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Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "I1: Fuel".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 17572

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Jinju, Korea
Interests: biomass valorization; pretreatment; biorefinery; biosugar; biogas; value-added materials from lignocellulosic biomass; environmentally friendly biomass pretreatment; bioenergy/biorefinery

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Guest Editor
Gwangju Bio/Energy R&D Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon 300-010, Korea
Interests: bio-electrochemical systems to produce sustainable energy resources; application of chemically functionalized magnetic nanomaterials; bioconversion of soil pollutants to multi-functional amino acids by bacteria
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, climate-neutrality has been an essential goal to preserve life and the natural environment. To achieve this, our economic activities should adopt a circular economy. Circular systems create a closed-loop for reducing the resource inputs and creation of waste such as pollution and carbon emission. One of the main pillars of the circular economy is the use of bioproducts. These can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and provide eco-friendly alternative materials. Additionally, adopting a circular economy means that the entire lifecycle of products needs to be considered. The process for producing bioproducts should use less power and water, and produce fewer polluting emissions and waste in order to achieve environmental sustainability.

This Special Issue will deal with novel research developments regarding the production of bioproducts, such as bio-based materials, chemicals, and biofuels that consider environmental sustainability. The topics for this publication include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Biomass conversion technologies for synthesizing bioproducts
  • Biomass valorization of value-added materials
  • Improvement of the biofuel process to save energy and water consumption
  • Eco-friendly biofuel production technologies
  • Bioconversion of GHG and wastes for synthesizing biofuels and biochemicals

Dr. Jin Hyung Lee
Dr. Soo Youn Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioproduct
  • Biobased material
  • Biobased chemical
  • Biomass
  • Biofuel
  • Renewables
  • Environment sustainability

