the bone and implants. All implants showed a good distribution of forces for non-axial loads, with higher forces concentrated at the crestal region of the bone–implant interface. Decrease in medullar bone density negatively affects the strain and stress produced by the implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Implant Design and Under-Preparation of the Implant Site on Implant Primary Stability. An In Vitro Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124436 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant sites an under-preparation sequence associated with two different implant designs on implant primary stability measured by two parameters: insertion torque (IT) and implant stability quotient (ISQ). It used two different [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant sites an under-preparation sequence associated with two different implant designs on implant primary stability measured by two parameters: insertion torque (IT) and implant stability quotient (ISQ). It used two different implants: one cylindrical as a control and another one with a tapered design. The implants were inserted in type III fresh humid bovine bone and four drilling sequences were used: one control, the one proposed by the implant company (P1), and three different undersized (P2, P3 and P4). P2 was the same as P1 without the cortical drill, P3 was without the last pilot drill and P4 was without both of them. The sample size was n = 40 for each of the eight groups. Final IT was measured with a torquemeter and the ISQ was measured with Penguin resonance frequency analysis. Results showed that both ISQ and IT have a tendency to increase as the preparation technique reduces the implant site diameter when compared with the standard preparation, P1. The preparations without cortical drill, P2 and P4, showed the best results when compared with the ones with a cortical drill. Tapered implants always showed higher or the same ISQ and IT values when compared with the cylindrical implants. Giving the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that reducing implant preparation can increase IT and ISQ values. Removing the cortical drill and the use of a tapered design implant are also effective methods of increasing primary implant stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the CAD-CAM Systems on the Marginal Accuracy and Mechanical Properties of Dental Restorations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124276 - 15 Jun 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the quality of different computer-assisted-design and computer assisted manufacturing systems (CAD-CAM) generated by only one scanner, focusing on vertical fit discrepancies and the mechanical properties. A master model was obtained from a real clinical situation: [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the quality of different computer-assisted-design and computer assisted manufacturing systems (CAD-CAM) generated by only one scanner, focusing on vertical fit discrepancies and the mechanical properties. A master model was obtained from a real clinical situation: the replacement of an absent (pontic) tooth, with the construction of a fixed partial denture on natural abutments with three elements. Nine scans were performed by each tested and 36 copies were designed using a dental CAD-CAM software (Exocad). The frameworks were manufactured using three-axis and five-axis, with the same batch of the chrome-cobalt (CrCo) alloy. The frameworks were not cemented. A focus ion beam-high resolution scanning electron microscope (FIB-HRSEM) allowed us to obtain the vertical gap measurements in five points for each specimen. Roughness parameters were measured using white light interferometry (WLI). The samples were mechanically characterized by means of flexural tests. A servo-hydraulic testing machine was used with a cross-head rate of 1 mm/min. One-way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed to determine whether the vertical discrepancies and mechanical properties were significantly different between each group (significance level p < 0.05). The overall mean marginal gap values ranged: from 92.38 ± 19.24 µm to 19.46 ± 10.20 µm, for the samples produced by three-axis and five-axis machines, respectively. Roughness was lower in the five-axis machine than the three-axis one, and as a consequence, the surface quality was better when the five-axis machine was used. These results revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.005) in the mean marginal gap between the CAD-CAM systems studied. The flexural strength for these restorations range from 6500 to 7000 N, and does not present any statistical differences’ significance between two CAD-CAM systems studied. This contribution suggests that the number of axes improves vertical fit and surface quality due to the lower roughness. These claims show some discrepancies with other studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Complications of Fixed Full-Arch Implant-Supported Metal-Ceramic Prostheses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124250 - 14 Jun 2020
Abstract
We aimed to assess the biological and mechanical-technical complications and survival rate of implants of full-arch metal-ceramic prostheses, during five years of follow-up. 558 implants (of three different brands) retaining 80 full-arch metal-ceramic prostheses were placed in 65 patients, all of whom were [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the biological and mechanical-technical complications and survival rate of implants of full-arch metal-ceramic prostheses, during five years of follow-up. 558 implants (of three different brands) retaining 80 full-arch metal-ceramic prostheses were placed in 65 patients, all of whom were examined annually for biological and mechanical-technical complications during the five years of follow-up. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression were calculated. The cumulative survival rate of the implants was 99.8%, and 98.8% prosthesis-based. Mucositis was the most frequent of the biological complications and peri-implantitis was recorded as 13.8% at restoration-level, 16.9% at patient level and 2.0% at implant level. An implant length greater than 10 mm was shown to be a protective factor against biological complications. The mechanical-technical complications were associated with implant diameter, abutment/implant connection and retention system. Loss of screw access filling was the most frequent prosthetic complication, followed by the fracture of the porcelain. Full-arch metal-ceramic prostheses show a high prevalence of implant and prosthesis survival, with few biological and mechanical-technical complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Is It Possible to Monitor Implant Stability on a Prosthetic Abutment? An In Vitro Resonance Frequency Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114073 - 08 Jun 2020
Abstract
In order to apply the “one-abutment–one-time” concept, we evaluated the possibility of measuring resonance frequency analysis (RFA) on the abutment. This trial aimed to compare the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) values obtained by the PenguinRFA when screwing the transducer onto the implant [...] Read more.
In order to apply the “one-abutment–one-time” concept, we evaluated the possibility of measuring resonance frequency analysis (RFA) on the abutment. This trial aimed to compare the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) values obtained by the PenguinRFA when screwing the transducer onto the implant or onto abutments with different heights and angulations. Eighty implants (VEGA®, Klockner Implant System, SOADCO, Les Escaldes, Andorra) were inserted into fresh bovine ribs. The groups were composed of 20 implants, 12 mm in length, with two diameters (3.5 and 4 mm). Five different abutments for screwed retained restorations (Permanent®) were placed as follows: straight with 1, 2, and 3 mm heights, and angulated at 18° with 2 and 3 mm heights. The mean value of the ISQ measured directly on the implant was 75.72 ± 4.37. The mean value of the ISQ registered over straight abutments was 79.5 ± 8.50, 76.12 ± 6.63, and 71.42 ± 6.86 for 1, 2, and 3 mm height abutments. The mean ISQ over angled abutments of 2 and 3 mm heights were 68.74 ± 4.68 and 64.51 ± 4.53 respectively. The present study demonstrates that, when the ISQ is registered over the straight abutments of 2 and 3 mm heights, the values decrease, and values are lower for angled, 3 mm height abutments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Dental Implants on Oral Health)
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