Special Issue "Stress Quantification in Sedimentary Basins"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 October 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Khalid Amrouch
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Australian School of Petroleum, Level 1, Office 1.14, Santos Building, The University of Adelaide, 5005, Australia
Interests: structural geology; brittle deformation; stress analyses; sedimentary basin evolution; geomechanics; subsurface resources

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A thorough and complete understanding of the structural evolution of a Sedimentary Basin requires full constraints on the acting stresses through time and space. Not only in terms of principal stress directions and stress regimes but also in terms of stress values. If the in situ stress quantification is relatively well defined—thanks to subsurface related industries (Petroleum, Geothermal, water, CO2 sequestration, mining…)—paleo-stress characterisation and quantification still impinges on scientific and technical challenges. Different techniques and approaches are applied from the micro scale (e.g. calcite twinning, stylolites) to basin scale (e.g. seismic data) through meso-scale analyses (e.g. outcrop measurements, core data) to define stresses. However, a combination of these different characterisation methods has been proven to provide insights into the precise stress quantification in Sedimentary Basins.

This Special Issue of Geosciences collects prominent advances in stress quantification in Sedimentary Basins, with an aim of providing an extract of peer-reviewed wide-access publications of studies utilizing different stress quantification approaches, methods and techniques to help decipher structural complexities in Sedimentary Basins.

It is recommended that authors approach the Guest Editor at an early stage about possible submissions in order to verify the appropriateness of their potential contributions. If appropriate, an abstract will be requested, and the corresponding author will be required to submit the full manuscript online by the indicated deadline.

Dr. Khalid Amrouch
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Stress quantification
  • Stress regimes
  • Structural analyses
  • Brittle deformation
  • Faults
  • Fractures
  • Calcite twinning