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 4196 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Performance, Emission, and Combustion Characteristics of a Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine Powered with Three Different Biodiesel Blends
by K. M. V. Ravi Teja, P. Issac Prasad, K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, N. R. Banapurmath, Manzoore Elahi M. Soudagar, Nazia Hossain, Asif Afzal and C Ahamed Saleel
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5597; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185597 - 7 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2229
Abstract
Biodiesel is a renewable energy source which is gaining prominence as an alternative fuel over fossil diesel for different applications. Due to their higher viscosity and lower volatility, biodiesels are blended with diesel in various proportions. B20 blends are viable and sustainable solutions [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is a renewable energy source which is gaining prominence as an alternative fuel over fossil diesel for different applications. Due to their higher viscosity and lower volatility, biodiesels are blended with diesel in various proportions. B20 blends are viable and sustainable solutions in diesel engines with acceptable engine performance as they can replace 20% fossil fuel usage. Biodiesel blends are slightly viscous as compared with diesel and can be used in common rail direct injection (CRDI) engines which provide high pressure injection using an electronic control unit (ECU) with fuel flexibility. In view of this, B20 blends of three biodiesels derived from cashew nutshell (CHNOB (B20)), jackfruit seed (JACKSOB (B20)), and Jamun seed (JAMNSOB (B20)) oils are used in a modified single-cylinder high-pressure-assisted CRDI diesel engine. At a BP of 5.2 kW, for JAMNSOB (B20) operation, BTE, NOx, and PP increased 4.04%, 0.56%, and 5.4%, respectively, and smoke, HC, CO, ID, and CD decreased 5.12%, 6.25%, 2.75%, 5.15%, and 6.25%, respectively, as compared with jackfruit B20 operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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25 pages, 8128 KiB  
Article
Bioh2, Heat and Power from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch via Pyrolysis-Autothermal Reforming: Plant Simulation, Experiments, and CO2 Mitigation
by Lifita N. Tande, Erik Resendiz-Mora and Valerie Dupont
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4767; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164767 - 5 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Empty fruit bunch, a significant by-product of the palm oil industry, represents a tremendous and hitherto neglected renewable energy resource for many countries in South East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The design and simulation of a plant producing pure hydrogen through autothermal reforming [...] Read more.
Empty fruit bunch, a significant by-product of the palm oil industry, represents a tremendous and hitherto neglected renewable energy resource for many countries in South East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The design and simulation of a plant producing pure hydrogen through autothermal reforming (ATR) of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) was carried out based on successful laboratory experiments of the core process. The bio-oil feed to the ATR stage was represented in the experiments and in the simulation by a surrogate bio-oil mixture of 11 organic compounds shown to be main constituents of PEFB oil from previous work, and whose combined elemental composition and volatility was determined to be as close as possible to that of the real PEFB bio-oil. The experiments confirmed that H2 yields close to equilibrium predictions were achievable using an in-house synthetised Rh-Al2O3 catalyst in a packed bed reactor. Initial sensitivity analysis on the plant revealed that feed molar steam to carbon ratio should not exceed 3 for the optimal design of the ATR hydrogen production plant. An overall plant efficiency of 39.4% was obtained for the initial design, this value was improved to 67.5% by applying pinch analysis to enhance the integration of heat in the design. The proposed design renders CO2 savings of about 0.56 kg per kg of raw PEFB processed. The proposed design and accompanying experimental studies together make a strong case on the possibility of polygeneration of H2, heat, and power from an otherwise discarded agricultural waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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10 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Impact of Attrition Ball-Mill on Characteristics and Biochemical Methane Potential of Food Waste
by Yang Mo Gu, Seon Young Park, Ji Yeon Park, Byoung-In Sang, Byoung Seong Jeon, Hyunook Kim and Jin Hyung Lee
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082085 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
The impact of attrition ball-mill pretreatment on food waste particle size, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), biochemical methane potential, and microbial community during anaerobic digestion was investigated based on milling speed and time. The uniformity of particle size improved with increasing milling speed [...] Read more.
The impact of attrition ball-mill pretreatment on food waste particle size, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), biochemical methane potential, and microbial community during anaerobic digestion was investigated based on milling speed and time. The uniformity of particle size improved with increasing milling speed and time. The SCOD of the pretreated samples increased to 4%, 7%, and 17% at the speeds of 150, 225, and 300 rpm, respectively, compared to the control. Milling time did not significantly change the SCOD. The cumulative methane productions of 430, 440, and 490 mL/g-VS were observed at the speeds of 150, 225, and 300 rpm, respectively, while the untreated sample exhibited the cumulative methane production of 390 mL/g-VS. Extended milling time did not improve methane production much. When the milling times of 10, 20, and 30 min were applied with the milling speed fixed at 300 rpm, the methane productions of 490, 510, and 500 mL/g-VS were observed respectively. Ball-mill pretreatment also increased the total volatile fatty acids. During the anaerobic digestion (AD) of ball-mill treated food waste, acetoclastic methanogens predominated, with a relative abundance of 48–49%. Interestingly, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were 1.6 times higher in the pretreated samples than those in the control. These results showed the potential of attrition ball milling as a food waste pretreatment for improving methane production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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14 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
Reaction Characteristics of Organosolv-Fractionation Process for Selective Extraction of Carbohydrates and Lignin from Rice Husks
by Tae Hoon Kim, Hyun Kwak, Tae Hyun Kim and Kyeong Keun Oh
Energies 2021, 14(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030686 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
The organosolv-fractionation process can act as a biorefinery process because it can separate the main components of biomass, such as lignin and hemicellulose, with high purity. The ethanol-based organosolv-fractionation process was applied to separate carbohydrates and lignin from rice husks, and the extraction [...] Read more.
