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Special Issue "Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "E: Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 22060

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Davide Poli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Systems, Territory, and Constructions Engineering (DESTEC), University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 56122 Pisa, Italy
Interests: electric vehicles; minigrids for developing countries; optimal size and operation of storage devices; power system reliability; smart grids
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global warming, the absence of tailpipe emissions, and the high volatility of the price of fossil fuels are some of the main reasons fostering the large-scale adoption of electric vehicles (EV), provided that the replacement of conventional means of transportation by EVs is associated with a massive use of RES to meet the additional electricity demand required for battery charging.

While the integration of small fleets of EVs into distribution grids does not cause any considerable impacts, their broad adoption could be really challenging for the adequacy and the secure operation of the electric system, as well as for the quality of power supply. With a fit-and-forget approach, it is easy to foresee major congestion problems in already heavily loaded grids, low voltage problems in predominantly radial networks, the increase of peak load and energy losses and, probably, large load imbalances between phases in LV networks. Further, the upstream level, i.e., the generation and transmission system, could experience several problems related to grid loading, unpredictability of power flows, lack of installed and operational reserve, and changes in marginal generating units and, consequently, in energy prices.

There are two ways of accommodating the massive charging of EVs by distribution grids while avoiding the abovementioned problems. Reinforcing the grid infrastructures in such a way that they can fully handle any scenario of EV penetration would be unbearably expensive. Conversely, fostering a synergic approach between the smart grid concept and EVs, by developing DSM functionalities able to control EV charging according to the grid’s needs and their owners’ requirements, could avoid massive grid investments; at the same time, this second approach could stimulate new forms of operational flexibilities and help the shift from a centrally-operated power system to a decentralized paradigm composed by many smart autonomous agents. EV owners, in turn, could provide the power system with new balancing and regulation services, to be properly remunerated.

Given this context, and especially considering the expected growth in EV integration levels, this Special Issue aims to collect original research and studies about the abovementioned multidisciplinary topics, including all technical, economic, and policy aspects related to the impact of EVs on power systems. Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer review procedure, with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments and applications.

I am writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue and I look forward to receiving your outstanding research.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Davide Poli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Battery charging and changing
  • Business models
  • Charging infrastructures
  • Electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
  • Distribution systems
  • Energy management
  • Energy, reserve, and balancing markets
  • Fast charging
  • Flexibility services
  • Generation dispatching
  • Hosting capacity and integration of RES
  • Load profiles
  • Mini-grids and virtual power plants
  • Penetration scenarios
  • Policy and regulation
  • Power system security and efficiency
  • Smart grid
  • Sustainability
  • Vehicle fleet management
  • Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Load Management Strategies to Increase Electric Vehicle Penetration—Case Study on a Local Distribution Network in Stockholm
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4809; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184809 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
As part of decarbonization efforts, countries are adapting their energy policies accordingly. Sweden has established ambitious energy goals, which include CO2 emissions reduction in the transport sector and high integration of renewables in the electricity sector. Coupling the two can be an [...] Read more.
As part of decarbonization efforts, countries are adapting their energy policies accordingly. Sweden has established ambitious energy goals, which include CO2 emissions reduction in the transport sector and high integration of renewables in the electricity sector. Coupling the two can be an enabling force towards fossil freedom. An increased share of electric vehicles is therefore a promising solution in this regard. However, there are challenges concerning the impact that a surge of electric vehicles would have on the electric infrastructure. Moreover, in Stockholm there is a shortage of power capacity due to limitations in the national transmission infrastructure, which further aggravates the situation. This paper develops a scenario-based simulation study to evaluate the impact of electric vehicle loads on the distribution grid of a Stockholm neighborhood. In this process, limiting factors and bottlenecks in the network were identified as being related to the peak power and transformer capacities for the years of 2025 and 2031. Two load management strategies and their potential to mitigate the power peaks generated from uncontrolled charging were investigated for the critical years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Stochastic Modeling Method of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Demand for Korean Transmission System Planning
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4404; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174404 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has rapidly increased owing to the government’s active promotion policy worldwide. Consequently, in the near future, their charging demand is expected to grow enough for consideration in the planning process of the transmission system. This study [...] Read more.
