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Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D: Energy Storage and Application".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 September 2021) | Viewed by 27871

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Cryogenics and Aerospace Engineering, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: cryogenics; energy storage technologies; efficiencies of energy conversion processes; trigeneration

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Co-Guest Editor
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Cryogenics and Aerospace Engineering, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: adsorption processes in gas technologies; energy conversion; flow processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy storage is a crucial element in the transformation and decarbonization of the world economy, especially power generation systems. The whole concept of a green deal and the increase of renewables in an energy mix depend on high capacity and reliable energy storage and conversion systems. While electricity is the most demanded and entropy free form of energy, its storage has not been solved on a mass scale. However, it is possible to save electrical energy after its transformation to another form of energy (like potential energy, for example), or the increase of the physical or chemical exergy of a chosen substance (like compressed air or desalinated fresh water, for example). Energy storage and transformation processes are key elements in modern co- and tri-generation, electromobility, zero emission transport, production of “green” hydrogen, ammonia and methane. The critical issues are high energy density, efficiency of transformation, static and dynamic characteristics of loading and unloading processes, safe operation of energy magazines and environmental concerns.      

This Special Issue aims to collect original research or review articles on different concepts of energy storage and transformation processes, both from a fundamental and an applied point of view. Different types of energy recovery, transformation and storage concepts and systems will be considered.

Prof. Dr. Maciej Chorowski
Dr. Tomasz Banaszkiewicz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy storage
  • energy transformation process
  • energy recovery and transformation
  • energy conversion to exergy
  • low emission energy conversion

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Separation of 3He Isotope from Liquid Helium with the Use of Entropy Filter Composed of Carbon Nanotubes
by Jakub Niechciał, Wojciech Kempiński, Leszek Stobiński, Zbigniew Trybuła, Piotr Banat, Maciej Chorowski, Jarosław Poliński, Katarzyna Chołast and Andrzej Kociemba
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6832; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206832 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
The 3He isotope finds applications in many areas of science and industry, the most important of which are cryogenics, where 3He allows for achieving millikelvins in dilution refrigerators, and public security with 3He detectors of radioactive materials at airports and [...] Read more.
The 3He isotope finds applications in many areas of science and industry, the most important of which are cryogenics, where 3He allows for achieving millikelvins in dilution refrigerators, and public security with 3He detectors of radioactive materials at airports and important buildings. 3He is also used in medicine for lung tomography. One of the most extraordinary future applications is the use of 3He in fusion reactors for clean energy. 3He is currently very expensive, with prices reaching USD 2750 for 1 liter of gas in normal conditions; thus, more effort is put into finding economically viable methods to acquire this isotope. The article shows research results of acquiring the 3He isotope from liquid helium by a quantum separation method with the use of entropy filters based on new carbon nanomaterials: purified multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and purified multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with ZrO2 nanoparticles. MWCNTs were bundled and applied in the form of pressed tablets with fixed sizes. The research was conducted at the low-temperature region, where helium exhibits its quantum properties by undergoing a phase transition to the superfluid phase at the lambda temperature: Tλ= 2.18 K. Entropy filters work below this temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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17 pages, 10586 KiB  
Article
Recommendations for Running a Tandem of Adsorption Chillers Connected in Series and Powered by Low-Temperature Heat from District Heating Network
by Bartlomiej Nalepa and Tomasz Halon
