Special Issue "Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mauricio Acuna
Website
Guest Editor
Forest Industries Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia
Interests: wood and biomass supply chain optimisation; harvesting and transport logistics; forest operations planning; mathematical programming; decision support systems; sensor and computer vision technologies
Dr. Elena Canga
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Forest and Wood Technology Research Centre (CETEMAS), Bº Pumarabule s/n, Carbayín. 33936 Siero, Asturias, Spain
Interests: harvesting; modelling; logistics; LiDAR; GIS; biomass

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Forest residues represent a feasible option for the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol and biodiesel) and bioenergy (e.g., heat and electricity), of which utilization has the potential to generate additional income for forest owners while diversifying energy sources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Forest residues for bioenergy generation and biofuel production include residues generated as by-products during harvesting operations (e.g., tops, branches, bark, and small logs), as well as residues generated at sawmills (e.g., sawdust, chips, bark). A major obstacle for the use of forest residues and implementation of biomass projects is the high cost associated with their collection, processing, and transport. Increased operational costs along the supply chain have called for new technological solutions for the collection and transport of forest residues, and complex mathematical models to optimizing processes and supporting the planning of bioenergy supply chains.

Different mathematical modelling and optimization methods, primarily linear and mixed-integer programming, have been used to support effective planning and management of bioenergy supply chains, to address decisions about sourcing, capacity and geographical location of bioenergy and biofuel plants, and to design optimized supply chain networks for different types of biomass products and production facilities. Previous studies have presented models to optimise the allocation of collection and transport equipment to different sources of forest residues, as well as the optimal supply of forest residues to bioenergy markets and competing industries (e.g., panel-board mills). A few models have been developed to optimise optimal drying time of forest residues before transportation to biofuels and bioenergy plants, and to optimise supply chain costs based on forest residues drying models.

This Special Issue of Forests is focused on applied optimization methods and solutions for biofuels and biomass to reduce supply chain costs and greenhouse emissions. Research articles may focus on any application of mathematical models and decision support tools for the optimization of one or more components of the supply chain, including decisions at the strategic, tactical, or operational planning level. Topics could include, but are not limited to, supply chain optimization including economic, social and environmental values, optimised design of biomass and biofuels supply chain networks, optimal location of biomass and biofuel plants, optimal allocation and selection of equipment for the collection and transport of forest residues, optimized transport logistics, and optimized moisture content management of forest residues. Solution techniques may include, among others, linear and nonlinear programming, mixed-integer programming, stochastic programming, multi-objective and goal programming, dynamic programming, network programming, heuristics, metaheuristics, and simulation models.

Dr. Mauricio Acuna
Dr. Elena Canga
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomass
  • biofuels
  • supply chain optimisation
  • network design
  • facility location
  • transport logistics
  • mathematical modelling
  • heuristics
  • metaheuristics
  • simulation

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Alternative Pulpwood Inventory Strategies and Machine Systems at a Log-Yard Using Simulations
Forests 2020, 11(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11040373 - 26 Mar 2020
Abstract
The rising throughput of log-yards imposes new constraints on existing equipment and increases the complexity of delivering an optimal and uninterrupted supply of pulpwood to pulp mills. To find ways of addressing these problems by reducing log cycle times, this work uses a [...] Read more.
