Special Issue "Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Anawat Suppasri

International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi Prefecture 980-0845, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: tsunami numerical modeling; tsunami generation mechanism; tsunami damage field survey; tsunami vulnerability; tsunami hazard and risk evaluation; disaster prevention education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There have been great improvements in tsunami disaster risk reduction, especially after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. These include improvements in tsunami warning and monitoring systems, coastal defence structures against tsunamis, evacuation, education, and other social study-related issues. The 2018 Sulawesi tsunami was the deadliest tsunami since the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. This event pointed out some remaining problems in the current understanding of tsunami generation, tsunami warning and monitoring systems, and reconstruction plans. Tsunami awareness is important for such extraordinary events, as promoted through World Tsunami Awareness Day, approved by the United Nations. The second volume of this Special Issue (the first volume can be seen at Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami) welcomes contributions from geosciences and non-geosciences specialists, in pure and applied tsunami science, as well as from engineers and sociologists working on tsunami risk reduction. This Special Issue aims to cover tsunami research globally, including all processes and aspects of tsunami disasters as well as their cascading effects. Examples of the prospective topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) Seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources and their return periods;

2) Tsunami modeling techniques and their application;

3) Deterministic and probabilistic tsunami analyses as well as other statistical approaches;

4) Tsunami hazard and risk assessment at both micro and macro scales as well as cascading effects;

5) Coastal defence structures against tsunamis;

6) Tsunami awareness-related topics such as applications, tools, and other dissemination methods of tsunami warnings, tsunami evacuations, disaster education, and urban planning.

This Special Issue will be a platform for the results of interdisciplinary research on tsunamis, with the aim of achieving the goal of a world that is safer from tsunamis.

Assoc. Prof. Anawat Suppasri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Conservation Laws with Moving Grid Nodes: Application to Tsunami Wave Modelling
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050197
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
In the present article, we describe a few simple and efficient finite volume type schemes on moving grids in one spatial dimension combined with an appropriate predictor–corrector method to achieve higher resolutions. The underlying finite volume scheme is conservative, and it is accurate [...] Read more.
In the present article, we describe a few simple and efficient finite volume type schemes on moving grids in one spatial dimension combined with an appropriate predictor–corrector method to achieve higher resolutions. The underlying finite volume scheme is conservative, and it is accurate up to the second order in space. The main novelty consists in the motion of the grid. This new dynamic aspect can be used to resolve better the areas with large solution gradients or any other special features. No interpolation procedure is employed; thus, unnecessary solution smearing is avoided, and therefore, our method enjoys excellent conservation properties. The resulting grid is completely redistributed according to the choice of the so-called monitor function. Several more or less universal choices of the monitor function are provided. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated on several examples stemming from the simple linear advection to the simulation of complex shallow water waves. The exact well-balanced property is proven. We believe that the techniques described in our paper can be beneficially used to model tsunami wave propagation and run-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Morphological Changes due to the 2004 Tsunami Wave around Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030125
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive morphological changes around the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This research investigates the coastal morphological changes in the Banda Aceh area via coupling a hydrodynamic model with a sediment transport module. The Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model [...] Read more.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused massive morphological changes around the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This research investigates the coastal morphological changes in the Banda Aceh area via coupling a hydrodynamic model with a sediment transport module. The Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) was coupled with the XBeach Model to simultaneously simulate sediment transport and the hydrodynamic process during the tsunami. The coupled model is known as COMCOT-SED. Field bathymetric data measured in 2006 were used to validate the coupled model. This study reveals that the tsunami’s impact was more severe on the eastern part of the coast, where it hit directly. Meanwhile, the western part of the coast suffered a lower impact because of the sheltering effects from a series of small islands and a headland to the north. This study has shown that the model results from COMCOT-SED are consistent with field data and show where the tsunami waves caused offshore erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Tsunami Risk to Residential Buildings at Omaha Beach, New Zealand
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030113
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Coastal settlements worldwide have suffered significant damage and loss to tsunami hazards in the last few decades. This period coincides with socio-economic changes that have heightened spatio-temporal risk through increased coastal development and infrastructure. In this study, we apply a spatio-temporal loss model [...] Read more.
Coastal settlements worldwide have suffered significant damage and loss to tsunami hazards in the last few decades. This period coincides with socio-economic changes that have heightened spatio-temporal risk through increased coastal development and infrastructure. In this study, we apply a spatio-temporal loss model to quantify the changes in direct economic losses to residential buildings from tsunami hazards over a 20-year period in Omaha Beach, New Zealand. The approach reconstructed temporal urban settlement patterns (1992, 1996, 2006 and 2012) for an area potentially exposed to regional source tsunami inundation hazard. Synthetic depth–damage functions for specific building classes were applied to estimate temporal damage and loss from tsunami inundation exposure at each building location. Temporal loss estimates were reported for a range of risk metrics, including probable maximum loss, loss exceedance and average annual loss. The results showed that an increase in the number of buildings and changes to building design (i.e., storeys, floor area, foundations) influenced the increasing risk to direct economic loss over the study period. These increases were driven by conversion from rural to urban land use since 1996. The spatio-temporal method presented in this study can be adapted to analyse changing risk patterns and trends for coastal settlements to inform future tsunami mitigation measures and manage direct economic losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami Volume 2)
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