Special Issue "Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Panos Kotsampopoulos
Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou, Greece
Interests: hardware in the loop simulation; control of distributed generation; microgrids; ancillary services; power system dynamics; education
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Md Omar Faruque
Website
Guest Editor
Chair, IEEE Task Force on Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems, Associate Professor & Associate Chair for Graduate Studies, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and The Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS), FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern power and energy systems are characterized by the wide integration of distributed generation, storage and electric vehicles, adoption of ICT solutions, and interconnection of different energy carriers and consumer engagement, posing new challenges and creating new opportunities. Advanced testing and validation methods are needed to efficiently validate power equipment and controls in the contemporary complex environment and support the transition to a cleaner and sustainable energy system. Real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation has proven to be an effective method for validating and de-risking power system equipment in highly realistic, flexible, and repeatable conditions. Controller hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) and power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) are the two main HIL simulation methods used in industry and academia that contribute to system-level testing enhancement by exploiting the flexibility of digital simulations in testing actual controllers and power equipment.

This Special Issue aims to address recent advances in real-time HIL simulation in several domains (also in new and promising areas), including technique improvements to promote its wider use. It welcomes innovative papers, including industrial relevant experiences, related (but not limited) to the following topics:

  • Advances in HIL testing of power electronic converters: distributed generation and storage inverters, HVDC/FACTS (e.g., testing of replicas) etc.;
  • Advances in HIL testing of power system protection;
  • Advances in HIL testing of smart grid/microgrid controllers, energy management systems, wide area protection, and control;
  • Apparatus modeling for real-time simulation and model validation;
  • Interfacing methods of PHIL and CHIL simulation: improvement of stability and accuracy;
  • HIL co-simulation, cyber-security, cyber-physical energy systems, and other multidomain systems;
  • Geographically distributed HIL and real-time simulators coupling/challenges;
  • Mechanical and multiphysics HIL simulation;
  • Industrial experiences, HIL in standardized testing, and standardization of HIL.
Dr. Panos Kotsampopoulos
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Md Omar Faruque
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Real-time simulation
  • Controller hardware-in-the-loop simulation (CHIL)
  • Power hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHIL)
  • Power and energy systems
  • Testing and validation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Facilitating the Transition to an Inverter Dominated Power System: Experimental Evaluation of a Non-Intrusive Add-On Predictive Controller
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4237; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164237 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
The transition to an inverter-dominated power system is expected with the large-scale integration of distributed energy resources (DER). To improve the dynamic response of DERs already installed within such a system, a non-intrusive add-on controller referred to as SPAACE (set point automatic adjustment [...] Read more.
The transition to an inverter-dominated power system is expected with the large-scale integration of distributed energy resources (DER). To improve the dynamic response of DERs already installed within such a system, a non-intrusive add-on controller referred to as SPAACE (set point automatic adjustment with correction enabled), has been proposed in the literature. Extensive simulation-based analysis and supporting mathematical foundations have helped establish its theoretical prevalence. This paper establishes the practical real-world relevance of SPAACE via a rigorous performance evaluation utilizing a high fidelity hardware-in-the-loop systems test bed. A comprehensive methodological approach to the evaluation with several practical measures has been undertaken and the performance of SPAACE subject to representative scenarios assessed. With the evaluation undertaken, the fundamental hypothesis of SPAACE for real-world applications has been proven, i.e., improvements in dynamic performance can be achieved without access to the internal controller. Furthermore, based on the quantitative analysis, observations, and recommendations are reported. These provide guidance for future potential users of the approach in their efforts to accelerate the transition to an inverter-dominated power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Advancements in Real-Time Simulation for the Validation of Grid Modernization Technologies
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164036 - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop testing have increased in popularity as grid modernization has become more widespread. As the power system has undergone an evolution in the types of generator and load deployed on the system, the penetration and capabilities of automation and monitoring [...] Read more.
