Special Issue "Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Anawat Suppasri
Website
Guest Editor
International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture 980-0845, Japan
Interests: tsunami numerical modeling; tsunami generation mechanism; tsunami damage field survey; tsunami vulnerability; tsunami hazard and risk evaluation; disaster prevention education
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There have been great improvements in tsunami disaster risk reduction, especially after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. These include improvements in tsunami warning and monitoring systems, coastal defence structures against tsunamis, evacuation, education, and other social study-related issues. The 2018 Sulawesi tsunami was the deadliest tsunami since the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. This event pointed out some remaining problems in the current understanding of tsunami generation, tsunami warning and monitoring systems, and reconstruction plans. Tsunami awareness is important for such extraordinary events, as promoted through World Tsunami Awareness Day, approved by the United Nations. The second volume of this Special Issue (the first volume can be seen at Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami) welcomes contributions from geosciences and non-geosciences specialists, in pure and applied tsunami science, as well as from engineers and sociologists working on tsunami risk reduction. This Special Issue aims to cover tsunami research globally, including all processes and aspects of tsunami disasters as well as their cascading effects. Examples of the prospective topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) Seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources and their return periods;

2) Tsunami modeling techniques and their application;

3) Deterministic and probabilistic tsunami analyses as well as other statistical approaches;

4) Tsunami hazard and risk assessment at both micro and macro scales as well as cascading effects;

5) Coastal defence structures against tsunamis;

6) Tsunami awareness-related topics such as applications, tools, and other dissemination methods of tsunami warnings, tsunami evacuations, disaster education, and urban planning.

This Special Issue will be a platform for the results of interdisciplinary research on tsunamis, with the aim of achieving the goal of a world that is safer from tsunamis.

Assoc. Prof. Anawat Suppasri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial
Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2
Geosciences 2019, 9(12), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9120503 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
Disaster related research has its own interdisciplinary perspectives connected to the disaster cycle (response, recovery, prevention, and preparedness). This special issue focuses on interdisciplinary geosciences perspectives of tsunami that cover the whole process of tsunami disasters (generation, propagation, impact assessment, psychological perspectives, and [...] Read more.
Disaster related research has its own interdisciplinary perspectives connected to the disaster cycle (response, recovery, prevention, and preparedness). This special issue focuses on interdisciplinary geosciences perspectives of tsunami that cover the whole process of tsunami disasters (generation, propagation, impact assessment, psychological perspectives, and planning). This special issue collects tsunami research papers not only as lessons from the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami, but also from other areas in Japan (coastal defense structures, tsunami fires, economic loss assessment, and emergency planning) as well as other countries (morphological changes in Indonesia and building risk assessment in New Zealand. The order of the paper follows the tsunami disaster process and the connections between each paper show the interdisciplinary perspectives of tsunami research, which can also be used as a framework for other types of disaster research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Co-Constructing a Narrative of ‘Never Give Up’ in Preparing for a Mega-Tsunami: An Exemplar of ‘All-Of-Society Engagement’?
Geosciences 2019, 9(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9120486 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper discusses the ‘all-of-society engagement’ concept promoted in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) 2015–2030, drawing on the case of Kuroshio Town, Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The framework does not offer a clear definition of ‘all-of-society engagement’. The paper suggests [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the ‘all-of-society engagement’ concept promoted in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) 2015–2030, drawing on the case of Kuroshio Town, Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The framework does not offer a clear definition of ‘all-of-society engagement’. The paper suggests the case of Kuroshio Town could help us envisage what ‘all-of-society engagement’ might look like. The people in the town were shocked to receive the official revised prediction of a forthcoming mega earthquake and tsunami in March 2012, which suggested that the Nankai Trough Earthquake could reach the seismic intensity of seven, and the subsequent tsunami could be as high as 34.4 m in a certain part of Kuroshio Town. Pessimism spread, and an attitude of ‘giving up’ prevailed. Kuroshio Town Hall had to come up with a drastic measure to unite the whole town, which was to present a clear philosophy, rather than technical measures. The narrative of ‘never give up’ was thus constructed, which was gradually appreciated and shared by the residents of the town. The paper teases out this whole-town preparedness project with the use of the four priorities of actions in the Sendai Framework as an analytical tool. The analysis brings certain mechanisms deployed in the town to the fore, which enabled the co-construction of the narrative of ‘never give up’, contributing to motivating the residents to engage in preparedness activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tsunami Vulnerability Criteria for Fishery Port Facilities in Japan
Geosciences 2019, 9(10), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9100410 - 21 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Business continuity plans (BCPs) can be effective and proactive countermeasures to respond flexibly to crises caused by unexpected natural disasters such as large tsunamis. BCP guidelines for fisheries are being issued by the Fisheries Agency (Japan) and the utilization of such BCPs has [...] Read more.
