Special Issue "Wave Energy Potential, Behavior and Extraction"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hua Li
Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA
Interests: renewable energy; especially wind energy and wave energy; active disassembly; simulation; optimization; engineering education
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wave energy has higher potential than most of the available ocean energy resources; however, it fluctuates dramatically depending on geographical and temporal baselines. The complexity of wave energy is only exacerbated by that fact that the cycle of creation, transport, and disappearance of wave energy is influenced by a wide variety of factors. This Special Issue of Energies will explore the latest developments in wave energy potential, behaviour, and extraction. This Special Issue will encompass:

  • novel technologies to extract wave energy including wave energy converter/generator design;
  • latest methodologies applied in analysing wave energy potentials;
  • latest methodologies used to explore and understand wave energy behaviour related to its creation, transport and disappearance;
  • hybrid energy harvesting technologies with focus on wave energy.

We would also welcome review papers related to above-mentioned topics.

Dr. Hua Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wave energy
  • wave energy converter
  • wave energy harvesting
  • wave energy generator
  • wave energy potential

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Potential of Energy Extracted from Waves and Wind to Supply Offshore Oil Platforms Operating in the Gulf of Mexico
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051084 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Offshore oil platforms operate with independent electrical systems using gas turbines to generate their own electricity. However, gas turbines operate very inefficiently under the variable offshore conditions, increasing fuel costs and air pollutant emissions. This paper focused on investigating the feasibility of implementing [...] Read more.
Offshore oil platforms operate with independent electrical systems using gas turbines to generate their own electricity. However, gas turbines operate very inefficiently under the variable offshore conditions, increasing fuel costs and air pollutant emissions. This paper focused on investigating the feasibility of implementing a hybrid electricity supply system for offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, both for the United States and Mexico Exclusive Economic Zones. Geographic Information Systems methodologies were used to analyze the data from various sources. Three different scenarios were studied, including wind power only, wave power only, and wind and wave power combined. The results showed that all the offshore locations were within accepted feasible distance to the coast for connecting to the onshore grid. Most of the locations had acceptable power levels of either wind or wave energy while the combination of both resources can improve the overall energy harvesting efficiency and reduce the variability in a significant number of locations. The proposed methodology can be applied for specific locations with finer spatial and time resolution, which will allow stakeholders to improve the decision making process, generate important savings on the normal operation, reduce pollution, and potentially increase income by selling surplus energy from renewable sources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamic Investigation of a Concentric Cylindrical OWC Wave Energy Converter
Energies 2018, 11(4), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040985 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
A fixed, concentric, cylindrical oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC) is proposed for shallow offshore sites. Compared with the existing shoreline OWC device, this wave energy device is not restricted by the wave directions and coastline geography conditions. Analytical solutions are [...] Read more.
A fixed, concentric, cylindrical oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC) is proposed for shallow offshore sites. Compared with the existing shoreline OWC device, this wave energy device is not restricted by the wave directions and coastline geography conditions. Analytical solutions are derived based on the linear potential-flow theory and eigen-function expansion technique to investigate hydrodynamic properties of the device. Three typical free-surface oscillation modes in the chamber are discussed, of which the piston-type mode makes the main contribution to the energy conversion. The effects of the geometrical parameters on the hydrodynamic properties are further investigated. The resonance frequency of the chamber, the power extraction efficiency, and the effective frequency bandwidth of the device is discussed, amongst other topics. It is found that the proposed OWC-WEC device with a lower draft and wider chamber breadth has better power extraction ability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost-Based Design and Selection of Point Absorber Devices for the Mediterranean Sea
Energies 2018, 11(4), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040946 - 16 Apr 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Sea wave energy is one of the most promising renewable sources, even if relevant technology is not mature enough for the global energy market and is not yet competitive if compared with solar, wind and tidal current devices. Particularly, among the variety of [...] Read more.
