Special Issue "Sustainable Buildings: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "F: Energy and Buildings".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. John Kaiser Calautit
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Architecture and Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Interests: sustainable buildings; passive technologies; computational fluid dynamics modelling; building energy simulation; thermal performance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Architectural Engineering Discipline, Institute of Sustainable Building Design, School of Energy Geoscience Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Dubai PO Box 38103, United Arab Emirates
Interests: renewable and sustainable engineering systems; heat transfer; natural ventilation; thermal comfort; passive cooling and building aerodynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Building energy is a core component of cities and urban planning and has major social consequences, as well as climate change impacts. Buildings worldwide account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint, significantly due to the increasing use of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC). Energy consumption of the world is driven largely by residential use, with a major proportion of the electricity being consumed by the building sector. Mechanical HVAC units are common solutions for providing effective and adequate fresh air requirements. However, there is a need for substantial investment in optimizing mechanical systems for the highest efficiencies and re-engineering natural ventilation, to meet the global climate change targets outlined by the Paris Agreement in 2015. High-performing HVAC systems are very important from both the energy and economic perspectives. It has proven that the indoor environment has a significant influence on users’ comfort, productivity, and wellbeing and must be taken into account when designing HVAC systems. This Special Issue encourages researchers to address solutions to overcome the issue. Research and review papers of systems and technologies aiming to improve energy performance, air quality, and comfort are welcomed. Topics that could be covered include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Low-energy ventilation
  • Passive cooling and strategies
  • High-performance HVAC
  • Water heating and cooling systems
  • Heat pumps
  • Thermal comfort and air quality
  • Control and operation
  • Hybrid HVAC systems
  • Integration with renewables
  • Fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems
  • Intelligent approaches
  • Measurement and simulation methods
  • Modeling and optimization
  • Case studies and innovative approaches

Dr. John Kaiser Calautit
Dr. Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Buildings
  • Indoor air quality
  • Thermal comfort
  • Demand response
  • Passive
  • Operation
  • Solar cooling
  • Ventilation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Thermodynamic Performance Investigation of a Small-Scale Solar Compression-Assisted Multi-Ejector Indoor Air Conditioning System for Hot Climate Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4325; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144325 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
In year-round hot climatic conditions, conventional air conditioning systems consume significant amounts of electricity primarily generated by conventional power plants. A compression-assisted, multi-ejector space cooling system driven by low-grade solar thermal energy is investigated in terms of energy and exergy performance, using a [...] Read more.
In year-round hot climatic conditions, conventional air conditioning systems consume significant amounts of electricity primarily generated by conventional power plants. A compression-assisted, multi-ejector space cooling system driven by low-grade solar thermal energy is investigated in terms of energy and exergy performance, using a real gas property-based ejector model for a 36 kW-scale air conditioning application, exposed to annually high outdoor temperatures (i.e., up to 42 °C), for four working fluids (R11, R141b, R245fa, R600a). Using R245fa, the multi-ejector system effectively triples the operating condenser temperature range of a single ejector system to cover the range of annual outdoor conditions, while compression boosting reduces the generator heat input requirement and improves the overall refrigeration coefficient of performance (COP) by factors of ~3–8 at medium- to high-bound condenser temperatures, relative to simple ejector cycles. The system solar fraction varies from ~0.2 to 0.9 in summer and winter, respectively, with annual average mechanical and overall COPs of 24.5 and 0.21, respectively. Exergy destruction primarily takes place in the ejector assembly, but ejector exergy efficiency improves with compression boosting. The system could reduce annual electric cooling loads by over 40% compared with a conventional local split air conditioner, with corresponding savings in electricity expenditure and GHG emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning)
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Article
Effect of Roof Cooling and Air Curtain Gates on Thermal and Wind Conditions in Stadiums for Hot Climates
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3941; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133941 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
To host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Qatar is facing the greatest challenge in balancing the energy consumptions for cooling the stadiums and the thermal comfort for both players and spectators. Previous studies have not considered using a combined configuration of air curtain [...] Read more.