Business continuity plans (BCPs) can be effective and proactive countermeasures to respond flexibly to crises caused by unexpected natural disasters such as large tsunamis. BCP guidelines for fisheries are being issued by the Fisheries Agency (Japan) and the utilization of such BCPs has been spreading in Japan. Despite the need to promote the social implementation of BCPs in the fisheries industry, there is a lack of quantitative criteria for the tsunami damage threshold of various fishing ports and facilities. In this research, we surveyed the damage to the fishing facilities from the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Data were collected on the tsunami damage for various fishery facilities and used to establish criteria for tsunami damage thresholds. In addition, tsunami damage inferred from 1506 scenarios of tsunami computations was predicted probabilistically for a model region as the Nachi Katsu’ura Fishery Port in Wakayama Prefecture. The method we developed in this research makes it possible to assess the probabilistic tsunami damage by combining a tsunami hazard assessment method with criteria for damage occurrence for fishery port facilities and equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Concise Psychometric Tool to Measure Personal Characteristics for Surviving Natural Disasters: Development of a 16-Item Power to Live Questionnaire
Geosciences 2019, 9(9), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9090366 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The ability of individuals to manage and rebuild their lives after a disaster depends on environmental factors, as well as their own psychological characteristics. A psychometric questionnaire to measure personality traits relevant to disaster survival was proposed based on a large-scale investigation of [...] Read more.
The ability of individuals to manage and rebuild their lives after a disaster depends on environmental factors, as well as their own psychological characteristics. A psychometric questionnaire to measure personality traits relevant to disaster survival was proposed based on a large-scale investigation of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (Sugiura et al. 2015). This tool, the Power to Live with Disasters questionnaire, measures eight personality characteristics that are beneficial for coping with disasters. However, this instrument has not been optimised for practical use; it is long and lacks benchmark scores for the general population. Thus, we developed a concise, 16-item version of the Power to Live with Disasters questionnaire through reanalysis of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake survivor data and an additional Web-based survey to obtain normative data from 1200 respondents drawn from the general population of Japan. The scores obtained from the short-form version of the questionnaire successfully replicated the results of the long-form version; eight distinct personality characteristics correlated well with several items associated with “successful survival” of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. The normative data of the full- and short-version questionnaires were also highly correlated. We propose use of the shortened questionnaire to determine the personality traits critical for survival in the face of unexpected, life-threatening situations caused by natural disasters. Our questionnaire could be useful in schools and other public settings to enhance disaster-mitigation efforts and resilience to disasters in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Open AccessArticle
Estimating Tsunami Economic Losses of Okinawa Island with Multi-Regional-Input-Output Modeling
Geosciences 2019, 9(8), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080349 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Understanding the impacts of tsunamis, especially in terms of damage and losses, is important for disaster mitigation and management. The aim of this study is to present our estimations of the potential losses from tsunami damage on Okinawa Island. We combine the use [...] Read more.
