Special Issue "Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Vasilios Melfos

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30 2310 998539
Interests: ore deposits; porphyry-epithermal mineralization; geochemistry; fluid inclusions
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Panagiotis Voudouris

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 157 84 Athens, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Ore minerals; Ore-forming Processes; Magmatic-Hydrothermal Deposits; Hydrothermal Alteration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magmatic-hydrothermal fluid circulation systems in the Earth’s crust are related with intermediate to felsic hydrous magmas, mainly at convergent plate margins, providing heat and mass transfer for the formation of ore deposits including base, precious and rare metals. Large hydrothermal deposits form also during periods of regional magmatism and tectonism, but are not strictly associated with any magmatic centers. Other hydrothermal deposits are hosted in sedimentary basins that lack temporally and spatially related magmatic activity. However, in many cases strong evidences demonstrate some association with magmatism.

Many factors are important for the formation of the magmatic-hydrothermal deposits, mainly the geotectonic environment, the regional structural control, the petrography and geochemistry of the magmatic and the neighboring rocks, the fluid composition, the hydrothermal alteration, the distribution, shape and size of ore bodies, the ore mineral paragenesis, textures and chemistry, and many others. These factors affect the exploration projects and the mining and metallurgical processes of the companies which invest considerable amount of capital to extract the metals from deep the Earths’ crust. They are based on the knowledge obtained from studies so far, and the models of ore formation, but further research on these types of mineralization are required.

This Special Issue welcomes contributions on original research which presents new data from magmatic-hydrothermal metallic mineral deposit systems, focusing mainly on the formation conditions and the relation with the geotectonic setting. Mineralogy, petrography, geochemistry, isotopic geochemistry, mineral chemistry and fluid inclusions are the most appropriate methods for this approach.

Assist. Prof. Vasilios Melfos
Assoc. Prof. Panagiotis Voudouris
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Porphyry-epithermal mineralization
  • Intrusion-related gold deposits
  • Carbonate replacement and skarn deposits
  • Hydrothermal fluids
  • Ore mineral chemistry
  • Fluid inclusions

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Fluid Inclusions at the Plavica Au-Ag-Cu Telescoped Porphyry–Epithermal System, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020088
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
The Plavica Au-Ag-Cu porphyry and high sulfidation (HS) epithermal deposit is located at the Kratovo–Zlatovo volcanic field in Eastern Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia. In this study, new fluid inclusions data provide additional evidence of the presence of a porphyry style mineralization which [...] Read more.
The Plavica Au-Ag-Cu porphyry and high sulfidation (HS) epithermal deposit is located at the Kratovo–Zlatovo volcanic field in Eastern Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia. In this study, new fluid inclusions data provide additional evidence of the presence of a porphyry style mineralization which is associated with an overlain HS epithermal deposit. The Oligocene–Miocene magmatic rocks have a calc–alkaline to high-K calc–alkaline affinity and consist of sub-volcanic intrusions and volcanic rocks. Previous studies distinguished four alteration types: (a) Sericitic, (b) advanced argillic, (c) silicification, and (d) propylitic alteration. Fluid inclusions showed an early magmatic brine in porphyry style veins with high salinity (33–57 wt% NaCl equiv.), which coexists with a vapor rich fluid with lower salinity (14–20 wt% NaCl equiv.), at temperatures 380–500 °C, under boiling conditions. At shallower depths, the fluid inclusions demonstrate various HS–epithermal deposits which were formed by moderate to low salinity (3–14 wt% NaCl equiv.) hydrothermal fluids at lower temperatures from 200 to 300 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle Petrological and Mineralogical Aspects of Epithermal Low-Sulfidation Au- and Porphyry Cu-Style Mineralization, Navilawa Caldera, Fiji
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010042
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
The Navilawa caldera is the remnant of a shoshonitic volcano on Viti Levu, Fiji, and sits adjacent to the low-sulfidation Tuvatu epithermal Au–Te deposit. The caldera occurs along the Viti Levu lineament, approximately 50 km SW of the Tavua caldera, which hosts the [...] Read more.