The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has rapidly increased owing to the government’s active promotion policy worldwide. Consequently, in the near future, their charging demand is expected to grow enough for consideration in the planning process of the transmission system. This study proposes a stochastic method for modeling the PEV charging demand, of which the time and amount are uncertain. In the proposed method, the distribution of PEVs is estimated by the substations based on the number of electricity customers, PEV expansion target, and statistics of existing vehicles. An individual PEV charging profile is modeled using the statistics of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles driving and by aggregating the PEV charging profiles per 154 kV substation, the charging demand of PEVs is determined for consideration as part of the total electricity demand in the planning process of transmission systems. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through case studies in the Korean power system. It was found that the PEV charging demand has considerable potential as the additional peak demand in the transmission system planning because the charging time could be concentrated in the evening peak time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
The Propagation and Interaction of Supraharmonics from Electric Vehicle Chargers in a Low-Voltage Grid
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3865; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153865 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
The recent increase in large converter-based devices like electric vehicles and photovoltaics increases supraharmonic emissions in low-voltage grids, potentially affecting customer equipment and the grid. This paper aims to give an overview of the different factors influencing supraharmonic emissions from electric vehicles and [...] Read more.
The recent increase in large converter-based devices like electric vehicles and photovoltaics increases supraharmonic emissions in low-voltage grids, potentially affecting customer equipment and the grid. This paper aims to give an overview of the different factors influencing supraharmonic emissions from electric vehicles and studies the propagation of supraharmonic currents through a small, low-voltage grid. Measurements in an unique lab representing a possible future household gave valuable insight on the possible developments in primary and secondary supraharmonic emissions in a conventional or power-electronic-dominated system. Emission is, for some vehicles, influenced by the type of grid connection, whereas others show no difference in emission. The supraharmonic currents mainly stay within the local installation due to absorption of nearby devices. The level of voltage distortion is dependent on the connection impedance. During the measurements, another type of interaction between devices is observed in the form of “frequency beating” and intermodulation, in some cases resulting in the tripping of residual current devices. This interaction is further analyzed in order to better understand the possible impact it can have on the grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Analysis of the Effects of Electrification of the Road Transport Sector on the Possible Penetration of Nuclear Fusion in the Long-Term European Energy Mix
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3634; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143634 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
The European Roadmap towards the production of electricity from nuclear fusion foresees the potential availability of nuclear fusion power plants (NFPPs) in the second half of this century. The possible penetration of that technology, typically addressed by using the global energy system EUROFusion [...] Read more.
The European Roadmap towards the production of electricity from nuclear fusion foresees the potential availability of nuclear fusion power plants (NFPPs) in the second half of this century. The possible penetration of that technology, typically addressed by using the global energy system EUROFusion TIMES Model (ETM), will depend, among other aspects, on its costs compared to those of the other available technologies for electricity production, and on the future electricity demand. This paper focuses on the ongoing electrification process of the transport sector, with special attention devoted to road transport. A survey on the present and forthcoming technologies, as foreseen by several manufacturers and other models, and an international vehicle database are taken into account to develop the new road transport module, then implemented and harmonized inside ETM. Following three different storylines, the computed results are presented in terms of the evolution of the road transport demand in the next decades, fleet composition and CO 2 emissions. The ETM results are in line with many other studies. On one hand, they highlight, for the European road transport energy consumption pattern, the need for dramatic changes in the transport market, if the most ambitious environmental goals are to be pursued. On the other hand, the results also show that NFPP adoption on a commercial scale could be justified within the current projection of the investment costs, if the deep penetration of electricity in the road transport sector also occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Virtual Storage-Based Model for Estimation of Economic Benefits of Electric Vehicles in Renewable Portfolios
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092315 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The expected increase in the presence of electric vehicles raises numerous questions regarding their impact on the market relations. Depending on the agreement between the involved parties, the position of EVs changes from passive (traditional role) to active. Active EVs are beneficial for [...] Read more.
The expected increase in the presence of electric vehicles raises numerous questions regarding their impact on the market relations. Depending on the agreement between the involved parties, the position of EVs changes from passive (traditional role) to active. Active EVs are beneficial for variability and uncertainty-intense modern power systems. To enable this transition, a suitable framework in the form of agreements is required in order to establish the terms and responsibilities. Following the presented agreements, we propose a novel method for evaluation of the benefits that the newly added EVs bring to the portfolio. The method comprises two steps, a Monte Carlo simulation of the EV driving/charging patterns and an optimization model for market related decision making. The method results in the estimates on economic savings resulting from adding EVs to portfolios. An illustrative example is used in order to give an idea of the range of the benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Vehicle-to-Grid in Standard and Fast Electric Vehicle Charging: Comparison of Renewable Energy Source Utilization and Charging Costs
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061510 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Croatia aims to achieve 10% of its energy production from the renewable energy sources in the total energy consumption in the transport sector. One of the ways to achieve this goal is by the use of electric vehicles. This work comparatively analyses the [...] Read more.