Understanding the impacts of tsunamis, especially in terms of damage and losses, is important for disaster mitigation and management. The aim of this study is to present our estimations of the potential losses from tsunami damage on Okinawa Island. We combine the use of a tsunami hazard map and our proposed economic loss model to estimate the potential losses that would be sustained by Okinawa Island in the event of a tsunami. First, to produce the tsunami hazard map, we calculated tsunami flow characteristics using the mathematical model TUNAMI-N2 and incorporating 6 earthquake fault scenarios around the study area. The earthquake scenarios are based on historical records along the Ryukyu Trench and the Okinawa. The resulting inundation map is overlaid with economic land use type and topography maps to identify vulnerable regions, which are then employed to compute potential economic losses. Second, we used our proposed economic model for this study area to calculate the potential losses that would be sustained in these vulnerable regions. Our economic model extends the multi-regional-input-output (MRIO) model, where the economic values of industrial sectors are scaled to correlate with land use and topography types (coastal and inland areas) to calculate losses through the Chenery–Moses estimation method. Direct losses can be estimated from the total input of the MRIO table, while indirect losses are computed from the direct losses and interaction parameter of the MRIO table. The interaction parameter is formed by linear programming and calculated using the Leontief methodology. Our results show that the maximum total damaged area under the 6 earthquake scenarios is approximately 30 km2. Inundation ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 m in depth covers the largest area of approximately 10 km2 and is followed by areas with inundation depths of 1.0–2.0 m and >5.0 m. Our findings show that direct losses will occur, while indirect losses are only approximately 56% that of direct losses. This approach could be applied to other areas and tsunami scenarios, which will aid disaster management and adaptation policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Psychological Processes and Personality Factors for an Appropriate Tsunami Evacuation
Geosciences 2019, 9(8), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080326 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Although various factors related to the environment (perception of earthquake and warning) and knowledge (oral history and scientific knowledge) affect individual differences in evacuation behavior before a tsunami, the roles of psychological processes and personality factors in such relationships are poorly understood. We [...] Read more.
Although various factors related to the environment (perception of earthquake and warning) and knowledge (oral history and scientific knowledge) affect individual differences in evacuation behavior before a tsunami, the roles of psychological processes and personality factors in such relationships are poorly understood. We addressed this research gap by applying hierarchical regression analyses to survey data from survivors of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami disaster. Previously-known contributions of environmental and knowledge factors were mostly replaced by the perception of a tsunami risk and threat, and these background factors were shown to facilitate these psychological processes. Several personality factors directly contributed to voluntary evacuation, particularly leadership and active well-being in the Power to Live scale, and extraversion in the Big Five scale. Overall, these results seem to indicate the need for formulating two independent targets when developing measures to enhance appropriate tsunami evacuation. Facilitation of the perception of a tsunami risk and threat may basically be pursued by developing existing approaches. Addressing the relevant personality factors may be done in a broader context of disaster or general education and sociocultural activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tsunami Modeling and Satellite-Based Emergency Mapping: Workflow Integration Opportunities
Geosciences 2019, 9(7), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9070314 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Satellite-based Emergency Mapping (SEM) mechanisms provide information for emergency response in relation to different types of disasters, including tsunamis, based on the analysis of satellite imagery acquired in the aftermath of an event. One of the main critical aspects of a SEM service [...] Read more.
Satellite-based Emergency Mapping (SEM) mechanisms provide information for emergency response in relation to different types of disasters, including tsunamis, based on the analysis of satellite imagery acquired in the aftermath of an event. One of the main critical aspects of a SEM service is the timeliness in providing relevant information in the hours following the event. The availability of a relevant post-event image is crucial; therefore, satellite sensors need to be programmed as soon as possible. The integration of a tsunami alerting system, like the one offered by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS), can be highly beneficial in a SEM mechanism for streamlining and accelerating the satellite programming task and for generating first damage estimates. The GDACS tsunami model is validated using tidal gauge data and a post-event field survey. Tsunami model outputs are then exploited to automatically identify areas of interest to be used for immediate satellite acquisition triggering. Three alternative operational integration approaches are proposed, described and discussed, taking as use case the tsunami that struck the central Chilean coast after the 8.3 magnitude earthquake on 16 September 2015. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Method for Near-Real Time Estimation of Tsunami Sources Using Ocean Bottom Pressure Sensor Network (S-Net)
Geosciences 2019, 9(7), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9070310 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A dense cabled observation network, called the seafloor observation network for earthquakes and tsunami along the Japan Trench (S-net), was installed in Japan. This study aimed to develop a near-real time tsunami source estimation technique using the ocean bottom pressure data observed at [...] Read more.
