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Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B2: Clean Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2022) | Viewed by 17552

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Sustainable Building Design, School of Energy Geoscience Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Interests: solar PV systems; bifacial PV performance; ground albedo enhancement; sustainable buildings; behaviour and attitude of users towards energy consumption
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Guest Editor
Architectural Engineering Discipline, Institute of Sustainable Building Design, School of Energy Geoscience Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Dubai P.O. Box 38103, United Arab Emirates
Interests: renewable and sustainable engineering systems; heat transfer; natural ventilation; thermal comfort; passive cooling and building aerodynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Low carbon and renewable energy technologies help to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which cause climate change. With advancement of research and development into this area, the potential for energy saving is ever increasing. This Special Issue seeks to communicate and disseminate interesting and innovative research in the fields of energy efficiency, low carbon resources, and renewable technology. The aim is to provide a platform to share issues, innovative ideas and approaches, solutions and new technologies in tackling the energy supply and demand challenges to support the transition to a low carbon and sustainable future. Research involving, high performance low-carbon resources, the current state-of-the-art solar PV and other renewable technologies and their applications, energy efficiency of renewable systems, intelligent approaches for supply-demand balance, experimental and simulation studies, modelling and optimisation and case studies dissemination relating to the scope of the journal are highly encouraged.

Dr. Mehreen Saleem Gul
Dr. Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy efficiency
  • renewable systems
  • low carbon solutions
  • energy supply and demand
  • climate change
  • case studies and innovative approaches
  • modelling and simulation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology
by Mehreen Saleem Gul and Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134553 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Low carbon and renewable energy technologies help reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which cause climate change [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)

Research

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20 pages, 5801 KiB  
Article
Investigation of an Inclined Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger as a Passive Cooling Mechanism on a Photovoltaic Panel
by Samiya Aamir Al-Mabsali, Jay Pillo Candido, Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry and Mehreen Saleem Gul
Energies 2021, 14(23), 7828; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237828 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
An investigation on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) was carried out while being installed as a cooling mechanism on photovoltaic panels. The Ecohouse at the University of Technology and Applied Sciences in Muscat, Oman, was used [...] Read more.
An investigation on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) was carried out while being installed as a cooling mechanism on photovoltaic panels. The Ecohouse at the University of Technology and Applied Sciences in Muscat, Oman, was used as the case study. The experiment monitored the effect of temperature variations on PV-HPHE-induced power generation. The heat pipes were arranged in a double-sided condenser in a spanwise manner with spacing 50 mm in the center with an inclination angle of 3°. J-type thermocouples (exposed wire, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) insulated) with a tip diameter of 1.5 mm were used. The results indicated mean values of HTC that were measured at 2.346 W/m2 K. The findings showed that the HTC values possessed a minimal standard error from the effect of variations of the ambient temperature. The mean HTC value of 2.346 W/m2 K can be used in the succeeding experiments using the same novel PV-HPHE setup. Additional results showed the recorded variations from the mean value of the HTC effect on the HPHE heat flow generation, which resulted in a 29% increase in power performance efficiency using PV-HPHE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)
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16 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of a Solar Cooling System with Equal and Unequal Adsorption/Desorption Operating Time
by Farkad A. Lattieff, Mohammed A. Atiya, Jasim M. Mahdi, Hasan Sh. Majdi, Pouyan Talebizadehsardari and Wahiba Yaïci
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6749; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206749 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
In solar-thermal adsorption/desorption processes, it is not always possible to preserve equal operating times for the adsorption/desorption modes due to the fluctuating supply nature of the source which largely affects the system’s operating conditions. This paper seeks to examine the impact of adopting [...] Read more.
In solar-thermal adsorption/desorption processes, it is not always possible to preserve equal operating times for the adsorption/desorption modes due to the fluctuating supply nature of the source which largely affects the system’s operating conditions. This paper seeks to examine the impact of adopting unequal adsorption/desorption times on the entire cooling performance of solar adsorption systems. A cooling system with silica gel–water as adsorbent-adsorbate pair has been built and tested under the climatic condition of Iraq. A mathematical model has been established to predict the system performance, and the results are successfully validated via the experimental findings. The results show that, the system can be operational at the unequal adsorption/desorption times. The performance of the system with equal time is almost twice that of the unequal one. The roles of adsorption velocity, adsorption capacity, overall heat transfer coefficient, and the performance of the cooling system are also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)
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21 pages, 6212 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity of Reservoir and Operational Parameters on the Energy Extraction Performance of Combined CO2-EGR–CPG Systems
by Justin Ezekiel, Diya Kumbhat, Anozie Ebigbo, Benjamin M. Adams and Martin O. Saar
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6122; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196122 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
There is a potential for synergy effects in utilizing CO2 for both enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and geothermal energy extraction (CO2-plume geothermal, CPG) from natural gas reservoirs. In this study, we carried out reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 to evaluate the [...] Read more.
There is a potential for synergy effects in utilizing CO2 for both enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and geothermal energy extraction (CO2-plume geothermal, CPG) from natural gas reservoirs. In this study, we carried out reservoir simulations using TOUGH2 to evaluate the sensitivity of natural gas recovery, pressure buildup, and geothermal power generation performance of the combined CO2-EGR–CPG system to key reservoir and operational parameters. The reservoir parameters included horizontal permeability, permeability anisotropy, reservoir temperature, and pore-size-distribution index; while the operational parameters included wellbore diameter and ambient surface temperature. Using an example of a natural gas reservoir model, we also investigated the effects of different strategies of transitioning from the CO2-EGR stage to the CPG stage on the energy-recovery performance metrics and on the two-phase fluid-flow regime in the production well. The simulation results showed that overlapping the CO2-EGR and CPG stages, and having a relatively brief period of CO2 injection, but no production (which we called the CO2-plume establishment stage) achieved the best overall energy (natural gas and geothermal) recovery performance. Permeability anisotropy and reservoir temperature were the parameters that the natural gas recovery performance of the combined system was most sensitive to. The geothermal power generation performance was most sensitive to the reservoir temperature and the production wellbore diameter. The results of this study pave the way for future CPG-based geothermal power-generation optimization studies. For a CO2-EGR–CPG project, the results can be a guide in terms of the required accuracy of the reservoir parameters during exploration and data acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)
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18 pages, 4266 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Virtual Inertia Control Method of Doubly Fed Wind Turbine
by Tai Li, Leqiu Wang, Yanbo Wang, Guohai Liu, Zhiyu Zhu, Yongwei Zhang, Li Zhao and Zhicheng Ji
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5572; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175572 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
This paper presents a data-driven virtual inertia control method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine to provide inertia support in the presence of frequency events. The Markov parameters of the system are first obtained by monitoring the grid frequency and system [...] Read more.
This paper presents a data-driven virtual inertia control method for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine to provide inertia support in the presence of frequency events. The Markov parameters of the system are first obtained by monitoring the grid frequency and system operation state. Then, a data-driven state observer is developed to evaluate the state vector of the optimal controller. Furthermore, the optimal controller of the inertia emulation system is developed through the closed solution of the differential Riccati equation. Moreover, a differential Riccati equation with self-correction capability is developed to enhance the anti-noise ability to reject noise interference in frequency measurement process. Finally, the simulation verification was performed in Matlab/Simulink to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Simulation results showed that the proposed virtual inertia controller can adaptively tune control parameters online to provide transient inertia supports for the power grid by releasing the kinetic energy, so as to improve the robustness and anti-interference ability of the control system of the wind power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)
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Review