The Navilawa caldera is the remnant of a shoshonitic volcano on Viti Levu, Fiji, and sits adjacent to the low-sulfidation Tuvatu epithermal Au–Te deposit. The caldera occurs along the Viti Levu lineament, approximately 50 km SW of the Tavua caldera, which hosts the giant low-sulfidation Emperor epithermal Au–Te deposit. Both calderas host alkaline rocks of nearly identical age (~5.4–4.6 Ma) and mineralization that occurred in multiple stages. The gold mineralization in these locations is spatially and genetically related to monzonite intrusions and low-grade porphyry Cu-style mineralization. Potassic, propylitic, phyllic, and argillic alteration extends from the Tuvatu Au–Te deposit towards the central, northern, and eastern parts of the Navilawa caldera where it is spatially associated with low-grade porphyry Cu–Au mineralization at the Kingston prospect and various epithermal Au–(Te) vein systems, including the Banana Creek and Tuvatu North prospects. Chalcopyrite, and minor bornite, occurs in quartz–calcite–(adularia) veins in the Kingston deposit associated with weak propylitic and phyllic alteration, whereas NE-trending epithermal gold veins at the Banana Creek and Tuvatu North prospects are associated with weak potassic alteration that is overprinted by propylitic and phyllic alteration. Gold is accompanied by chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite in quartz–pyrite veins that also have a Ag–As–Hg–Te signature. The temperature range for phyllosilicates in the phyllic alteration (chlorite ± smectite ± corrensite ± illite) is in good agreement with temperatures recorded from previous fluid inclusion studies of quartz at the Banana Creek Au prospect (~260 °C) and the nearby Tuvatu Au–Te deposit (205 to 382 °C). Sulfur isotope compositions of pyrite (−6.2 to +0.4‰) from the Banana Creek prospect indicate a likely magmatic source of sulfur. Oxidation of the ore fluids or a direct addition of volatiles to the hydrothermal fluids may account for the lighter isotopic values. The similarities of the igneous rock types and compositions, transition from porphyry- to epithermal-style mineralization, alteration assemblages, paragenetic relationships, and stable isotope data suggest a common origin for the porphyry- and epithermal-style mineralization within the Navilawa and between the Navilawa and Tavua calderas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Thermal Differences and Variation of Cl–F–OH Ratios on Cu-Ni-PGE Mineralization in the Contact Aureole of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120474
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
In the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex, Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization occurs locally up to 100 m from the intrusion-footwall contact (Spruce Road area), whereas elsewhere (Dunka Pit deposit) the footwall granite and metapelite (Serpentine deposit) are barren. This study aimed to understand [...] Read more.
In the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex, Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization occurs locally up to 100 m from the intrusion-footwall contact (Spruce Road area), whereas elsewhere (Dunka Pit deposit) the footwall granite and metapelite (Serpentine deposit) are barren. This study aimed to understand the effect of temperature and halogen fugacity variations on the presence or absence of mineralization in these footwall units. The mafic mineral assemblages, two-pyroxene, titanium-in-quartz, and biotite-apatite thermometers indicate that temperatures could be as high as 920 °C in the mineralized areas of the footwall, whereas the maximum temperature was lower by about 100 °C in the unmineralized part of the intrusion. Variation of the halogen concentrations and fugacities was monitored with the analysis of halogen concentrations in biotite and apatite. Fluorine and chlorine concentrations in biotite increase as a function of the distance from contact in the mineralized drill core and decrease in the unmineralized zones. Chlorine concentrations in apatite increase parallel with the distance from contact in the mineralized zones, whereas fluorine concentrations show only minor variation. Concentrations of these elements may have had subtle effect on the partial melting in the footwall units and indirectly facilitated the infiltration of the sulfide liquid into the footwall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Fluids in the Formation of the Sasa Pb-Zn-Ag Skarn Deposit, Republic of Macedonia
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120444
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
The Sasa Pb-Zn-Ag deposit belongs to the group of distal base metal skarn deposits. The deposit is located within the Serbo-Macedonian massif, a metamorphosed crystalline terrain of Precambrian to Paleozoic age. The mineralization, hosted by Paleozoic marbles, shows a strong lithological control. It [...] Read more.