The rising throughput of log-yards imposes new constraints on existing equipment and increases the complexity of delivering an optimal and uninterrupted supply of pulpwood to pulp mills. To find ways of addressing these problems by reducing log cycle times, this work uses a discrete-event mathematics model to simulate operations at a log-yard and study the impact of three different log-yard inventory strategies and two alternative machine systems for log transportation between main log-yard and buffer storage. The yard’s existing inventory strategy of last load in and first out limits access to older logs at the main storage site. By allocating space for 89,000 m3 and 99,000 m3 of pulpwood at the buffer storage it is possible to keep the log cycle time at the main storage to a maximum of 12 and 6 months. Additionally, the use of an alternative log transportation machine system comprising a material handler with a trailer increased the work time capacity utilization relative to the yard’s current machine system of two shuttle trucks and a material handler for transporting logs between the main and buffer storage areas. Compared to the currently-used last in first out inventory strategy and purposely emptying the main storage area once or twice per year did reduce the total work time of both machine systems by 14% and 30%. Consequently, the volume delivered from the buffer to the log-yard decreased on average by 17% and 37% when emptying the main storage area once and twice per year. Even with reduced work time when emptying the main storage area, both machine systems could fulfil given work load for transporting logs from the buffer storage to the main log-yard without interrupting operations of the log-yard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
A Method of Finding HCT Roundwood Corridors for Reduction of GHG Emissions and Fuel Costs in Sweden
Forests 2020, 11(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020220 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
Background and Objectives: in Sweden during 2016, 71.6 million metric tonnes (t) of forest biomass (roundwood and forest fuels) were transported by truck, corresponding to approximately 15% of all national goods truck transport. To reduce the environmental impact of forest product transports and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: in Sweden during 2016, 71.6 million metric tonnes (t) of forest biomass (roundwood and forest fuels) were transported by truck, corresponding to approximately 15% of all national goods truck transport. To reduce the environmental impact of forest product transports and meet Swedish climate goals, the use of 90 t high-capacity transport (HCT) trucks on well-chosen routes has been identified as one potential measure. The objective was, therefore, to develop a method of finding the geographical occurrence of potential roundwood HCT corridors for 90 t trucks, as well as estimating their environmental and economic potential in comparison to the conventional 74 t-truck transport system for Swedish conditions. Materials and Methods: the study used data from actual roundwood transports during 2016 along with a digitalization of the Swedish road network (National Road Database, SNVDB) for corridor identification. In four steps we: 1) identified supportive networks, 2) identified flow supporting corridors on the technically supportive networks, 3) applied a calibrated route finder (CRF) to route relevant transports both directly from the landing to the receiver and via the corridor, gathering drive distance information and, for example, 4) analyzed transports fuel consumption and potential CO2 savings. Results: Results showed there was annual potential for 25 HCT corridors throughout Sweden to employ 20 90 t trucks to transport 2.5 Mt of roundwood, reducing up to 5500 t of CO2 and €3.1 M in fuel costs. Conclusions: the study reinforces previous studies’ findings concerning economic and environmental potential using HCT vehicles and identifies terminal establishment and management costs as a bottleneck in successful large-scale implementation of HCT corridors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Dynamics of a Log-Yard through Discrete-Event Mathematics
Forests 2020, 11(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020155 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This article deals with the topic of modelling the log-yard of one of our industry partners. To this end, our framework is based on discrete-events modelling (DEM), as consequence that many stages of the process run as a sequence of events. The sequence [...] Read more.
This article deals with the topic of modelling the log-yard of one of our industry partners. To this end, our framework is based on discrete-events modelling (DEM), as consequence that many stages of the process run as a sequence of events. The sequence starts when trucks, trains or ships arrive loaded with logs to the log-yard. A machine unloads these logs and accumulates them in different storage areas. Consequently, a machine transports logs from these areas to the pulp mill, thus finishing the process. As using probability density functions is the core concept of DEM, the necessary process data to build these PDFs have been partly provided by the company. Other necessary data have been acquired through time studies, and by defining operational requirements. The company data tell when trucks, trains, or ships arrive to the log-yard, and the amount of volume they carry. The objective is to develop the necessary formulations, model calibration techniques, and software, such that computer simulations reproduce the quantities observed in these data. To this end, this work suggests two alternatives to analyse the data itself. These two alternatives lead to two different models: (1) The first being a hybrid model, in the sense that it involves the events in the process, and the logic decisions taken by machine operators for handling the incoming load, and (2) the second containing only the main mathematical essence of the process. After running 100 simulations, both mathematical models show that the simulated values for input and output, in terms of transport units and their volume, differ only by less than 3% compared to company data. The first model has also shown the ability to replicate the decision making that a machine operator undergoes for driving the logs to the storage areas, and from there to the mill. Therefore, the framework adopted provides the necessary mathematical tools and data analysis to model the log-yard and obtain highly reliable results via simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution Towards a Comprehensive Methodology for Wood-Based Biomass Material Flow Analysis in a Circular Economy Setting
Forests 2020, 11(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010106 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
It is challenging to quantify the production of wood-based biomass, to define the type and where it comes from, how it is used, and the amount that remains available. This information is crucial for the implementation of national and transnational regulations and is [...] Read more.
It is challenging to quantify the production of wood-based biomass, to define the type and where it comes from, how it is used, and the amount that remains available. This information is crucial for the implementation of national and transnational regulations and is a pillar for the development of the future bio-based circular economy. A variety of studies estimate the production of biomass, performs material flow analyses, or addresses supply chain modelling. These studies are often built upon distinct assumptions, tailored to a specific purpose, and often poorly described. This makes comparison amongst studies, generalization of results, or replication hard to even impossible. This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for wood-based biomass material flow analysis, anchored in Material Flow Analysis, built upon literature review and deducted through systematization of previous studies. This is a five-step approach, consisting of (1) adopt proper terminology; (2) obtain accurate estimates for the biomass flows; (3) Sankey diagram for resource balance representation; (4) scenario analysis; (5) stakeholders validation. The focus is to provide instructions for producing a generalized Sankey diagram, from the categorization of biomass resources, uses/applications in a circular economy setting, towards the development of scenario analysis. Its practical implementation is presented by defining the yearly wood-based biomass resource balance of Portugal and the waste wood resource balance of Flanders. The main data sources for the quantification of the biomass sources and uses/applications are identified. Based on the insights from these case studies, our methodological approach already shows to be replicable and with comparable results. This enables the comparison of resource flows between different regions and countries and also monitoring the progress over time. This leads to improved data which can be instruments for supporting companies’ decision-making processes (e.g., infrastructure investments or other strategic decisions), as well as designing policy strategies and incentives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation-Based Cost Analysis of Industrial Supply of Chips from Logging Residues and Small-Diameter Trees
Forests 2020, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Research Highlights: The use of terminals can increase supply costs by 5–11% (when compared to direct supply), but terminals help secure supply during peak demand and cope with operational problems in the supply fleet in cases where direct supply chains would be unable [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: The use of terminals can increase supply costs by 5–11% (when compared to direct supply), but terminals help secure supply during peak demand and cope with operational problems in the supply fleet in cases where direct supply chains would be unable to meet demand on time. Background and Objectives: This work analyses the supply cost of chipped logging residues and small-diameter trees, from chipping at roadside storages to delivery to the end-user. Factors considered include demand curves (based on the requirements of a theoretical combined heat and power plant or biorefinery); demand volume; and mode of supply (direct or combined via terminal). The impact of longer trucking distances from the sites, and supply integration between forest and other land (varying relocation distances) was also assessed. Materials and Methods: The operational environment and work of a theoretical chip supplier in northern Sweden were modelled and simulated in ExtendSim®. Results: The mean supply cost of chips was 9% higher on average for combined chains than for direct chains. Given a high demand, 8% of the annual demand could not be delivered on time without using a terminal. High supply integration of forest and other land reduced supply costs by 2%. Contractors’ annual workloads were evened out by direct supply to the biorefinery (which has a relatively steady demand) or supply via-terminal independently of the end-user. Keeping distinct chips from different sites (implying that trucks were not always fully loaded) instead of mixing chips from different sites until the trucks were fully loaded increased supply costs by 12%. Conclusions: Terminals increase supply costs, but can enable demand to be met on time when direct supply chains alone might fail. Integrated supply planning could reduce supply costs by increasing the utilization of residual biomass from other land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Forest Biomass Pretreatment on Essential Oil Yield and Properties
Forests 2019, 10(11), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10111042 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are natural and economically valuable aromatic compounds obtained from a variety of crops and trees, including forest trees, which have different therapeutic and biological activities. This project aims to assess the impact of different residual forest biomass pretreatments on the [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are natural and economically valuable aromatic compounds obtained from a variety of crops and trees, including forest trees, which have different therapeutic and biological activities. This project aims to assess the impact of different residual forest biomass pretreatments on the yield and the properties of EOs, including their antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics. Forest biomass from black spruce (BS, Picea mariana Mill.), balsam fir (BF, Abies balsamea), and jack pine (JP, Pinus banksiana Lamb.) was processed mechanically by (i) shredding, (ii) grinding, (iii) pelletizing, and (iv) bundling. EOs were then extracted by hydro- and steam distillation. The densification into bundles was found to improve EOs yield compared to the other residual forest biomass pretreatments. For example, the yield of bundled BF was improved by 68%, 83%, and 93% compared to shredded, ground, and granulated biomass, respectively. The highest yield was obtained when densification into bundles was combined with extraction through hydrodistillation. As for EOs’ chemical composition, JP had the highest polyphenol content and consequently the greatest antioxidant activity. EOs derived from BS inhibited the growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli bacteria. The densification of forest biomass into bundles did not affect the antioxidant capacity or the antibacterial activity of EOs, thereby preserving both properties. Thus, the pretreatment of forest biomass residue could have an impact on the volume and the transport costs and therefore improve the bioproducts market and the bioeconomy in Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Uncertainty Simulation of Wood Chipping Operation for Bioenergy Based on Queuing Theory
Forests 2019, 10(9), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090822 - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
Managing uncertainty is the way to secure stability of the supply chain. Uncertainty within chipping operation and chip transportation causes production loss. In the wood chip supply chain for bioenergy, operational uncertainty mainly appears in the moisture content of the material, chipping productivity, [...] Read more.
Managing uncertainty is the way to secure stability of the supply chain. Uncertainty within chipping operation and chip transportation causes production loss. In the wood chip supply chain for bioenergy, operational uncertainty mainly appears in the moisture content of the material, chipping productivity, and the interval of truck arrival. This study theoretically quantified the loss in wood chip production by applying queuing theory and stochastic modelling. As well as the loss in production, the inefficiency was identified as the idling time of chipper and the queuing time of trucks. The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of three uncertainties on wood chip production. This study simulated the daily chip production using a mobile chipper by applying queuing theory and stochastic modelling of three uncertainties. The result was compared with the result of deterministic simulation which did not consider uncertainty. Uncertainty reduced the production by 14% to 27% compared to the production of deterministic simulation. There were trucks scheduled but not used. The cases using small trucks show the largest daily production amount, but their lead time was the longest. The large truck was sensitive to the moisture content of material because of the balance between payload and volumetric capacity. This simulation method can present a possible loss in production amount and enables to evaluate some ways for the loss compensation quantitatively such as outsourcing or storing buffer. For further development, the data about the interval of truck arrival should be collected from fields and analyzed. We must include the other uncertainties causing technical and operator delays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Economic and Environmental Optimization of the Forest Supply Chain for Timber and Bioenergy Production from Beetle-Killed Forests in Northern Colorado
Forests 2019, 10(8), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10080689 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Harvesting mountain pine beetle-infested forest stands in the northern Colorado Rocky Mountains provides an opportunity to utilize otherwise wasted resources, generate net revenues, and minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Timber and bioenergy production are commonly managed separately, and their integration is seldom considered. [...] Read more.
Harvesting mountain pine beetle-infested forest stands in the northern Colorado Rocky Mountains provides an opportunity to utilize otherwise wasted resources, generate net revenues, and minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Timber and bioenergy production are commonly managed separately, and their integration is seldom considered. Yet, degraded wood and logging residues can provide a feedstock for bioenergy, while the sound wood from beetle-killed stands can still be used for traditional timber products. In addition, beneficial greenhouse gas emission (GHG) savings are often realized only by compromising net revenues during salvage harvest where beetle-killed wood has a relatively low market value and high harvesting cost. In this study we compared Sequential and Integrated decision-making scenarios for managing the supply chain from beetle-killed forest salvage operations. In the Sequential scenario, timber and bioenergy production was managed sequentially in two separate processes, where salvage harvest was conducted without considering influences on or from bioenergy production. Biomass availability was assessed next as an outcome from timber production managed to produce bioenergy products. In the Integrated scenario, timber and bioenergy production were managed jointly, where collective decisions were made regarding tree salvage harvest, residue treatment, and bioenergy product selection and production. We applied a multi-objective optimization approach to integrate the economic and environmental objectives of producing timber and bioenergy, and measured results by total net revenues and total net GHG emission savings, respectively. The optimization model results show that distinctively different decisions are made in selecting the harvesting system and residue treatment under the two scenarios. When the optimization is fully economic-oriented, 49.6% more forest areas are harvested under the Integrated scenario than the Sequential scenario, generating 12.3% more net revenues and 50.5% more net GHG emission savings. Comparison of modelled Pareto fronts also indicate the Integrated decision scenario provides more efficient trade-offs between the two objectives and performs better than the Sequential scenario in both objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing Quality of Wood Pellets Made of Hardwood Processing Residues
Forests 2019, 10(7), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10070607 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Small-scale wood pellet producers often use a trial-and-error approach for determining adequate blending of available wood processing residues and pelletizing parameters. Developing general guidelines for optimizing wood pellet quality and meeting market standards would facilitate their market entry and profitability. Four types of [...] Read more.