Sea wave energy is one of the most promising renewable sources, even if relevant technology is not mature enough for the global energy market and is not yet competitive if compared with solar, wind and tidal current devices. Particularly, among the variety of wave energy converters developed in the last decade, heaving point absorbers represent one of the most feasible and studied technologies, as shown by the small-scale testing and full-scale prototypes, deployed in the last years throughout the world. Nevertheless, the need for further reduction of the energy production costs requires a specialized design of wave energy converters, accounting for the restraints provided by the power take-off unit and the device operational profile. Hence, actual analysis focuses on a new cost-based design procedure for heaving point absorbers. The device is equipped with a floating buoy with an optional fully submerged mass connected, by means of a tensioned line, to the power take-off unit. It consists of a permanent magnet linear generator, lying on the seabed and equipped with a gravity-based foundation. The proposed procedure is applied to several candidate deployment sites located in the Mediterranean Sea; the incidence of the power take-off restraint and the converter operational profile is fully investigated and some recommendations for preliminary design of wave energy converter devices are provided. Current results show that there is wide scope to make the wave energy sector more competitive on the international market, by properly selecting the main design parameters of point absorbers, on the basis of met-ocean conditions at the deployment site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamic Performance of an Array of Wave Energy Converters Integrated with a Pontoon-Type Breakwater
Energies 2018, 11(3), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030685 - 18 Mar 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
The cost of wave energy converters (WECs) can be reduced significantly by integrating WECs into other marine facilities, especially in sea areas with a mild wave climate. To reduce the cost and increase the efficiency, a hybrid WEC system, comprising a linear array [...] Read more.
The cost of wave energy converters (WECs) can be reduced significantly by integrating WECs into other marine facilities, especially in sea areas with a mild wave climate. To reduce the cost and increase the efficiency, a hybrid WEC system, comprising a linear array (medium farm) of oscillating buoy-type WECs attached to the weather side of a fixed-type floating pontoon as the base structure is proposed. The performance of the WEC array is investigated numerically using a boundary element method (BEM) based on the linear potential flow theory. The linear power take-off (PTO) damping model is used to calculate the output power of the WEC array. The performance of the WEC array and each individual WEC device is balanced by using the mean interaction factor and the individual interaction factor. To quantify the effect of the pontoon, the hydrodynamic results of the WEC arrays with and without a pontoon are compared with each other. Detailed investigations on the influence of the structural and PTO parameters are performed in a wide wave frequency range. Results show that the energy conversion efficiency of a WEC array with a properly designed pontoon is much higher than that without a pontoon. This integration scheme can achieve the efficiency improvement and construction-cost reduction of the wave energy converters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
State-Space Approximation of Convolution Term in Time Domain Analysis of a Raft-Type Wave Energy Converter
Energies 2018, 11(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010169 - 10 Jan 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Two methods, frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis, are widely applied to modeling wave energy converters (WECs). Frequency domain analysis can evaluate the performance of WECs quickly and efficiently, while it refers to a linear model. When it comes to investigations on [...] Read more.
Two methods, frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis, are widely applied to modeling wave energy converters (WECs). Frequency domain analysis can evaluate the performance of WECs quickly and efficiently, while it refers to a linear model. When it comes to investigations on nonlinear characteristics of the power take-off (PTO) unit of WECs or control for improving the WECs’ performance, time domain analysis based on a state-space approximation for the convolution term is more desirable. In this paper, a state-space approximation of the convolution term in a time domain analysis of a raft-type WEC consisting of two rafts and a PTO unit is presented. The state-space model is identified through regression in the frequency domain. Verification of such a type of time domain analysis is conducted by comparison of its simulation results with those calculated by using a frequency domain analysis, and there is a good agreement. Finally, the effects of PTO parameters, wave frequency, surge and heave motions of the joint, and quadratic damping PTO on the power capture ability of the raft-type WEC are investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost Optimization of Mooring Solutions for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters
Energies 2018, 11(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010159 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
The increasing desire for using renewable energy sources throughout the world has resulted in a considerable amount of research into and development of concepts for wave energy converters. By now, many different concepts exist, but still, the wave energy sector is not at [...] Read more.