The organosolv-fractionation process can act as a biorefinery process because it can separate the main components of biomass, such as lignin and hemicellulose, with high purity. The ethanol-based organosolv-fractionation process was applied to separate carbohydrates and lignin from rice husks, and the extraction behavior was observed according to various reaction variables. Various reaction conditions such as different temperatures (150 °C, 170 °C, and 190 °C), reaction times (30 min, 60 min, and 120 min), and ethanol concentrations (40%, 60%, and 80%) were tested while maintaining the solid:liquid ratio (1:10) and sulfuric acid concentration (0.25 wt.%). Two optimal reaction conditions for the target components were chosen: for sugar recovery, 150 °C, 60 min, and 40% ethanol were used as condition 1, and for lignin recovery, 170 °C, 120 min, and 80% ethanol were used as condition 2. Under condition 1, 91.5% of the glucan was preserved in the residual solid, and 75.0% of the xylan was extracted from the liquid hydrolysate. For condition 2, 59.9% of the lignin was recovered. To properly choose and apply the correct fractionation method and conditions, the reaction behavior (such as carbohydrate retention and extraction), lignin solubilization, and precipitation should be carefully considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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11 pages, 2946 KiB  
Article
Al-ZSM-5 Nanocrystal Catalysts Grown from Silicalite-1 Seeds for Methane Conversion
by Hyun Su Kim, Su Kyung Kang, Haoxiang Zhang, Elsa Tsegay Tikue, Jin Hyung Lee and Pyung Soo Lee
Energies 2021, 14(2), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020485 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
This study evaluated Al-ZSM-5 nanocrystals grown from silicalite-1 seed crystals as catalysts for the methane dehydroaromatization (MDA) reaction. Silicalite-1 seed crystals sized between 30 and 40 nm were used to grow Al-ZSM-5 under various synthesis conditions. The size of Al-ZSM-5 was significantly affected [...] Read more.
This study evaluated Al-ZSM-5 nanocrystals grown from silicalite-1 seed crystals as catalysts for the methane dehydroaromatization (MDA) reaction. Silicalite-1 seed crystals sized between 30 and 40 nm were used to grow Al-ZSM-5 under various synthesis conditions. The size of Al-ZSM-5 was significantly affected by the Si/Al ratio (SAR), synthesis time, and silica nutrients/seed crystal ratio (NSR). Larger crystals were obtained with an increased SAR in the synthesis sols. Gradual growth of Al-ZSM-5 occurred with synthesis time, although the growth in crystal size ceased at 5 h of synthesis at 120 °C, indicating the rapid growth of Al-ZSM-5 aided by the silicalite-1 seeds. Precise tuning of Al-ZSM-5 size was possible by changing the nutrient/silicalite-1 seed ratio; a higher NSR led to larger crystals. Two representative Al-ZSM-5 crystals with SARs of 35 and 140 were prepared for catalyst testing, and the crystal sizes were tailored to <100 nm by controlling NSR. The MDA reaction was conducted in the presence of the prepared Al-ZSM-5. The catalyst size exhibited distinct differences in catalyst stability, while the SAR of catalysts did not produce noticeable changes in the catalyst stability of the Al-ZSM-5 crystals and commercial zeolites in this reaction system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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14 pages, 2709 KiB  
Article
Molecular Profiling and Optimization Studies for Growth and PHB Production Conditions in Rhodobacter sphaeroides
by Yu Rim Lee, Hana Nur Fitriana, Soo Youn Lee, Min-Sik Kim, Myounghoon Moon, Won-Heong Lee, Jin-Suk Lee and Sangmin Lee
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6471; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236471 - 7 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3563
Abstract
In the recent climate change regime, industrial demand for renewable materials to replace petroleum-derived polymers continues to rise. Of particular interest is polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a substitute for polypropylene. Accumulating evidence indicates that PHB is highly produced as a carbon storage material in [...] Read more.
In the recent climate change regime, industrial demand for renewable materials to replace petroleum-derived polymers continues to rise. Of particular interest is polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as a substitute for polypropylene. Accumulating evidence indicates that PHB is highly produced as a carbon storage material in various microorganisms. The effects of growth conditions on PHB production have been widely studied in chemolithotrophs, particularly in Rhodobacter. However, the results on PHB production in Rhodobacter have been somewhat inconsistent due to different strains and experimental conditions, and it is currently unclear how diverse environmental factors are linked with PHB production. Here, we report optimized growth conditions for PHB production and show that the growth conditions are closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation. PHB accumulates in cells up to approximately 50% at the highest level under dark-aerobic conditions as opposed to light aerobic/anaerobic conditions. According to the time-course, PHB contents increased at 48 h and then gradually decreased. When observing the effect of temperature and medium composition on PHB production, 30 °C and a carbon/nitrogen ratio of 9:1 or more were found to be most effective. Among PHB biosynthetic genes, PhaA and PhaB are highly correlated with PHB production, whereas PhaC and PhaZ showed little change in overall expression levels. We found that, while the amount of hydrogen peroxide in cells under dark conditions was relatively low compared to the light conditions, peroxidase activities and expression levels of antioxidant-related genes were high. These observations suggest optimal culture conditions for growth and PHB production and the importance of ROS-scavenging signaling with regard to PHB production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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12 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
Lignocellulose Pretreatment Combining Continuous Alkaline Single-Screw Extrusion and Ultrasonication to Enhance Biosugar Production
by Jongwon Byun, Young-Lok Cha, Sung-Min Park, Kwang-Soo Kim, Ji-Eun Lee and Yong-Gu Kang
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5636; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215636 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of highly crystallized lignocellulosic biomass is essential in biorefinery processes. This study investigates the combination of lignocellulose pretreatment with continuous alkaline single-screw extrusion and ultrasonication for biosugar production. Miscanthus sacchariflorus was used because it is a promising [...] Read more.
Pretreatment to improve the enzymatic digestibility of highly crystallized lignocellulosic biomass is essential in biorefinery processes. This study investigates the combination of lignocellulose pretreatment with continuous alkaline single-screw extrusion and ultrasonication for biosugar production. Miscanthus sacchariflorus was used because it is a promising bioenergy crop. The results show that ultrasonication with continuous alkaline pretreatment increased the enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates and reduced the use of chemicals during pretreatment. An hour of ultrasonication following 0.2 M NaOH (2.25 mol-NaOH/kg-biomass) continuous alkaline pretreatment resulted in a 6.7% increase in total biosugar production (83.1% of theoretical yield), a decrease of up to 26.1% in chemical usage, and a 17.0% increase in lignin removal compared with the case without ultrasonication. The developed method can be considered an effective and eco-friendly approach to the production of bio-based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioproducts & Environmental Sustainability)
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