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Deformation Band Occurrence and the Associated Stress Field during the Growth of a Fault-Propagation Fold
Geosciences 2019, 9(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060257 - 09 Jun 2019
Abstract
Knowledge of the paleo-stress distribution is crucial to understand the fracture set up and orientations during the tectonic evolution of a basin, and thus the corresponding fluid flow patterns in a reservoir. This study aims to predict the main stress orientations and evolution [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the paleo-stress distribution is crucial to understand the fracture set up and orientations during the tectonic evolution of a basin, and thus the corresponding fluid flow patterns in a reservoir. This study aims to predict the main stress orientations and evolution during the growth of a fold by using the limit analysis method. Fourteen different steps have been integrated as 2D cross sections from an early stage to an evolved stage of a schematic and balanced propagation fold. The stress evolution was followed during the time and burial of syn tectonic layers localized in front of the thrust. Numerical simulations were used to predict the occurrence and orientation of deformation bands, i.e., compaction and shear bands, by following the kinematic of a fault-propagation fold. The case study of the Sant-Corneli-Boixols anticline was selected, located in the South Central Pyrenees in the Tremp basin, to constrain the dimension of the starting models (or prototypes) used in our numerical simulations. The predictions of the numerical simulations were compared to field observations of an early occurrence of both pure compaction- and shear-enhanced compaction bands in the syn-tectonic Aren formation located in front of the fold, which are subjected to early layer parallel shortening during the burial history. Stress magnitude and stress ratio variations define the type of deformation band produced. Our results show that the band occurrence depends on the yield envelope of the host material and that a small yield envelope is required for these shallow depths, which can only be explained by the heterogeneity of the host rock facies. In our case, the heterogeneity can be explained by a significant contribution of carbonate bioclasts in the calcarenite rock, which change the mechanical behavior of the whole rock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Quantification in Sedimentary Basins)
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Open AccessArticle
Composition Changes of Hydrocarbons during Secondary Petroleum Migration (Case Study in Cooper Basin, Australia)
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020078 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The reliable mathematical modelling of secondary petroleum migration that incorporates structural geology and mature source rocks in the basin model, allows for prediction of the reservoir location, yielding the significant enhancement of the probability of exploration success. We investigate secondary petroleum migration with [...] Read more.
The reliable mathematical modelling of secondary petroleum migration that incorporates structural geology and mature source rocks in the basin model, allows for prediction of the reservoir location, yielding the significant enhancement of the probability of exploration success. We investigate secondary petroleum migration with a significant composition difference between the source and oil pools. In our case study, the secondary migration period is significantly shorter than the time of the hydrocarbon pulse generation. Therefore, neither adsorption nor dispersion of components can explain the concentration difference between the source rock and the reservoir. For the first time, the present paper proposes deep bed filtration of hydrocarbons with component kinetics retention by the rock as a physics mechanism explaining compositional grading. Introduction of the component capture rate into mass balance transport equation facilitates matching the concentration difference for heavy hydrocarbons, and the tuned filtration coefficients vary in their common range. The obtained values of filtration coefficients monotonically increase with molecular weight and consequently affects the size of the oleic component, as predicted by the analytical model of deep bed filtration. The modelling shows a negligible effect of component dispersion on the compositional grading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Quantification in Sedimentary Basins)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Modelling of Salt-Related Stress Decoupling in Sedimentary Basins–Motivated by Observational Data from the North German Basin
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010019 - 29 Dec 2018
Abstract
A three dimensional (3D) finite element model is used to study the conditions leading to mechanical decoupling at a salt layer and vertically varying stress fields in salt-bearing sedimentary basins. The study was inspired by observational data from northern Germany showing stress orientations [...] Read more.
A three dimensional (3D) finite element model is used to study the conditions leading to mechanical decoupling at a salt layer and vertically varying stress fields in salt-bearing sedimentary basins. The study was inspired by observational data from northern Germany showing stress orientations varying up to 90° between the subsalt and the suprasalt layers. Parameter studies address the role of salt viscosity and salt topology on how the plate boundary forces acting at the basement level affect the stresses in the sedimentary cover above the salt layer. Modelling results indicate that mechanical decoupling occurs for dynamic salt viscosities lower than 1021 Pa·s, albeit this value depends on the assumed model parameters. In this case, two independent stress fields coexist above and below the salt layer, differing in tectonic stress regime and/or stress orientation. Thereby, stresses in the subsalt domain are dominated by the shortening applied, whereas in the suprasalt section they are controlled by the local salt topology. For a salt diapir, the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress changes from a circular pattern above to a radial pattern adjacent to the diapir. The study shows the value of geomechanical models for stress prediction in salt-bearing sedimentary basins providing a continuum mechanics–based explanation for the variable stress orientations observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Quantification in Sedimentary Basins)
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence for Basement Reactivation during the Opening of the Labrador Sea from the Makkovik Province, Labrador, Canada: Insights from Field Data and Numerical Models
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080308 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The onshore exposures adjacent to modern, offshore passive continental margins may preserve evidence of deformation from the pre-, syn-, and post-rift phases of continental breakup that allow us to investigate the processes associated with and controlling rifting and breakup. Here, we characterize onshore [...] Read more.
The onshore exposures adjacent to modern, offshore passive continental margins may preserve evidence of deformation from the pre-, syn-, and post-rift phases of continental breakup that allow us to investigate the processes associated with and controlling rifting and breakup. Here, we characterize onshore brittle deformation and pre-rift basement metamorphic mineral fabric from onshore Labrador in Eastern Canada in the Palaeoproterozoic Aillik Domain of the Makkovik Province. Stress inversion (1) was applied to these data and then compared to (2) numerical models of hybrid slip and dilation tendency, (3) independent calculations of the regional geopotential stress field, and (4) analyses of palaeo-stress in proximal regions from previous work. The stress inversion shows well-constrained extensional deformation perpendicular to the passive margin, likely related to pre-breakup rifting in the proto-Labrador Sea. Hybrid slip and dilatation analysis indicates that inherited basement structures were likely oriented in a favorable orientation to be reactivated during rifting. Reconstructed geopotential stresses illuminate changes of the ambient stress field over time and confirm the present paleo-stress estimates. The new results and numerical models provide a consistent picture of the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithospheric stress field evolution in the Labrador Sea region. The proto-Labrador Sea region was characterized by a persistent E–W (coast-perpendicular) extensional stress regime, which we interpret as the pre-breakup continental rifting that finally led to continental breakup. Later, the ridge push of the Labrador Sea spreading ridge maintained this general direction of extension. We see indications for anti-clockwise rotation of the direction of extension along some of the passive margins. However, extreme persistent N–S-oriented extension as indicated by studies further north in West Greenland cannot be confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Quantification in Sedimentary Basins)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Habitat of the Abadan Plain Basin: A Geological Review of a Prolific Middle Eastern Hydrocarbon Province
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120496 - 17 Dec 2018
Abstract
The Abadan Plain Basin is located in the Middle East region which is host to some of the world’s largest oil and gas fields around the Persian Gulf. This basin is a foredeep basin to the southwest of the Zagros Fold-Thrust-Belt, bounded along [...] Read more.
The Abadan Plain Basin is located in the Middle East region which is host to some of the world’s largest oil and gas fields around the Persian Gulf. This basin is a foredeep basin to the southwest of the Zagros Fold-Thrust-Belt, bounded along its northern and eastern margins by the Dezful Embayment. Most of the rocks in this basin have been deposited in a carbonate environment, and existing fractures have made the formations a favourable place for hydrocarbon accumulations. The basin is enriched by oil and, therefore, gas reservoirs are few, and some of the explored reservoirs exhibit significant degrees of overpressure. This paper has compiled several aspects of the Abadan Plain Basin tectonics, structural geology and petroleum systems to provide a better understanding of the opportunities and risks of development activities in this region. In addition to the existing knowledge, this paper provides a basin-wide examination of pore pressure, vertical stress, temperature gradient, and wellbore stability issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Quantification in Sedimentary Basins)
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