The increasing desire for using renewable energy sources throughout the world has resulted in a considerable amount of research into and development of concepts for wave energy converters. By now, many different concepts exist, but still, the wave energy sector is not at a stage that is considered commercial yet, primarily due to the relatively high cost of energy. A considerable amount of the wave energy converters are floating structures, which consequently need mooring systems in order to ensure station keeping. Despite being a well-known concept, mooring in wave energy application has proven to be expensive and has a high rate of failure. Therefore, there is a need for further improvement, investigation into new concepts and sophistication of design procedures. This study uses four Danish wave energy converters, all considered as large floating structures, to investigate a methodology in order to find an inexpensive and reliable mooring solution for each device. The study uses a surrogate-based optimization routine in order to find a feasible solution in only a limited number of evaluations and a constructed cost database for determination of the mooring cost. Based on the outcome, the mooring parameters influencing the cost are identified and the optimum solution determined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peak Forces on Wave Energy Linear Generators in Tsunami and Extreme Waves
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091323 - 02 Sep 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The focus of this paper is the survivability of wave energy converters (WECs) in extreme waves and tsunamis, using realistic WEC parameters. The impact of a generator damping factor has been studied, and the peak forces plotted as a function of wave height. [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is the survivability of wave energy converters (WECs) in extreme waves and tsunamis, using realistic WEC parameters. The impact of a generator damping factor has been studied, and the peak forces plotted as a function of wave height. The paper shows that an increased damping decreases the force in the endstop hit, which is in agreement with earlier studies. However, when analyzing this in more detail, we can show that friction damping and velocity dependent generator damping affect the performance of the device differently, and that friction can have a latching effect on devices in tsunami waves, leading to higher peak forces. In addition, we study the impact of different line lengths, and find that longer line lengths reduce the endstop forces in extreme regular waves, but on the contrary increase the forces in tsunami waves due to the different fluid velocity fields. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ocean Wave Energy Converters: Status and Challenges
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051250 - 14 May 2018
Cited by 48
Abstract
Wave energy is substantial as a resource, and its potential to significantly contribute to the existing energy mix has been identified. However, the commercial utilization of wave energy is still very low. This paper reviewed the background of wave energy harvesting technology, its [...] Read more.
Wave energy is substantial as a resource, and its potential to significantly contribute to the existing energy mix has been identified. However, the commercial utilization of wave energy is still very low. This paper reviewed the background of wave energy harvesting technology, its evolution, and the present status of the industry. By covering the theoretical formulations, wave resource characterization methods, hydrodynamics of wave interaction with the wave energy converter, and the power take-off and electrical systems, different challenges were identified and discussed. Solutions were suggested while discussing the challenges in order to increase awareness and investment in wave energy industry as a whole. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Survey of WEC Reliability, Survival and Design Practices
Energies 2018, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010004 - 21 Dec 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
A wave energy converter must be designed to survive and function efficiently, often in highly energetic ocean environments. This represents a challenging engineering problem, comprising systematic failure mode analysis, environmental characterization, modeling, experimental testing, fatigue and extreme response analysis. While, when compared with [...] Read more.
A wave energy converter must be designed to survive and function efficiently, often in highly energetic ocean environments. This represents a challenging engineering problem, comprising systematic failure mode analysis, environmental characterization, modeling, experimental testing, fatigue and extreme response analysis. While, when compared with other ocean systems such as ships and offshore platforms, there is relatively little experience in wave energy converter design, a great deal of recent work has been done within these various areas. This paper summarizes the general stages and workflow for wave energy converter design, relying on supporting articles to provide insight. By surveying published work on wave energy converter survival and design response analyses, this paper seeks to provide the reader with an understanding of the different components of this process and the range of methodologies that can be brought to bear. In this way, the reader is provided with a large set of tools to perform design response analyses on wave energy converters. Full article
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