Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture

A special issue of Fishes (ISSN 2410-3888). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 9715

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Interests: social behaviour; cooperation; physiology; stress; cleaner fish

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Guest Editor
Fish Ethology & Welfare Group, Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), Faro, Portugal
Interests: fish welfare; ethology; physiology; behavioural neuroendocrionology
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Guest Editor
Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: aquaculture nutritionthis; feeding; fish feed; fast muscle fiber; myogenic factor 6; Solea senegalensis
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Guest Editor
Akvaplan-niva Iceland Office, Akralind 4, 201 Kópavogur, Iceland and Department of Biological Science, High Technology Centre, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Interests: aquaculture; fish physiology; maturation; environmental and genetic interactions; population genetics; biostatistics; cleaner fish

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The control of parasites in fish farms has traditionally involved the use of pesticides, either as bath treatments or by oral administration. The search for other ways to control the incidence of parasites is now being intensified to improve fish quality, safer final product, and lower environmental impact. The addition of cleaner organisms as biological control agents has broadened the perspective of rearing fish in a more environmentally friendly way. In the marine environment, the interspecific relationships between fish are ubiquitous and are commonly described as beneficial interactions where a smaller species (cleaners) remove parasites and infected tissue from the body surface, mouth, and gill chambers of other fish. Furthermore, in certain cases, the need to seek cleaning seems to go beyond the question of parasite removal; it is also about gaining physical contact and other health benefits. However, the inclusion of cleaner fishes to the farming system adds another organism to the production effort, whose biology is, in most cases, unknown to the industry. This raises another layer of challenges, not only in terms of rearing a novel species but also in terms of the welfare of the cleaners themselves. Therefore, this is a field that deserves further attention and research, to establish better welfare standards and lower disease outbreaks for farmed fish, both cleaners and clients.

Dr. Marta C Soares
Dr. João L. Saraiva
Dr. Margarida Saavedra
Prof. Dr. Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson Imsland
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cleaner fish
  • parasites
  • stress
  • sustainability
  • pesticides
  • symbiosis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture
by Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson Imsland
Fishes 2023, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8020083 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Biological control in fishes has been documented extensively and is a common form of symbiotic relationship between cleaners and fishes and shellfish globally, with the highest diversity in the tropics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)