To host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Qatar is facing the greatest challenge in balancing the energy consumptions for cooling the stadiums and the thermal comfort for both players and spectators. Previous studies have not considered using a combined configuration of air curtain and roof cooling supply slot in stadiums to prevent the infiltration of outside hot air and reduce the cooling system’s energy consumption. This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of thermal and wind modeling around a baseline stadium and simulates the cooling scenarios of air curtains and roof cooling along with the energy consumption estimations for the World Cup matches using Building Energy Simulation (BES). Sensitivity analysis of different supply speeds and supply temperatures of air curtain gates and roof cooling was carried out, and the results showed that scenario six, which provides supply air of 25 m/s and 20 m/s at the roof and air curtain gates with a supply temperature of 10 °C, demonstrates optimal thermal performances on both the spectator tiers and the pitch. Compared with the baseline stadium performance, the average reductions in temperature on the pitch and spectator tiers under scenario six could reach 15 °C and 14.6 °C. The reductions in the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied values for the upper and lower tiers as well as the pitch were 63%, 74%, and 78%. In terms of the estimated energy consumptions, scenario six would consume electric energy per match at a rate of 25.5 MWh compared with 22.8 MWh for one of the stadiums in the 2010 South Africa World Cup and 42.0 MWh for the 2006 Germany World Cup. Future research is recommended to explore the influence of supply angle on air curtain gates and roof cooling supply slots’ performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning)
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Article
Evaluating the Use of Displacement Ventilation for Providing Space Heating in Unoccupied Periods Using Laboratory Experiments, Field Tests and Numerical Simulations
Energies 2021, 14(4), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040952 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Displacement ventilation is a proven method of providing conditioned air to enclosed spaces with the aim to deliver good air quality and thermal comfort while reducing the amount of energy required to operate the system. Until now, the practical applications of displacement ventilation [...] Read more.
Displacement ventilation is a proven method of providing conditioned air to enclosed spaces with the aim to deliver good air quality and thermal comfort while reducing the amount of energy required to operate the system. Until now, the practical applications of displacement ventilation have been exclusive to providing ventilation and cooling to large open spaces with high ceilings. The provision of heating through displacement ventilation has traditionally been discouraged, out of concern that warm air supplied at the floor level would rise straight to the ceiling level without providing heat to the occupied space. Hence, a separate heating system is regularly integrated with the displacement ventilation in cold climates, increasing the cost and energy use of the system. This paper goes beyond the common industry practice and explores the possibility of using displacement ventilation to provide heating without any additional heating system. It reports on experimental investigations conducted in laboratory and field settings, and numerical simulation of these studies, all aimed at investigating the application of displacement ventilation for providing a comfortable indoor environment in winter by preheating the space prior to occupancy. The experimental results confirm that the proposed concept of providing space heating in unoccupied periods without a separate heating system is possible with displacement ventilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning)
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Article
Building Energy Management for Passive Cooling Based on Stochastic Occupants Behavior Evaluation
Energies 2021, 14(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010138 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
The common approach to model occupants behaviors in buildings is deterministic and consists of assumptions based on predefined fixed schedules or rules. In contrast with the deterministic models, stochastic and agent based (AB) models are the most powerful and suitable methods for modeling [...] Read more.
The common approach to model occupants behaviors in buildings is deterministic and consists of assumptions based on predefined fixed schedules or rules. In contrast with the deterministic models, stochastic and agent based (AB) models are the most powerful and suitable methods for modeling complex systems as the human behavior. In this paper, a co-simulation architecture is proposed with the aim of modeling the occupant behavior in buildings by a stochastic-AB approach and implementing an intelligent Building Energy Management System (BEMS). In particular, optimized control logics are designed for smart passive cooling by controlling natural ventilation and solar shading systems to guarantee the thermal comfort conditions and maintain energy performance. Moreover, the effects of occupant actions on indoor thermal comfort are also taken into account. This study shows how the integration of automation systems and passive techniques increases the potentialities of passive cooling in buildings, integrating or replacing the conventional efficiency strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning)
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Article
On the Ventilation Performance of Low Momentum Confluent Jets Supply Device in a Classroom
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5415; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205415 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The performance of three different confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices was evaluated in a classroom environment concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency. The CJV supply devices have the acronyms: high-momentum confluent jets (HMCJ), low-momentum confluent jets (LMCJ) and [...] Read more.
The performance of three different confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices was evaluated in a classroom environment concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency. The CJV supply devices have the acronyms: high-momentum confluent jets (HMCJ), low-momentum confluent jets (LMCJ) and low-momentum confluent jets modified by varying airflow direction (LMCJ-M). A mixing ventilation (MV) slot jet (SJ) supply device was used as a benchmark. Comparisons were made with identical set-up conditions in five cases with different supply temperatures (TS) (16–18 °C), airflow rates (2.2–6.3 ACH) and heat loads (17–47 W/m2). Performances were evaluated based on DR (draft rating), PMV (predicted mean vote), ACE (air change effectiveness) and heat removal effectiveness (HRE). The results show that CJV had higher HRE and IAQ than MV and LMCJ/LMCJ-M had higher ACE than HMCJ. The main effects of lower Ts were higher velocities, DR (HMCJ particularly) and HRE in the occupied zone as well as lower temperatures and PMV-values. HMCJ and LMCJ produce MV conditions at lower airflow rates (<4.2 ACH) and non-uniform conditions at higher airflow rates. LMCJ-M had 7% higher HRE than the other CJV supply devices and produced non-uniform conditions at lower airflow rates (<3.3 ACH). The non-uniform conditions resulted in LMCJ-M having the highest energy efficiency of all devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning)
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