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Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 120;

Geology and Isotope Systematics of the Jianchaling Au Deposit, Shaanxi Province, China: Implications for Mineral Genesis

School of Jewellery, Guangzhou College South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510800, China
Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, Guangzhou 510006, China
Centre for Exploration Targeting, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
MLR Key Laboratory of Metallogeny and Mineral Assessment, Institute of Mineral Resources, CAGS, Beijing 100037, China
Institute of Deep-Sea scicence and Engineering, CAS Sanya 572000, China
Guangdong Institute of Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou 510080, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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The giant Jianchaling Au (52 t Au) deposit is located in the Mian-Lue-Yang Terrane in the southern part of the Qinling Orogen of central China and is hosted by metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the Late Neoproterozoic Duantouya Formation. The deposit consists of multiple generations of mineralised quartz(-carbonate) veins in WNW-trending extensional ductile-brittle shear zones. Based on the mineral assemblages and cross-cutting relationships between the quartz(-carbonate) veins, the paragenesis is characterised by an early coarse-grained pyrite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-dolomite-quartz assemblage (I), followed by pyrite-sphalerite-galena-carbonate-arsenopyrite-fuchsite-carbonate-quartz containing gold (II), and fine-grained pyrite-dolomite-calcite-quartz-realgar (As2S2)-orpiment (As2S3) (III). The H-O-C isotope systematics for the three vein sets indicate that the mineralising fluid is probably sourced from the metamorphic dehydration of carbonate rocks in the Duantouya Formation, and gradually mixed with meteoric water during the emplacement of the third vein set. The δ34S values for sulfides (6.3–16.6‰) from the second auriferous vein set are greater than zero, indicating sulfates reduction from the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks (Duantouya Fm). The (206Pb/204Pb)i ratios from pyrite (17.521–18.477) from each of the vein sets overlap those of the ultramafic rocks (18.324–18.717) and the Bikou Group (17.399–18.417), indicating that the units are possible sources for the sulfides in the mineralisation. Both εNd(t) and Isr(t) of sulfide overlap with the meta-ultramafic field and Duantouya formation and dominated with mature Sr-Nd character, which indicated that the Duantouya may play an important role during the ore formation and there may exist a minor ultramafic source that is involved in the ore fluid. The S-Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic ratios are closely related to those of the Bikou Group and Duantouya Formation, which indicates that the mineralised fluid has interacted with both units. Combining the previously published data with data from this study on the mineralised area, we surmise that Jianchaling is characteristic of an orogenic-type gold deposit related to the Triassic Qinling Orogeny associated with continental collision. View Full-Text
Keywords: Jianchaling Au deposit; isotope geochemistry; ore genesis; orogenic-type gold deposit; Qinling Orogen; central China Jianchaling Au deposit; isotope geochemistry; ore genesis; orogenic-type gold deposit; Qinling Orogen; central China

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Yue, S.-W.; Li, D.-F.; Bagas, L.; Fang, J.; Lin, Z.-W. Geology and Isotope Systematics of the Jianchaling Au Deposit, Shaanxi Province, China: Implications for Mineral Genesis. Geosciences 2018, 8, 120.

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