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4791; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164791 - 6 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate implications of running a cooling system of two silicagel/water adsorption chillers powered by a district heating network. The devices are connected in series, i.e., the heating water output from the primary chiller is directed to the secondary one. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate implications of running a cooling system of two silicagel/water adsorption chillers powered by a district heating network. The devices are connected in series, i.e., the heating water output from the primary chiller is directed to the secondary one. In consequence, the secondary device must deal with an even lower driving temperature and with temperature fluctuations caused by the primary device. We have evaluated three factors that influence the operation of those coupled devices: synchronization of their operating cycles, selection of their cycle time allocations (CTAs), and changing the heating water mass flow rate. Numerical analyses indicate that the performance of the secondary chiller drops significantly if the coupled devices that use the same CTA run asynchronously. The decrease is largest if the shift between the operating cycles is x=0.375 and x=0.875. We found that it is possible to reduce the negative influence of the asynchronous operation by implementing different CTA in each chiller. The best performance is achieved if the primary chiller uses an adsorption time to desorption time ratio f=1.0 and the secondary chiller uses f = 0.6–0.7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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23 pages, 12015 KiB  
Article
Fault-Tolerant Control in a Peak-Power Reduction System of a Traction Substation with Multi-String Battery Energy Storage System
by Marcin Szott, Marcin Jarnut, Jacek Kaniewski, Łukasz Pilimon and Szymon Wermiński
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4565; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154565 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
This paper introduces the concept of fault-tolerant control (FTC) of a multi-string battery energy storage system (BESS) in the dynamic reduction system of a traction substation load (DROPT). The major task of such a system is to reduce the maximum demand for contracted [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the concept of fault-tolerant control (FTC) of a multi-string battery energy storage system (BESS) in the dynamic reduction system of a traction substation load (DROPT). The major task of such a system is to reduce the maximum demand for contracted peak power, averaged for 15 min. The proposed concept, based on a multi-task control algorithm, takes into account: a three-threshold power limitation of the traction substation, two-level reduction of available power of a BESS and a multi-string structure of a BESS. It ensures the continuity of the maximum peak power demand at the contracted level even in the case of damage or disconnection of at least one chain of cells of the battery energy storage (BES) or at least one converter of the power conversion system (PCS). The proposed control strategy has been tested in a model of the system for dynamic reduction of traction substation load with a rated power of 5.5 MW. Two different BESS implementations have been proposed and several possible cases of failure of operations have been investigated. The simulation results have shown that the implementation of a multi-string BESS and an appropriate control algorithm (FTC) may allow for maintenance of the major assumption of DROPT, which is demanded power reduction (from 3.1 MW to 0.75 MW), even with a reduction of the BESS available power by at least 25% and more in the even in fault cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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18 pages, 5555 KiB  
Article
Heat Integration of an Industrial Unit for the Ethylbenzene Production
by Leonid M. Ulyev, Maksim V. Kanischev, Roman E. Chibisov and Mikhail A. Vasilyev
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3839; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133839 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
This paper presents both the results of a study of the existing heat exchanger network (HEN) of an industrial unit for ethylbenzene (EB) production by the alkylation of benzene with ethylene, and an analysis of four different HEN retrofit projects carried out using [...] Read more.
This paper presents both the results of a study of the existing heat exchanger network (HEN) of an industrial unit for ethylbenzene (EB) production by the alkylation of benzene with ethylene, and an analysis of four different HEN retrofit projects carried out using process integration methods. The project of modernization of HEN was carried out using classical methods of Pinch analysis. For this case, the value of ΔTmin is determined, which is limited by the technological conditions of the process. Additionally, two different heat pump (HP) integration options and the joint retrofit Pinch project with HP integration are under consideration. The economic analysis of each of the projects was carried out. It is shown that the best results will be obtained when implementing the joint project. As a result, steam consumption will be reduced by 34% and carbon dioxide emissions will be decreased by the same amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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16 pages, 1587 KiB  
Article
Exergy Analysis of Adiabatic Liquid Air Energy Storage (A-LAES) System Based on Linde–Hampson Cycle
by Lukasz Szablowski, Piotr Krawczyk and Marcin Wolowicz
Energies 2021, 14(4), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040945 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Efficiently storing energy on a large scale poses a major challenge and one that is growing in importance with the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix. The only options at present are either pumped hydro or compressed air storage. One novel [...] Read more.
