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Open AccessArticle

Vehicle-to-Grid in Standard and Fast Electric Vehicle Charging: Comparison of Renewable Energy Source Utilization and Charging Costs

1
Maritime Department, University of Dubrovnik, 20000 Dubrovnik, Croatia
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061510 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 22 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Electric Vehicles on the Power System)
Croatia aims to achieve 10% of its energy production from the renewable energy sources in the total energy consumption in the transport sector. One of the ways to achieve this goal is by the use of electric vehicles. This work comparatively analyses the financial and social aspects of vehicle-to-grid charging in standard and fast charging mode, their impact on the renewable electricity production and the total electricity consumption regulated through variable electricity prices. Data were taken for the wider urban area of the Dubrovnik region. The assumption is that the Dubrovnik region will be self-sufficient by the year 2050 with 100% renewable electricity production and that all conventional vehicles will be replaced by electric vehicles. This work aims to show that the fast charging based on 10 min time steps offers more opportunities for flexibility and utilization of renewable generation in the energy system than the standard charging based on hourly time step. The results of this work showed the opposite, where in most of the scenarios standard charging provided better results. Replacement of the existing two tariff model in electricity prices with variable electricity prices contributes to the stability of the energy system, providing better regulation of charging and higher opportunities for renewable electricity utilization in standard and fast charging and reduction of charging costs. According to the financial aspects, fast charging is shown to be more expensive, but for the social aspects, it provides electric vehicles with more opportunities for better competition in the market. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; renewable energy sources; vehicle-to-grid; fast charging; standard charging electric vehicles; renewable energy sources; vehicle-to-grid; fast charging; standard charging
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Falkoni, A.; Pfeifer, A.; Krajačić, G. Vehicle-to-Grid in Standard and Fast Electric Vehicle Charging: Comparison of Renewable Energy Source Utilization and Charging Costs. Energies 2020, 13, 1510.

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