The Sasa Pb-Zn-Ag deposit belongs to the group of distal base metal skarn deposits. The deposit is located within the Serbo-Macedonian massif, a metamorphosed crystalline terrain of Precambrian to Paleozoic age. The mineralization, hosted by Paleozoic marbles, shows a strong lithological control. It is spatially and temporally associated with the calc-alkaline to shoshonitic post-collisional magmatism that affected the Balkan Peninsula during the Oligocene–Miocene time period and resulted in the formation of numerous magmatic–hydrothermal ore deposits. The mineralization at the Sasa Pb-Zn-Ag deposit shows many distinctive features typical for base metal skarn deposits including: (1) a carbonate lithology as the main immediate host of the mineralization; (2) a close spatial relation between the mineralization and magmatic bodies of an intermediate composition; (3) a presence of the prograde anhydrous Ca-Fe-Mg-Mn-silicate and the retrograde hydrous Ca-Fe-Mg-Mn ± Al-silicate mineral assemblages; (4) a deposition of base metal sulfides, predominately galena and sphalerite, during the hydrothermal stage; and (5) a post-ore stage characterized by the deposition of a large quantity of carbonates. The relatively simple, pyroxene-dominated, prograde mineralization at the Sasa Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit represents a product of the infiltration-driven metasomatism which resulted from an interaction of magmatic fluids with the host marble. The prograde stage occurred under conditions of a low water activity, low oxygen, sulfur and CO2 fugacities and a high K+/H+ molar ratio. The minimum pressure–temperature (P–T) conditions were estimated at 30 MPa and 405 °C. Mineralizing fluids were moderately saline and low density Ca-Na-chloride bearing aqueous solutions. The transition from the prograde to the retrograde stage was triggered by cooling of the system below 400 °C and the resulting ductile-to-brittle transition. The brittle conditions promoted reactivation of old (pre-Tertiary) faults and allowed progressive infiltration of ground waters and therefore increased the water activity and oxygen fugacity. At the same time, the lithostatic to hydrostatic transition decreased the pressure and enabled a more efficient degassing of magmatic volatiles. The progressive contribution of magmatic CO2 has been recognized from the retrograde mineral paragenesis as well as from the isotopic composition of associated carbonates. The retrograde mineral assemblages, represented by amphiboles, epidote, chlorites, magnetite, pyrrhotite, quartz and carbonates, reflect conditions of high water activity, high oxygen and CO2 fugacities, a gradual increase in the sulfur fugacity and a low K+/H+ molar ratio. Infiltration fluids carried MgCl2 and had a slightly higher salinity compared to the prograde fluids. The maximum formation conditions for the retrograde stage are set at 375 °C and 200 MPa. The deposition of ore minerals, predominantly galena and sphalerite, occurred during the hydrothermal phase under a diminishing influence of magmatic CO2. The mixing of ore-bearing, Mg-Na-chloride or Fe2+-chloride, aqueous solutions with cold and diluted ground waters is the most plausible reason for the destabilization of metal–chloride complexes. However, neutralization of relatively acidic ore-bearing fluids during the interaction with the host lithology could have significantly contributed to the deposition. The post-ore, carbonate-dominated mineralization was deposited from diluted Ca-Na-Cl-bearing fluids of a near-neutral pH composition. The corresponding depositional temperature is estimated at below 300 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle A New Porphyry Mo Mineralization at Aisymi-Leptokarya, South-Eastern Rhodope, North-East Greece: Geological and Mineralogical Constraints
Geosciences 2018, 8(12), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120435
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
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Abstract
A new porphyry Mo prospect has been discovered in the Aisymi-Leptokarya area, along the southern margin of the Byala Reka–Kechros metamorphic dome, south-eastern (SE) Rhodope metallogenic zone. The study area is dominated by an Oligocene felsic dike complex, which hosts the porphyry Mo [...] Read more.
A new porphyry Mo prospect has been discovered in the Aisymi-Leptokarya area, along the southern margin of the Byala Reka–Kechros metamorphic dome, south-eastern (SE) Rhodope metallogenic zone. The study area is dominated by an Oligocene felsic dike complex, which hosts the porphyry Mo mineralization and intrudes into upper Eocene sandstones-marls and the Leptokarya monzodiorite pluton. The Aisymi-Leptokarya felsic dike complex displays a rhyodacitic to dacitic composition with post-collisional affinities. The porphyry Mo mineralization occurs in the form of porphyry-style quartz stockworks in the felsic dike complex associated with potassic alteration characterized by hydrothermal K-feldspar. The ore minerals consist mainly of pyrite, molybdenite, kesterite, bismuthinite and galena within both the stockwork and the rock matrix. Bulk ore analyses indicate enrichment in Mo (up to 215 ppm), Se (up to 29 ppm), Bi (up to 8 ppm) and Sn (up to 14 ppm) in the porphyry quartz veins. Late-stage, north-east (NE-) and north-west (NW-)trending milky quartz intermediate-sulfidation epithermal veins with base metals, crosscut previous vein generations and are characterized by Ag, Sn and Te anomalies. The Aisymi-Leptokarya porphyry Mo prospect is set in a back-arc geotectonic regime and shares similarities to other post-subduction porphyry molybdenum deposits elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle Precious Metal Enrichment at the Myra Falls VMS Deposit, British Columbia, Canada
Geosciences 2018, 8(11), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8110422
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Gold, present as electrum, in the Battle Gap, Ridge North-West, HW, and Price deposits at the Myra Falls mine, occurs in late veinlets cutting the earlier volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) lithologies. The ore mineral assemblage containing the electrum comprises dominantly galena, tennantite, bornite, [...] Read more.