A dense cabled observation network, called the seafloor observation network for earthquakes and tsunami along the Japan Trench (S-net), was installed in Japan. This study aimed to develop a near-real time tsunami source estimation technique using the ocean bottom pressure data observed at those sensors in S-net. Synthetic pressure waveforms at those sensors were computed for 64 earthquake tsunami scenarios with magnitude ranging between M8.0 and M8.8. The pressure waveforms within a time window of 500 s after an earthquake were classified into three types. Type 1 has the following pressure waveform characteristic: the pressure decreases and remains low; sensors exhibiting waveforms associated with Type 1 are located inside a co-seismic uplift area. The pressure waveform characteristic of Type 2 is that one up-pulse of a wave is within the time window; sensors exhibiting waveforms associated with Type 2 are located at the edge of the co-seismic uplift area. The other pressure waveforms are classified as Type 3. Subsequently, we developed a method to estimate the uplift area using those three classifications of pressure waveforms at sensors in S-net and a method to estimate earthquake magnitude from the estimated uplift area using a regression line. We systematically applied those methods for two cases of previous large earthquakes: the 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw8.2) and the 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw8.1). The locations of the large computed uplift areas of the earthquakes were well defined by the estimated ones. The estimated magnitudes of the 1952 and 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquakes from the estimated uplift area were 8.2 and 7.9, respectively; they are almost consistent with the moment magnitudes derived from the source models. Those results indicate that the tsunami source estimation method developed in this study can be used for near-real time tsunami forecasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Possible Mechanism for the Tsunami-Related Fires That Occurred at Aonae Harbor on Okushiri Island in the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Earthquake
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060253 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the mysterious tsunami fires that occurred at Aonae Harbor on Okushiri Island during the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. Specifically, five fishing boats moored separately from each other in the harbor suddenly caught fire and burned nearly simultaneously with [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the mysterious tsunami fires that occurred at Aonae Harbor on Okushiri Island during the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. Specifically, five fishing boats moored separately from each other in the harbor suddenly caught fire and burned nearly simultaneously with the arrival of the first tsunami wave. However, the ignition mechanism of those fires has, until now, remained largely unknown. At the time the earthquake occurred, an NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) crew that was on the island to report on its scenic natural attractions just happened to capture video footage of those tsunami-related fires. Using that NHK video footage in combination with eyewitness accounts, this study investigates the spatio-temporal process leading to those tsunami-related fires. For example, one witness said, "There was whitish bubbling in the offshore area and I saw five burning fishing boats moored on the seawall being blown about by the strong winds. The burning boats were swept ashore with the tsunami and ignited the gasoline of a car that was rolling in the waves. The fire eventually spread to the center of the Aonae District." The NHK video footage confirmed flames arising from the five fishing boats almost simultaneously and the shimmering white color of the tsunami waters striking the seawall, which were consistent with the eyewitness testimony. Based on these spatio-temporal data, we propose the following hypothetical model for the origin of tsunami fires. Combustible methane gas released from the seabed by the earthquake rose toward the surface, where it became diffused into the seawater and took the form of whitish bubbles. The tsunami strike on the Aonae Harbor seawall resulted in the generation of large electrical potential differences within the seawater mist, which quickly developed sufficient electrical energy to ignite the methane electrostatically. The burning methane bubbles accumulated on the boat decks, which then burned violently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Energy Reduction of a Tsunami Current through a Hybrid Defense System Comprising a Sea Embankment Followed by a Coastal Forest
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060247 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The 2011 Great East Japan tsunami revealed the limit of using natural or artificial infrastructures as a single tsunami countermeasure. In recent tsunami mitigation strategy, interest in a hybrid defense system (combination of natural and artificial infrastructures) rather than a single defense structure [...] Read more.