Efficiently storing energy on a large scale poses a major challenge and one that is growing in importance with the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix. The only options at present are either pumped hydro or compressed air storage. One novel alternative is to store energy using liquid air, but this technology is not yet fully mature and requires substantial research and development, including in-depth energy and exergy analysis. This paper presents an exergy analysis of the Adiabatic Liquid Air Energy Storage (A-LAES) system based on the Linde–Hampson cycle. The exergy analysis was carried out for four cases with different parameters, in particular the discharge pressure of the air at the inlet of the turbine (20, 40, 100, 150 bar). The results of the analysis show that the greatest exergy destruction can be observed in the air evaporator and in the Joule–Thompson valve. In the case of air evaporator, the destruction of exergy is greatest for the lowest discharge pressure, i.e., 20 bar, and reaches over 118 MWh/cycle. It decreases with increasing discharge pressure, down to approximately 24 MWh/cycle for 150 bar, which is caused by a decrease in the heat of vaporization of air. In the case of Joule–Thompson valve, the changes are reversed. The highest destruction of exergy is observed for the highest considered discharge pressure (150 bar) and amounts to over 183 MWh/cycle. It decreases as pressure is lowered to 57.5 MWh/cycle for 20 bar. The other components of the system do not show exergy destruction greater than approximately 50 MWh/cycle for all considered pressures. Specific liquefaction work of the system ranged from 0.189 kWh/kgLA to 0.295 kWh/kgLA and the efficiency from 44.61% to 55.18%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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21 pages, 8956 KiB  
Article
Battery Energy Storage System for Emergency Supply and Improved Reliability of Power Networks
by Marcin Szott, Szymon Wermiński, Marcin Jarnut, Jacek Kaniewski and Grzegorz Benysek
Energies 2021, 14(3), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030720 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2949
Abstract
This paper introduces the concept of a battery energy storage system as an emergency power supply for a separated power network, with the possibility of island operation for a power substation with one-side supply. This system, with an appropriately sized energy storage capacity, [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the concept of a battery energy storage system as an emergency power supply for a separated power network, with the possibility of island operation for a power substation with one-side supply. This system, with an appropriately sized energy storage capacity, allows improvement in the continuity of the power supply and increases the reliability of the separated network at a specified time during the limitation of power transmission as a result of damage or disconnection of the main power line. This paper presents and describes a specific method of energy storage system dimensioning based on real measurement data. Based on the obtained parameters, an analysis of the reliability improvement of the considered network was performed. The implementation of the battery energy storage system will contribute to a more than 5-fold reduction in the occurrence of power outages in the time interval from 3 min to 1.5 h, which will clearly reduce the System Average Interruption Frequency Index and System Average Interruption Duration Index factors. In this paper, the network conditions for operational normality and failure are presented and the cost for implementation of an energy storage system (about EUR 1 million) is compared with the possible implementation of an additional power line (about EUR 5 million) to a specific power substation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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14 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient in Phase Change Material (PCM) Based Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
by Saulius Pakalka, Kęstutis Valančius and Giedrė Streckienė
Energies 2021, 14(3), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030716 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3601
Abstract
Latent heat thermal energy storage systems allow storing large amounts of energy in relatively small volumes. Phase change materials (PCMs) are used as a latent heat storage medium. However, low thermal conductivity of most PCMs results in long melting (charging) and solidification (discharging) [...] Read more.
Latent heat thermal energy storage systems allow storing large amounts of energy in relatively small volumes. Phase change materials (PCMs) are used as a latent heat storage medium. However, low thermal conductivity of most PCMs results in long melting (charging) and solidification (discharging) processes. This study focuses on the PCM melting process in a fin-and-tube type copper heat exchanger. The aim of this study is to define analytically natural convection heat transfer coefficient and compare the results with experimental data. The study shows how the local heat transfer coefficient changes in different areas of the heat exchanger and how it is affected by the choice of characteristic length and boundary conditions. It has been determined that applying the calculation method of the natural convection occurring in the channel leads to results that are closer to the experiment. Using this method, the average values of the heat transfer coefficient (have) during the entire charging process was obtained 68 W/m2K, compared to the experimental result have = 61 W/m2K. This is beneficial in the predesign stage of PCM-based thermal energy storage units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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19 pages, 7756 KiB  
Article
Integrated Magnetics Design for a Full-Bridge Phase-Shifted Converter
by Yu-Chen Liu, Cheng-You Xiao, Chien-Chun Huang, Pei-Chin Chi and Huang-Jen Chiu
Energies 2021, 14(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010183 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
In this study, an optimization procedure was proposed for the magnetic component of an integrated transformer applied in a center-tap phase-shifted full-bridge converter. To accommodate high power–density 0demand, a transformer and an output inductor were integrated into a magnetic component to reduce the [...] Read more.
In this study, an optimization procedure was proposed for the magnetic component of an integrated transformer applied in a center-tap phase-shifted full-bridge converter. To accommodate high power–density 0demand, a transformer and an output inductor were integrated into a magnetic component to reduce the volume of the magnetic material and the primary and secondary windings of the transformer were wound on the magnetic legs to reduce conduction loss attributable to the alternating-current resistor. With a focus on the integrated transformer applied in a phase-shifted full-bridge converter, circuit operation in each time interval was analyzed, and a design procedure was established for the integrated magnetic component. In addition, the manner in which output inductance was affected by the mutual inductance between the transformer and the output inductor in the integrated transformer during various operation intervals was discussed and, to minimize circuit loss, a design optimization procedure for the magnetic core was proposed. Finally, the integrated transformer was applied in a phase-shifted full-bridge converter to achieve an input voltage of 400 V, an output voltage of 12 V, output power of 1.7 kW, an output frequency of 80 kHz, and a maximum conversion efficiency of 96.7%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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17 pages, 11004 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Experimental Conditions on Methane (95%)–Propane (5%) Hydrate Formation
by Sotirios Nik. Longinos and Mahmut Parlaktuna
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6710; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246710 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
In the present study, the effect of different kinds of impellers with different baffles or no baffle was investigated. Up-pumping pitched blade turbine (PBTU) and Rushton turbine (RT) were the two types of impellers tested. The reactor was equipped with different designs of [...] Read more.