Gold, present as electrum, in the Battle Gap, Ridge North-West, HW, and Price deposits at the Myra Falls mine, occurs in late veinlets cutting the earlier volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) lithologies. The ore mineral assemblage containing the electrum comprises dominantly galena, tennantite, bornite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and rarely stromeyerite, and is defined as an Au-Zn-Pb-As-Sb association. The gangue is comprised of barite, quartz, and minor feldspathic volcanogenic sedimentary rocks and clay, comprised predominantly of kaolinite with subordinate illite. The deposition of gold as electrum in the baritic upper portions of the sulphide lenses occurs at relatively shallow water depths beneath the sea floor. Primary, pseudosecondary, and secondary fluid inclusions, petrographically related to gold, show boiling fluid inclusion assemblages in the range of 123 to 173 °C, with compositions and eutectic melt temperatures consistent with seawater at approximately 3.2 wt % NaCl equivalent. The fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are consistent with boiling seawater corresponding to water depths ranging from 15 to 125 m. Slightly more dilute brines corresponding to salinities of approximately 1 wt % NaCl indicate that there is input from very low-salinity brines, which could represent a transition from subaqueous VMS to epithermal-like conditions for precious metal enrichment, mixing with re-condensed vapor, or very low-salinity igneous fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle A New Occurrence of Terrestrial Native Iron in the Earth’s Surface: The Ilia Thermogenic Travertine Case, Northwestern Euboea, Greece
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080287
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Native iron has been identified in an active thermogenic travertine deposit, located at Ilia area (Euboea Island, Greece). The deposit is forming around a hot spring, which is part of a large active metallogenetic hydrothermal system depositing ore-bearing travertines. The native iron occurs [...] Read more.
Native iron has been identified in an active thermogenic travertine deposit, located at Ilia area (Euboea Island, Greece). The deposit is forming around a hot spring, which is part of a large active metallogenetic hydrothermal system depositing ore-bearing travertines. The native iron occurs in two shapes: nodules with diameter 0.4 and 0.45 cm, and angular grains with length up to tens of μm. The travertine laminae around the spherical/ovoid nodules grow smoothly, and the angular grains are trapped inside the pores of the travertine. Their mineral-chemistry is ultra-pure, containing, other than Fe, only Mn (0.34–0.38 wt.%) and Ni (≤0.05 wt.%). After evaluating all the possible environments where native iron has been reported up until today and taking under consideration all the available data concerning the study area, we propose two possible scenarios: (i) Ilia’s native iron has a magmatic/hydrothermal origin i.e., it is a deep product near the magmatic chamber or a peripheral cooling igneous body that was transferred during the early stages of the geothermal field evolution, from high temperature, reduced gas-rich fluids and deposited along with other metals in permeable structural zones, at shallow levels. Later on, it was remobilized and mechanically transferred and precipitated at the Ilia’s thermogenic travertine by the active lower temperatures geothermal fluids; (ii) the native iron at Ilia is remobilized from deep seated ophiolitic rocks, originated initially from reduced fluids during serpentinization processes; however, its mechanical transport seems less probable. The native iron mineral-chemistry, morphology and the presence of the other mineral phases in the same thermogenic travertine support both hypotheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle REY and Trace Element Chemistry of Fluorite from Post-Variscan Hydrothermal Veins in Paleozoic Units of the North German Basin
Geosciences 2018, 8(8), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8080283
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
Hydrothermal fluorites from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and volcanic units in the North German Basin (NGB) have been investigated to create a petrographic and geochemical inventory—with particular focus on strategic elements such as rare earth elements (REE)—and to uncover possible links between the post-Variscan [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal fluorites from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and volcanic units in the North German Basin (NGB) have been investigated to create a petrographic and geochemical inventory—with particular focus on strategic elements such as rare earth elements (REE)—and to uncover possible links between the post-Variscan hydrothermal mineralization in the NGB and bordering areas such as the Harz Mountains and Flechtingen Calvörde Block (FCB). Fluorites from ten localities underwent a detailed petrographic examination, including SEM-BSE/CL imagery, and were compositionally analysed using LA-ICP-MS. Overall, REY concentrations are comparatively low in fluorite from all investigated areas—the