The 2011 Great East Japan tsunami revealed the limit of using natural or artificial infrastructures as a single tsunami countermeasure. In recent tsunami mitigation strategy, interest in a hybrid defense system (combination of natural and artificial infrastructures) rather than a single defense structure is growing, and a pilot project has already started in Japan. Clarification of flow structures within the hybrid defense system is necessary for designing an improved mitigation system. In addition, when a hydraulic jump is expected, its position should be restricted to a protected area for the resilience of the hybrid defense system. This study performed flume tests to elucidate the mitigation effect of a hybrid defense system comprising an embankment model (EM), followed by different types of single-layer emergent forest models (SLM) or vertical double-layer forest models (DLM). Different types of hydraulic jumps were observed within the defense system, jump position and their characteristics dominated the energy reduction downstream of SLM or DLM. Experimental results showed that this hybrid defense system reduced the flow energy to 30% and 40% of maximum for SLM and DLM, respectively, compared to only the single EM. Moreover, the position of the hydraulic jump was near the EM in the combination of EM and DLMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Conservation Laws with Moving Grid Nodes: Application to Tsunami Wave Modelling
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050197 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the present article, we describe a few simple and efficient finite volume type schemes on moving grids in one spatial dimension combined with an appropriate predictor–corrector method to achieve higher resolutions. The underlying finite volume scheme is conservative, and it is accurate [...] Read more.
In the present article, we describe a few simple and efficient finite volume type schemes on moving grids in one spatial dimension combined with an appropriate predictor–corrector method to achieve higher resolutions. The underlying finite volume scheme is conservative, and it is accurate up to the second order in space. The main novelty consists in the motion of the grid. This new dynamic aspect can be used to resolve better the areas with large solution gradients or any other special features. No interpolation procedure is employed; thus, unnecessary solution smearing is avoided, and therefore, our method enjoys excellent conservation properties. The resulting grid is completely redistributed according to the choice of the so-called monitor function. Several more or less universal choices of the monitor function are provided. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated on several examples stemming from the simple linear advection to the simulation of complex shallow water waves. The exact well-balanced property is proven. We believe that the techniques described in our paper can be beneficially used to model tsunami wave propagation and run-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Morphological Changes due to the 2004 Tsunami Wave around Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030125 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive morphological changes around the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This research investigates the coastal morphological changes in the Banda Aceh area via coupling a hydrodynamic model with a sediment transport module. The Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model [...] Read more.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive morphological changes around the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This research investigates the coastal morphological changes in the Banda Aceh area via coupling a hydrodynamic model with a sediment transport module. The Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) was coupled with the XBeach Model to simultaneously simulate sediment transport and the hydrodynamic process during the tsunami. The coupled model is known as COMCOT-SED. Field bathymetric data measured in 2006 were used to validate the coupled model. This study reveals that the tsunami’s impact was more severe on the eastern part of the coast, where it hit directly. Meanwhile, the western part of the coast suffered a lower impact because of the sheltering effects from a series of small islands and a headland to the north. This study has shown that the model results from COMCOT-SED are consistent with field data and show where the tsunami waves caused offshore erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Tsunami Risk to Residential Buildings at Omaha Beach, New Zealand
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030113 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Coastal settlements worldwide have suffered significant damage and loss to tsunami hazards in the last few decades. This period coincides with socio-economic changes that have heightened spatio-temporal risk through increased coastal development and infrastructure. In this study, we apply a spatio-temporal loss model [...] Read more.
Coastal settlements worldwide have suffered significant damage and loss to tsunami hazards in the last few decades. This period coincides with socio-economic changes that have heightened spatio-temporal risk through increased coastal development and infrastructure. In this study, we apply a spatio-temporal loss model to quantify the changes in direct economic losses to residential buildings from tsunami hazards over a 20-year period in Omaha Beach, New Zealand. The approach reconstructed temporal urban settlement patterns (1992, 1996, 2006 and 2012) for an area potentially exposed to regional source tsunami inundation hazard. Synthetic depth–damage functions for specific building classes were applied to estimate temporal damage and loss from tsunami inundation exposure at each building location. Temporal loss estimates were reported for a range of risk metrics, including probable maximum loss, loss exceedance and average annual loss. The results showed that an increase in the number of buildings and changes to building design (i.e., storeys, floor area, foundations) influenced the increasing risk to direct economic loss over the study period. These increases were driven by conversion from rural to urban land use since 1996. The spatio-temporal method presented in this study can be adapted to analyse changing risk patterns and trends for coastal settlements to inform future tsunami mitigation measures and manage direct economic losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop