Special Issue "Nutrition and Quality of Wheat and its Products"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Şenay Şimşek
Website
Guest Editor
North Dakota State University, Department of Plant Sciences, Cereal Science Graduate Program, Fargo, ND, USA
Interests: wheat quality; bread; starch digestibility; food and health; non-starch polysaccharides; structure-function; bread quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wheat was one of the first domesticated food crops. It has been the basic staple food of the major civilizations in Europe, West Asia, and North Africa for 8000 years. Wheat quality refers to a specific wheat’s ability to reliably produce a flour that will perform well in the production of a finished product. An extensive amount of data obtained from quality tests often go into characterizing wheat quality; though, the best quality test usually does not come until the baker actually uses the flour for a specific baked good. Currently, the cereal industry is still searching for a quick and efficient method to estimate end-use quality.

The growing interest in using food to manage health might explain growing consumer interest in the nutritional profile of food and consumers’ understanding of a food’s nutritional value ( such as helping to lower blood pressure and lowering risk of colon cancer). Considering that wheat is a staple food in many countries, its nutritional quality in relation to wheat composition is a very pertinent topic.

Prof. Dr. Şenay Şimşek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • New wheat quality testing equipment
  • Trends in new wheat-based food products
  • Nutritional profile of wheat-based food products
  • Effect of processing on wheat quality
  • Effect of processing on the nutritional quality of wheat-based food products
  • Effect of wheat constituents on end-product quality
  • Wheat proteins
  • Wheat starch
  • Wheat non-starch polysaccharides
  • Wheat lipids

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Proteins and Metabolites as Indicators of Flours Quality and Nutritional Properties of Two Durum Wheat Varieties Grown in Different Italian Locations
Foods 2020, 9(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030315 - 09 Mar 2020
Abstract
Durum wheat is an important food source in Mediterranean countries, and Italy is the major producer of durum wheat in Europe. The quality of durum wheat flours depends on the type and amount of gluten proteins and starch while flour nutritional value rests [...] Read more.
Durum wheat is an important food source in Mediterranean countries, and Italy is the major producer of durum wheat in Europe. The quality of durum wheat flours depends on the type and amount of gluten proteins and starch while flour nutritional value rests on metabolite contents such as polyphenols. In this work, two Italian cultivars, Iride and Svevo, were analyzed for two years (2016–2017) in four Italian regions to explore how the environment affects: (i) reserve proteome; (ii) starch content and composition; and (iii) free, conjugated, bound phenolics and antioxidant capacity. The impact of environmental and meteorological conditions was significant for many traits. Regardless of the cultivation site, in 2017, a year with less rainfall and a higher temperature during grain filling, there was an increase in low molecular weight glutenins, in the glutenin/gliadin ratio and in the A-type starch granules size, all parameters of higher technological quality. In the same year, the cultivars showed higher amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, the two wheat cultivars, selected for their medium to high yield and their good quality, had higher performances in 2017 regardless of their sowing locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Wheat and its Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Bread Made of Various Substitution Ratios of Bran Pulverized by Hammer Mill or Jet Mill
Foods 2020, 9(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010048 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dough and bread were measured in wheat flours substituted with two types of bran (HMB: bran pulverized by a hammer mill and JMB: bran pulverized by a jet mill) at various ratios (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, [...] Read more.
The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dough and bread were measured in wheat flours substituted with two types of bran (HMB: bran pulverized by a hammer mill and JMB: bran pulverized by a jet mill) at various ratios (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) of substitution. The particle size of hammer mill bran (HMB) (119.71 µm) was larger than that of jet mill bran (JMB) (25.78 µm). Wheat flours substituted with HMB contained more total dietary fiber than those with JMB. A significant increase of water absorption and dough development time in Mixolab® analysis was observed depending on the level of HMB or JMB substitution. The breads made with HMB or JMB (5% or 10%) showed a higher specific volume and lower crumb hardness than the control bread. However, breads made with ≥15% HMB or JMB had a decreased specific volume and increased crumb hardness. Overall, breads made with wheat flour substituted with 5%–10% HMB or JMB were of a higher bread quality and had more antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Wheat and its Products)
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Open AccessCommunication
Celiac Antigenicity of Ancient Wheat Species
Foods 2019, 8(12), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120675 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ancient grains have gained renewed interest in the last few years due to their perceived nutritional benefits. The goal of this study was to examine the presence of celiac epitopes in different ancient grains and determine differences in the gliadin protein profile of [...] Read more.
Ancient grains have gained renewed interest in the last few years due to their perceived nutritional benefits. The goal of this study was to examine the presence of celiac epitopes in different ancient grains and determine differences in the gliadin protein profile of such grains. To investigate celiac epitopes, an untargeted mass spectrometric method was used, and the gliadin protein profile was studied using reverse phase-HPLC. Our findings show that celiac epitopes can be detected in wheat-related ancient grains, such as einkorn, emmer, and Kamut, indicating that these ancient grains have the potential to elicit the immune response associated with celiac disease. Additionally, the results showed that the gliadin protein composition is significantly different between ancient grain species, which could result in varying functional properties in end-use applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Wheat and its Products)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Review of the Sensory and Physico-Chemical Properties of Red and White Wheat: Which Makes the Best Whole Grain?
Foods 2020, 9(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020136 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Establishing sensory and physico-chemical differences between products made from red and white wheat may guide the choice of wheat for use in whole grain and high fibre products. As sensory acceptance is key to consumption, this scoping review aimed to document sensory and [...] Read more.
Establishing sensory and physico-chemical differences between products made from red and white wheat may guide the choice of wheat for use in whole grain and high fibre products. As sensory acceptance is key to consumption, this scoping review aimed to document sensory and physico-chemical research demonstrating quantitative differences in red and white wheat and the associated bran. The following databases were systematically searched following the PRISMA protocol: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, CINHAL and ScienceDirect (1990–2019). Of 16 studies, 13 were sensory studies with 529 participants (six of which included quantitative analysis) and three additional quantitative studies. Overall, 10 studies were in favour of white wheat (seven sensory studies, two focused on quantitative analysis and two with additional quantitative studies). Whole grain (wholemeal) bread, pita bread, crackers, noodles, tortillas, flour, intact grains and bran were examined. Aside from the seed coat colour, levels of bound versus free phenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase activity appeared most responsible for the differences in red and white wheat. Ensuring the sample size for sensory studies are large enough to detect between-group preferences and linking to physico-chemical analysis are recommended. Attention to blinding techniques in sensory testing and use of food products realistically and consistently prepared with commercial potential are also suggested. This scoping review provides confidence in preference for white wheat for whole grain products, particularly for breads, tortillas and in the choice of white wheat for products suitable for the Asian market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Wheat and its Products)
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