median sum of REY ranges from 0.3 to 176 ppm. EuropiumCN anomalies are slightly negative or absent, indicating that either the formation fluid experienced temperatures above 250 °C or that fluid-rock interactions and REE enrichment was likely controlled by the source rock (i.e., volcanic) composition and complexation processes. Fluorites from the Altmark-Brandenburg Basin (ABB) and the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB) display distinctly different REYCN signatures, suggesting that fluid compositions and genetic processes such as fluid-rock interaction differed significantly between the two areas. Complex growth zones and REYCN signatures in fluorite from the ABB and the FCB reflect geochemical variability due to adsorption processes and intrinsic crystallographic controls and imply that they are genetically related. Two petrographically and geochemically distinct generations are observed: Fluorite I—light SEM shades, relatively enriched in LREE; Fluorite II—darker SEM shades, comparatively depleted LREE, slightly higher HREE concentrations. These fluorite generations represent zoned (or cyclical) growth within a single progressive hydrothermal event and do not reflect a secondary remobilization process. We demonstrate that increasing Tb/La ratios and decreasing La/Ho ratios can be the result of continuous zoned growth during a single mineralizing event, with significant compositional variations on a micron-scale. This has implications for the interpretation of such trends and hence the inferred genetic evolution of fluorite that displays such geochemical patterns. The complex micro-scale intergrowth of these generations stresses the need for detailed petrographic investigations when geochemical data are collected and interpreted for mineral exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessArticle Geology and Isotope Systematics of the Jianchaling Au Deposit, Shaanxi Province, China: Implications for Mineral Genesis
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040120
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
The giant Jianchaling Au (52 t Au) deposit is located in the Mian-Lue-Yang Terrane in the southern part of the Qinling Orogen of central China and is hosted by metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the Late Neoproterozoic Duantouya Formation. The deposit consists of multiple [...] Read more.
The giant Jianchaling Au (52 t Au) deposit is located in the Mian-Lue-Yang Terrane in the southern part of the Qinling Orogen of central China and is hosted by metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the Late Neoproterozoic Duantouya Formation. The deposit consists of multiple generations of mineralised quartz(-carbonate) veins in WNW-trending extensional ductile-brittle shear zones. Based on the mineral assemblages and cross-cutting relationships between the quartz(-carbonate) veins, the paragenesis is characterised by an early coarse-grained pyrite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-dolomite-quartz assemblage (I), followed by pyrite-sphalerite-galena-carbonate-arsenopyrite-fuchsite-carbonate-quartz containing gold (II), and fine-grained pyrite-dolomite-calcite-quartz-realgar (As2S2)-orpiment (As2S3) (III). The H-O-C isotope systematics for the three vein sets indicate that the mineralising fluid is probably sourced from the metamorphic dehydration of carbonate rocks in the Duantouya Formation, and gradually mixed with meteoric water during the emplacement of the third vein set. The δ34S values for sulfides (6.3–16.6‰) from the second auriferous vein set are greater than zero, indicating sulfates reduction from the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks (Duantouya Fm). The (206Pb/204Pb)i ratios from pyrite (17.521–18.477) from each of the vein sets overlap those of the ultramafic rocks (18.324–18.717) and the Bikou Group (17.399–18.417), indicating that the units are possible sources for the sulfides in the mineralisation. Both εNd(t) and Isr(t) of sulfide overlap with the meta-ultramafic field and Duantouya formation and dominated with mature Sr-Nd character, which indicated that the Duantouya may play an important role during the ore formation and there may exist a minor ultramafic source that is involved in the ore fluid. The S-Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic ratios are closely related to those of the Bikou Group and Duantouya Formation, which indicates that the mineralised fluid has interacted with both units. Combining the previously published data with data from this study on the mineralised area, we surmise that Jianchaling is characteristic of an orogenic-type gold deposit related to the Triassic Qinling Orogeny associated with continental collision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Patrick Nadoll et al. REY and Trace Element Chemistry of Fluorite from Post-Variscan Hydrothermal Veins in Paleozoic Units of the North German Basin. Geosciences, 2018, 8, 283
Geosciences 2018, 8(11), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8110403
Received: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
The authors would like to correct the published article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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