Croatia aims to achieve 10% of its energy production from the renewable energy sources in the total energy consumption in the transport sector. One of the ways to achieve this goal is by the use of electric vehicles. This work comparatively analyses the financial and social aspects of vehicle-to-grid charging in standard and fast charging mode, their impact on the renewable electricity production and the total electricity consumption regulated through variable electricity prices. Data were taken for the wider urban area of the Dubrovnik region. The assumption is that the Dubrovnik region will be self-sufficient by the year 2050 with 100% renewable electricity production and that all conventional vehicles will be replaced by electric vehicles. This work aims to show that the fast charging based on 10 min time steps offers more opportunities for flexibility and utilization of renewable generation in the energy system than the standard charging based on hourly time step. The results of this work showed the opposite, where in most of the scenarios standard charging provided better results. Replacement of the existing two tariff model in electricity prices with variable electricity prices contributes to the stability of the energy system, providing better regulation of charging and higher opportunities for renewable electricity utilization in standard and fast charging and reduction of charging costs. According to the financial aspects, fast charging is shown to be more expensive, but for the social aspects, it provides electric vehicles with more opportunities for better competition in the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Impact of Electric Bus Charging on Distribution Substation and Local Grid in Warsaw
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051210 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Electric buses are increasingly appearing on the streets of cities around the world. Thus, it is necessary to consider the impact of their charging on the distribution system operation, especially near the charging point. This article presents the problems that may arise while [...] Read more.
Electric buses are increasingly appearing on the streets of cities around the world. Thus, it is necessary to consider the impact of their charging on the distribution system operation, especially near the charging point. This article presents the problems that may arise while new charging points are connected. Research was carried out on the existing charging point at Spartańska Street in Warsaw, which allowed to obtain daily bus charging profiles and voltage curves. The authors then proposed an exemplary model of a bus terminus with the designed infrastructure for charging buses, based on the assumptions of the public transport operator in Warsaw. The comparison of these two solutions was made and based on it, a methodology of calculating daily demand for any terminus was prepared. In addition, no problems with the power quality were found during the research. This allows us to state that the introduction of electric buses into the fleet of passenger carriers will have a minor impact on the operation of the power system in Warsaw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Techno Economic Analysis of Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Integration as Distributed Energy Resources in Indonesia Power System
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051162 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
High penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) leads to high stress on a power grid, especially when the supply cannot cover and actively respond to the unpredictable demand caused by charging EVs. In the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI) area, Indonesia, the capability of the grid to [...] Read more.
High penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) leads to high stress on a power grid, especially when the supply cannot cover and actively respond to the unpredictable demand caused by charging EVs. In the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI) area, Indonesia, the capability of the grid to balance its supply and demand is very limited, and massive EV charging additionally worsens the condition because of unbalanced load profiles. Ancillary services of EVs have led to the idea of utilizing EV batteries for grid support, owing to their high-speed response to the fluctuating power system. In this study, a techno-economic analysis of the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system in the JAMALI grid is conducted in terms of the changes in the feed-in tariff schemes, including regular, natural, and demand response tariffs. The results show that by utilizing EVs, the supply during peak hours can be reduced by up to 2.8% (for coal) and 8.8% (for gas). EVs owned by business entities as operating vehicles with a natural tariff show the highest feasibility for ancillary services, and can potentially reduce the cost of charging by up to 60.15%. From a power company perspective, V2G also potentially improves annual revenue by approximately 3.65%, owing to the replacement of the fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Stationary Energy Storage System for Fast EV Charging Stations: Simultaneous Sizing of Battery and Converter
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4516; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234516 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Optimal sizing of stationary energy storage systems (ESS) is required to reduce the peak load and increase the profit of fast charging stations. Sequential sizing of battery and converter or fixed-size converters are considered in most of the existing studies. However, sequential sizing [...] Read more.
