The giant Jianchaling Au (52 t Au) deposit is located in the Mian-Lue-Yang Terrane in the southern part of the Qinling Orogen of central China and is hosted by metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the Late Neoproterozoic Duantouya Formation. The deposit consists of multiple generations of mineralised quartz(-carbonate) veins in WNW-trending extensional ductile-brittle shear zones. Based on the mineral assemblages and cross-cutting relationships between the quartz(-carbonate) veins, the paragenesis is characterised by an early coarse-grained pyrite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-dolomite-quartz assemblage (I), followed by pyrite-sphalerite-galena-carbonate-arsenopyrite-fuchsite-carbonate-quartz containing gold (II), and fine-grained pyrite-dolomite-calcite-quartz-realgar (As2
) (III). The H-O-C isotope systematics for the three vein sets indicate that the mineralising fluid is probably sourced from the metamorphic dehydration of carbonate rocks in the Duantouya Formation, and gradually mixed with meteoric water during the emplacement of the third vein set. The δ34
S values for sulfides (6.3–16.6‰) from the second auriferous vein set are greater than zero, indicating sulfates reduction from the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks (Duantouya Fm). The (206
ratios from pyrite (17.521–18.477) from each of the vein sets overlap those of the ultramafic rocks (18.324–18.717) and the Bikou Group (17.399–18.417), indicating that the units are possible sources for the sulfides in the mineralisation. Both εNd(t) and Isr(t) of sulfide overlap with the meta-ultramafic field and Duantouya formation and dominated with mature Sr-Nd character, which indicated that the Duantouya may play an important role during the ore formation and there may exist a minor ultramafic source that is involved in the ore fluid. The S-Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic ratios are closely related to those of the Bikou Group and Duantouya Formation, which indicates that the mineralised fluid has interacted with both units. Combining the previously published data with data from this study on the mineralised area, we surmise that Jianchaling is characteristic of an orogenic-type gold deposit related to the Triassic Qinling Orogeny associated with continental collision.
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