Small-scale wood pellet producers often use a trial-and-error approach for determining adequate blending of available wood processing residues and pelletizing parameters. Developing general guidelines for optimizing wood pellet quality and meeting market standards would facilitate their market entry and profitability. Four types of hardwood residues, including green wood chips, dry shavings, and solid and engineered wood sawdust, were investigated to determine the optimum blends of feedstocks and pelletizing conditions to produce pellets with low friction force, high density and high mechanical strength. The feedstock properties reported in this study included particle size distribution, wood moisture content, bulk density, ash content, calorific values, hemicelluloses, lignin, cellulose, extractives, ash major and minor elements, and carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. All residues tested could potentially be used for wood pellet production. However, high concentrations of metals, such as aluminum, could restrict their use for accessing markets for high-quality pellets. Feedstock moisture content and composition (controlled by the proportions of the various residue sources within blends) were the most important parameters that determined pellet quality, with pelletizing process parameters having less overall influence. Residue blends with a moisture content of 9%–13.5% (dry basis), composed of 25%–50% of sawdust generated by sawing of wood pieces and a portion of green chips generated by trimming of green wood, when combined with a compressive force of 2000 N or more during pelletizing, provided optimum results in terms of minimizing friction and increasing pellet density and mechanical strength. Developing formal relationships between the type of process that generates residues, the properties of residues hence generated, and the quality of wood pellets can contribute to optimize pellet production methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Productivity and Oil Content in Relation to Jatropha Fruit Ripening under Tropical Dry-Forest Conditions
Forests 2018, 9(10), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100611 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Jatropha is promoted as a pro-poor bioenergy plant, while basic information about its productivity, age of maximum production, and oil content are missing. This study aims to determine the seed yield (dry weight) for three INIAP elite jatropha accessions, and to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Jatropha is promoted as a pro-poor bioenergy plant, while basic information about its productivity, age of maximum production, and oil content are missing. This study aims to determine the seed yield (dry weight) for three INIAP elite jatropha accessions, and to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical seed traits at the different fruit ripening stage in a split-plot design. Maximum seed production occurred four years after planting for the accessions CP041 and CP052, while for accession CP054, it occurred after the first year. CP041 was the most productive, with a mean of 316.46 g tree−1 year−1 (±76.50) over the 8-year study period. No significant differences in oil content were found among accessions, fruit ripening stage, and their respective interactions. Seed moisture content decreased drastically as the fruit ripening stage increased, from 40.5% ± 1.0% at fruit ripening stage 1 (greenish-yellow) down to 13.8% ± 0.4% at fruit ripening stage 4 (black-brown). No significant differences in seed weight were found among accessions, but it decreased as maturation progressed. Yellow fruits (stage 2) were the heaviest (62.4 g ± 1.5 g) and the black-brown fruits the lightest (44.3 g ± 1.9 g). The oil content (%) increased with seed weight up to the point of 58.3 g, but then decreased for heavier seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing the Location of Biomass Energy Facilities by Integrating Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Forests 2018, 9(10), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100585 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Internationally forest biomass is considered to be a valuable renewable energy feedstock. However, utilization of forest harvesting residues is challenging because they are highly varied, generally of low quality and usually widely distributed across timber harvesting sites. Factors related to the collection, processing [...] Read more.
Internationally forest biomass is considered to be a valuable renewable energy feedstock. However, utilization of forest harvesting residues is challenging because they are highly varied, generally of low quality and usually widely distributed across timber harvesting sites. Factors related to the collection, processing and transport impose constraints on the economic viability of residue utilization operations and impact their supply from dispersed feedstock locations. To optimize decision-making about suitable locations for biomass energy plants intending to use forest residues, it is essential to factor in these supply chain considerations. This study conducted in Tasmania, Australia presents an investigation into the integration of Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and Geographical Information systems (GIS) to identify optimal locations for prospective biomass power plants. The amount of forest harvesting biomass residues was estimated based on a non-industrial private native resource model in Tasmania (NIPNF). The integration of MCA and a GIS model, including a supply chain cost analysis, allowed the identification and analysis of optimal candidate locations that balanced economic, environmental, and social criteria within the biomass supply. The study results confirm that resource availability, land use and supply chain cost data can be integrated and mapped using GIS to facilitate the determination of different sustainable criteria weightings, and to ultimately generate optimal candidate locations for biomass energy plants. It is anticipated that this paper will make a contribution to current scientific knowledge by presenting innovative approaches for the sustainable utilization of forest harvest residues as a resource for the generation of bioenergy in Tasmania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Assessment Techniques in Forest Biomass along the Timber Supply Chain
Forests 2019, 10(11), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10111018 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
As a part of the renewable energy cycle, forest biomass resources are considered to be important renewable materials and energy sources in many countries. It is evident from international and local research into forest biomass utilization that several challenges must be addressed to [...] Read more.
As a part of the renewable energy cycle, forest biomass resources are considered to be important renewable materials and energy sources in many countries. It is evident from international and local research into forest biomass utilization that several challenges must be addressed to ensure logging waste can be transformed into material of commercial value. Several logistical and supply chain challenges have already been identified, including uncertainty about the nature, amount, and quality of forest residues. In this context, this paper presents a summary review of estimation methods and techniques for managing forest and woody residue along the timber supply chain. The review examines both the opportunities and the challenges evident in the international forest residue estimation methods within each supply chain for primary and secondary forest resources. The review also discusses techniques for supply chain and management planning and highlights the limitations of existing information and communication technology (ICT) implemented for forest biomass research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain Optimization for Biomass and Biofuels)
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