Optimal sizing of stationary energy storage systems (ESS) is required to reduce the peak load and increase the profit of fast charging stations. Sequential sizing of battery and converter or fixed-size converters are considered in most of the existing studies. However, sequential sizing or fixed-converter sizes may result in under or oversizing of ESS and thus fail to achieve the set targets, such as peak shaving and cost reduction. In order to address these issues, simultaneous sizing of battery and converter is proposed in this study. The proposed method has the ability to avoid the under or oversizing of ESS by considering the converter capacity and battery size as two independence decision variables. A mathematical problem is formulated by considering the stochastic return time of electrical vehicles (EVs), worst-case state of charge at return time, number of registered EVs, charging level of EVs, and other related parameters. The annualized cost of ESS is computed by considering the lifetime of ESS equipment and annual interest rates. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the existing sizing methods for ESS in fast-charging stations. In addition, sensitivity analysis is carried out to analyze the impact of different parameters on the size of the battery and the converter. Simulation results have proved that the proposed method is outperforming the existing sizing methods in terms of the total annual cost of the charging station and the amount of power buying during peak load intervals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
A Framework for Determining a Prediction-Of-Use Tariff Aimed at Coordinating Aggregators of Plug-In Electric Vehicles
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4487; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234487 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The objective of this article is to propose a framework for defining a day-ahead prediction-of-use tariff (POU) that promotes aggregators of the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to operate as closely as possible to an optimal charging curve previously calculated by the distribution system [...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to propose a framework for defining a day-ahead prediction-of-use tariff (POU) that promotes aggregators of the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to operate as closely as possible to an optimal charging curve previously calculated by the distribution system operator (DSO). The DSO calculates this optimal charging curve to flatten the load curve of the distribution transformers as much as possible by coordinating the daily recharging of PEVs. The objective is to establish the optimal power profile of the PEV aggregators needed to flatten the power curve supplied by the transformer, so that PEV customers’ needs can be met throughout the day. The proposed framework is applied in a case study accounting for uncertainties associated with charging through Monte Carlo simulation, in order to find the POU tariff. The results demonstrate that applying the POU tariff determines the transformer’s minimum power limit necessary to meet all PEV users’ needs. Additionally, the day-ahead POU tariff does not generate new demand peaks, since it does not concentrate the energy supply of flexible loads in pre-established time bands. Finally, simulation reflects the significant effect of the PEV charging on the distribution system in terms of enhancing the voltage profile, maximizing the transformer life, and reducing the power/energy losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Article
Optimal Strategy to Exploit the Flexibility of an Electric Vehicle Charging Station
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3834; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203834 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
The increasing use of electric vehicles connected to the power grid gives rise to challenges in the vehicle charging coordination, cost management, and provision of potential services to the grid. Scheduling of the power in an electric vehicle charging station is a quite [...] Read more.
The increasing use of electric vehicles connected to the power grid gives rise to challenges in the vehicle charging coordination, cost management, and provision of potential services to the grid. Scheduling of the power in an electric vehicle charging station is a quite challenging task, considering time-variant prices, customers with different charging time preferences, and the impact on the grid operations. The latter aspect can be addressed by exploiting the vehicle charging flexibility. In this article, a specific definition of flexibility to be used for an electric vehicle charging station is provided. Two optimal charging strategies are then proposed and evaluated, with the purpose of determining which strategy can offer spinning reserve services to the electrical grid, reducing at the same time the operation costs of the charging station. These strategies are based on a novel formulation of an economic model predictive control algorithm, aimed at minimising the charging station operation cost, and on a novel formulation of the flexibility capacity maximisation, while reducing the operation costs. These formulations incorporate the uncertainty in the arrival time and state of charge of the electric vehicles at their arrival. Both strategies lead to a considerable reduction of the costs with respect to a simple minimum time charging strategy, taken as the benchmark. In particular, the strategy that also accounts for flexibility maximisation emerges as a new tool for maintaining the grid balance giving cost savings to the charging stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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Review

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Review
System Planning of Grid-Connected Electric Vehicle Charging Stations and Key Technologies: A Review
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4201; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214201 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3042
Abstract
The optimal planning of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations (ECSs) with advanced control algorithms is very important to accelerate the development of EVs, which is a promising solution to reduce carbon emissions of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). The large and fluctuant [...] Read more.
The optimal planning of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations (ECSs) with advanced control algorithms is very important to accelerate the development of EVs, which is a promising solution to reduce carbon emissions of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). The large and fluctuant load currents of ECSs can bring negative impacts to both EV-related power converters and power distribution systems if the energy flow is not regulated properly. Recent review papers related to EVs found in open literature have mainly focused on the design of power converter-based chargers and power interfaces, analyses of power quality (PQ) issues, the development of wireless charging techniques, etc. There is currently no review paper that focuses on key technologies in various system configurations, optimal energy management and advanced control issues in practical applications. To compensate for this insufficiency and provide timely research directions, this paper reviews 143 previously published papers related to the aforementioned topics in recent literature including 17 EV-related review papers found in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)/Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (IEEE/IET) Electronic Library (IEL) and ScienceDirect OnSite (SDOS) databases. In this paper, existing system configurations, related design methods, algorithms and key technologies for ECSs are systematically reviewed. Based on discussions given in the reviewed papers, the most popular ECS configuration is a hybrid system design that integrates renewable energy (RE)-based power generation (REBPG), various energy storage systems (ESSs), and utility grids. It is noteworthy that the addition of an ESS with properly designed control algorithms can simultaneously buffer the fast, fluctuant power demand during charging, smooth the intermittent power generation of REBPG, and increase the overall efficiency and operating flexibility of ECSs. In addition, verifying the significance of the flexibility and possible profits that portable ESSs provide in ECS networks is a potential research theme in ECS fields, in which the potential applications of portable ESSs in the grid-tied ECSs are numerous and could cover a full technical spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
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