In the present study, the effect of different kinds of impellers with different baffles or no baffle was investigated. Up-pumping pitched blade turbine (PBTU) and Rushton turbine (RT) were the two types of impellers tested. The reactor was equipped with different designs of baffles: full, half and surface baffles or no baffles. Single (PBTU or RT) and dual (PBTU/PBTU or RT/RT) use of impellers with full (FB), half (HB), surface (SB) and no baffle (NB) combinations formed two sets of 16 experiments. There was estimation of rate of hydrate formation, induction time, hydrate productivity, overall power consumption, split fraction and separation factor. In both single and dual impellers, the results showed that RT experiments are better compared to PBTU in rate of hydrate formation. The induction time is almost the same since we are deep in the equilibrium line while hydrate productivity values are higher in PBTU compared to RT experiments. As general view RT experiments consume more energy compared to PBTU experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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20 pages, 6423 KiB  
Article
Thermal Calculation and Experimental Investigation of Electric Heating and Solid Thermal Storage System
by Haichuan Zhao, Ning Yan, Zuoxia Xing, Lei Chen and Libing Jiang
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5241; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205241 - 9 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Electric heating and solid thermal storage systems (EHSTSSs) are widely used in clean district heating and to flexibly adjust combined heat and power (CHP) units. They represent an effective way to utilize renewable energy. Aiming at the thermal design calculation and experimental verification [...] Read more.
Electric heating and solid thermal storage systems (EHSTSSs) are widely used in clean district heating and to flexibly adjust combined heat and power (CHP) units. They represent an effective way to utilize renewable energy. Aiming at the thermal design calculation and experimental verification of EHSTSS, the thermal calculation and the heat transfer characteristics of an EHSTSS are investigated in this paper. Firstly, a thermal calculation method for the EHSTSS is proposed. The calculation flow and calculation method for key parameters of the heating system, heat storage system, heat exchange system and fan-circulating system in the EHSTSS are studied. Then, the instantaneous heat transfer characteristics of the thermal storage system (TSS) in the EHSTSS are analyzed, and the heat transfer process of ESS is simulated by the FLUENT 15 software. The uniform temperature distribution in the heat storage and release process of the TSS verifies the good heat transfer characteristics of the EHSTSS. Finally, an EHSTSS test verification platform is built and the historical operation data of the EHSTSS is analyzed. During the heating and release thermal process, the maximum temperature standard deviation of each temperature measurement point is 28.3 °C and 59 °C, respectively. The correctness of the thermal calculation of the EHSTSS is thus verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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12 pages, 2365 KiB  
Article
Study on Effects of Inlet Resistance on the Efficiency of Scroll Expander in Micro-Compressed Air Energy Storage System
by Aiqin Sun, Jidai Wang, Guangqing Chen, Jihong Wang, Shihong Miao, Dan Wang, Zhiwei Wang and Lan Ma
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4617; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184617 - 4 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
As an important part of a micro-compressed air energy storage system, the scroll expander directly affects the efficiency of the whole energy storage system. The effects of resistance on the efficiency of scroll expander caused by inlet structure and size are discussed with [...] Read more.
As an important part of a micro-compressed air energy storage system, the scroll expander directly affects the efficiency of the whole energy storage system. The effects of resistance on the efficiency of scroll expander caused by inlet structure and size are discussed with theory analysis and experimental methods in this paper. Micro-compressed air energy storage system has aroused widespread attention because of its pollution-free, high flexibility, in the community, remote areas power supply. Comprehensive experimental work with the selections of different size and structure of the air inlet of the scroll expander was performed with the cutting angle of air inlet chamber of the scroll expander. The results of the experiments are discussed on how exergy efficiency and inlet flow of the scroll expander were affected resulting from the cutting angles dissected. The results show that a maximum value exists for exergy efficiency of the scroll expander. Therefore, the exergy efficiency of the scroll expander can be effectively improved by enlarging the air inlet port dimension and modifying the size of air chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage Systems and Conversion Processes)
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