Research

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16 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Causes of Mortality and Loss of Lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus
by Patrick Reynolds, Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson Imsland and Lauris Boissonnot
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060328 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Data from research and commercial use of lumpfish were collected from the research facilities of Gifas (Inndyr, Northern Norway, 67.0° N, 14.0° E). The data were sourced from 12 main lumpfish groups subdivided into 66 subgroups (N = 160,729) delivered to Gifas between [...] Read more.
Data from research and commercial use of lumpfish were collected from the research facilities of Gifas (Inndyr, Northern Norway, 67.0° N, 14.0° E). The data were sourced from 12 main lumpfish groups subdivided into 66 subgroups (N = 160,729) delivered to Gifas between 2013 and 2020 and used in cleaner-fish research in (a) land-based facilities, (b) small-scale, or (c) large-scale sea pens. The data were standardised and organised into three main headings. Firstly, background information included transfer time, point of origin, mean starting weight and population size on arrival. Other information included to which site the lumpfish were transferred, volume of cage/tank, whether in the presence of salmon or not, stocking density, days at each site and water quality parameters. Causes of mortality were recorded, when possible, for each group, along with calculated mortality rates, patterns, and analytical information, along with imaging where available. Results show that causes of mortality varied within and between research sites. For lumpfish in hatcheries as well as for those deployed at small-scale sea pens, the primary cause of mortality was identified as pathogenic, while for lumpfish deployed at large-scale sea pens, transporting, grading and mechanical delousing were the primary causes of mortality. The results indicate that more research is required to clarify best practices both in commercial hatcheries and salmon cages and further understanding on lumpfish biological requirements and stress physiology is necessary to develop better methods that safeguard lumpfish welfare and meet their needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 1673 KiB  
Article
Comparing Body Density of Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) to Different Operational Welfare Indicators
by Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson Imsland, Magnus Sunason Berg, Gyri Teien Haugland and Kirstin Eliasen
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050284 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Farmed lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) are commonly used as cleaner fish in the salmonid aquaculture industry, but a knowledge gap exists with regards to their body density. Filling this knowledge gap is of importance, as the lumpfish has no swim bladder and [...] Read more.
Farmed lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) are commonly used as cleaner fish in the salmonid aquaculture industry, but a knowledge gap exists with regards to their body density. Filling this knowledge gap is of importance, as the lumpfish has no swim bladder and thus relies on alternative methods for buoyancy, i.e., the body density difference between the fish and its surroundings. The aims of this study were to measure the body density of lumpfish and investigate the correlation between body density and different operational welfare indicators. A total of 138 lumpfish were sampled at five different aquaculture sites situated in the Faroe Islands. Weight in water and air was measured, body density was calculated, and operational welfare was assessed. The average body density of the juvenile lumpfish was 1.030 g mL−1. Fulton’s K, stomach score, and length were negatively correlated to body density, while the hepatosomatic index was positively correlated to body density. Liver colour was correlated to body density, but the groupings were too broad for a final definitive conclusion. The knowledge gained from this study might help the industry improve their understanding of the operational welfare indicators used for lumpfish. Additionally, the knowledge might also help the aquaculture industry improve their husbandry and feeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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8 pages, 607 KiB  
Communication
Physiological Effects of Recapture and Transport from Net-Cages in Lumpfish
by Atle Foss and Albert K. D. Imsland
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050242 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Lumpfish are widely used for removing sea lice in salmonid sea-based aquaculture. If these fish are to be harvested and used for human consumption, it is necessary to know how the physical strain associated with removing the lumpfish from the net-cages affects the [...] Read more.
Lumpfish are widely used for removing sea lice in salmonid sea-based aquaculture. If these fish are to be harvested and used for human consumption, it is necessary to know how the physical strain associated with removing the lumpfish from the net-cages affects the fish in the short-term, and if live-storage in tanks, well-boats, or nets awaiting slaughter, will result in stress and mortalities. In this study, we investigated the effect of physical stress and mortality in a group of lumpfish recaptured from commercial net-cages, transported to holding tanks, and stored for one week. In addition to cortisol (primary stress response), we analyzed ions directly related to osmoregulation (Na+ and Cl), osmotic stress (Ca2+), and blood plasma pH as an indicator of a secondary stress response. The aim of the study was to increase the basic physiological understanding of the physiological effects of handling procedures and transport in lumpfish. Only minor, and temporary, effects on primary stress response and secondary stress response were seen in lumpfish recaptured from net-cages and transported to holding facilities, indicating that lumpfish cope well with short transport (here 5 h). These findings are important in a context where lumpfish are harvested for reuse, e.g., human consumption or processing, following their lice-eating stage in net-cages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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Review

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20 pages, 5364 KiB  
Review
In lumpfish We Trust? The Efficacy of Lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus to Control Lepeophtheirus salmonis Infestations on Farmed Atlantic Salmon: A Review
by Albert Kjartan Dagbjartarson Imsland and Patrick Reynolds
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050220 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
In this review, we have systematized current knowledge about the effect of stocking lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) as cleaner fish to control Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The review was prompted by recent reports in which [...] Read more.
In this review, we have systematized current knowledge about the effect of stocking lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) as cleaner fish to control Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The review was prompted by recent reports in which the usefulness of lumpfish has been doubted, and the urgent need to investigate whether common lumpfish can be used to reduce L. salmonis numbers on farmed Atlantic salmon by active grazing on this species. Available published data clearly indicate that lumpfish graze on L. salmonis, and can significantly lower the lice burden in Atlantic salmon farming. It is possible to enhance the lice grazing behavior of lumpfish with the assistance of live feed conditioning prior to sea pen transfer, and with selective breeding. Data indicate that lice grazing of lumpfish is size dependent, and grazing effect is low for lumpfish larger than 200–250 g. Observations from large-scale rearing of Atlantic salmon in open sea cages in Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and Scotland also indicate that lumpfish can be effective in lowering infestations of L. salmonis on salmon. Overall, this present review reveals that lumpfish can actively contribute to lower numbers of L. salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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