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29 pages, 2275 KiB  
Review
Review on the Sources of Power Loss in Monofacial and Bifacial Photovoltaic Technologies
by Michelle Kitayama da Silva, Mehreen Saleem Gul and Hassam Chaudhry
Energies 2021, 14(23), 7935; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237935 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
An evaluation of the degradation effects on photovoltaic modules is essential to minimise uncertainties in the system operation. Bifacial photovoltaic technology is attracting attention due to the capacity of generating energy from the front and rear sides. This paper presents a review of [...] Read more.
An evaluation of the degradation effects on photovoltaic modules is essential to minimise uncertainties in the system operation. Bifacial photovoltaic technology is attracting attention due to the capacity of generating energy from the front and rear sides. This paper presents a review of degradation factors, for both conventional monofacial and bifacial photovoltaic modules, to highlight how the current and voltage characteristics of these technologies are affected by degradation. Microcracking, encapsulant discoloration, and light induced degradation seem to have similar effects on both modules. Contrarily, bifacial modules are more prone to potential induced degradation as the electromagnetic shielding is affected by the bifaciality. Bifacial devices are less affected by light and elevated temperature induced degradation. The degradation (1.3%) is similar for both technologies, up to 40 kWh/m2 of solar radiation. Above this value, monofacial degradation increases faster, reaching values of 7%. For tilted systems, the front side soiling degradation of 0.30% per day is similar for both technologies. For vertical systems, soiling loss for bifacial is considerably lower with values of 0.02% per day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)
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33 pages, 3811 KiB  
Review
Net Zero Energy Communities: Integrated Power System, Building and Transport Sectors
by Haleh Moghaddasi, Charles Culp and Jorge Vanegas
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7065; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217065 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4992
Abstract
A Net Zero Community (NZC) concept and its energy characteristics are presented in this paper. NZC is an emerging topic with multiple variations in terms of scope and calculated methods, which complicates quantifying its performance. This paper covers three key barriers in achieving [...] Read more.
A Net Zero Community (NZC) concept and its energy characteristics are presented in this paper. NZC is an emerging topic with multiple variations in terms of scope and calculated methods, which complicates quantifying its performance. This paper covers three key barriers in achieving NZC targets: (1) the main focus of current definitions on buildings, disregarding community power systems and energy use in transportation; (2) different requirements (source, supply, metrics, etc.) in the existing definitions; and (3) lack of updated published reports to track the progress of committed NZC targets. The importance of this research is summarized as due to increased savings in primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions related to the three main energy sectors, namely power systems, buildings, and transportation (PBT). To clarify the current NZC, this paper reviews: (1) variations in the existing definitions and criteria from peer-reviewed publications; (2) the latest climate projection models by policymakers to achieve net zero by 2050; (3) the literature on renewable-based power systems; and (4) three planned NZC cases in international locations, in order to study their NZC targets, energy performance, and challenges. The outcome highlights NZC design guidelines, including energy efficiency measures, electrification, and renewables in PBT sectors that help stakeholders including policymakers, developers, designers, and engineers speed up achievement of NZC targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency, Low Carbon Resources and Renewable Technology)
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