Real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop testing have increased in popularity as grid modernization has become more widespread. As the power system has undergone an evolution in the types of generator and load deployed on the system, the penetration and capabilities of automation and monitoring systems, and the structure of the energy market, a corresponding evolution has taken place in the way we model and test power system behavior and equipment. Consequently, emerging requirements for real-time simulators are very high when it comes to simulation fidelity, interfacing options, and ease of use. Ongoing advancements from a processing hardware, graphical user interface, and power system modelling perspective have enabled utilities, manufacturers, educational and research institutions, and consultants to apply real-time simulation to grid modernization projects. This paper summarizes various recent advancements from a particular simulator manufacturer, RTDS Technologies Inc. Many of these advancements have been enabled by growth in the high-performance processing space and the emerging availability of high-end processors for embedded designs. Others have been initiated or supported by developer participation in power industry working groups and study committees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Using Real-Time Hybrid-Simulator for Dynamic Performance Test of Power Electronics Equipment in Large Power System
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3955; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153955 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
This paper presents the hardware-in-the-loop simulation for dynamic performance test (HILS-DPT) of power electronic equipment replicas using a real-time hybrid simulator (RTHS). The authors developed the procedure of HILS-DPT, and as an actual case example, the results of HILS-DPT of Static VAR Compensator [...] Read more.
This paper presents the hardware-in-the-loop simulation for dynamic performance test (HILS-DPT) of power electronic equipment replicas using a real-time hybrid simulator (RTHS). The authors developed the procedure of HILS-DPT, and as an actual case example, the results of HILS-DPT of Static VAR Compensator (SVC) replica using RTHS is presented. RTHS is a co-simulation tool that synthesizes real-time simulator (RTS) with transient stability program to perform real-time dynamic simulation of a large power system. As power electronics applications have been increasing, the electric utilities have performed HILS-DPT of the power electronics equipment to validate the performance and investigate interactions. Because inspection tests are limited in their ability to validate its impact on the power system during various contingencies, all power electronics equipment newly installed in the Korean power system should take HILS-DPT using large-scale RTS with replicas since 2018. Although large-scaled RTS offers an accuracy improvement, it requires lots of hardware resources, time, and effort to model and simulate the equipment and power systems. Therefore, the authors performed SVC HILS-DPT using RTHS, and the result of the first practical application of RTHS present feasibility comparing the result of HILS-DPT using large-scale RTS. The authors will discuss the test results and share lessons learned from the industrial experience of HILS-DPT using RTHS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
DPsim—Advancements in Power Electronics Modelling Using Shifted Frequency Analysis and in Real-Time Simulation Capability by Parallelization
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3879; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153879 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
Real-time simulation is an increasingly popular tool for product development and research in power systems. However, commercial simulators are still quite exclusive due to their costs and they face problems in bridging the gap between two common types of power system simulation, conventional [...] Read more.
Real-time simulation is an increasingly popular tool for product development and research in power systems. However, commercial simulators are still quite exclusive due to their costs and they face problems in bridging the gap between two common types of power system simulation, conventional phasor based, and electromagnetic transient simulation. This work describes recent improvements to the open source real-time simulator DPsim to address increasingly important use cases that involve power electronics that are connected to the electrical grid and increasing grid sizes. New power electronic models have been developed and integrated into the DPsim simulator together with techniques to decouple the system solution, which facilitate parallelization. The results show that the dynamic phasors in DPsim, which result from shifted frequency analysis, allow the user to combine the characteristics of conventional phasor and electromagnetic transient simulation. Besides, simulation speed up techniques that are known from the electromagnetic domain and new techniques, specific to dynamic phasors, significantly improve the performance. It demonstrates the advantages of dynamic phasor simulation for future power systems and the applicability of this concept to large scale scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Power System Hardware in the Loop (PSHIL): A Holistic Testing Approach for Smart Grid Technologies
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3858; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153858 - 28 Jul 2020
Abstract
The smart-grid era is characterized by a progressive penetration of distributed energy resources into the power systems. To ensure the safe operation of the system, it is necessary to evaluate the interactions that those devices and their associated control algorithms have between themselves [...] Read more.
The smart-grid era is characterized by a progressive penetration of distributed energy resources into the power systems. To ensure the safe operation of the system, it is necessary to evaluate the interactions that those devices and their associated control algorithms have between themselves and the pre-existing network. In this regard, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) testing approaches are a necessary step before integrating new devices into the actual network. However, HIL is a device-oriented testing approach with some limitations, particularly considering the possible impact that the device under test may have in the power system. This paper proposes the Power System Hardware-in-the-Loop (PSHIL) concept, which widens the focus from a device- to a system-oriented testing approach. Under this perspective, it is possible to evaluate holistically the impact of a given technology over the power system, considering all of its power and control components. This paper describes in detail the PSHIL architecture and its main hardware and software components. Three application examples, using the infrastructure available in the electrical engineering laboratory of the University of Sevilla, are included, remarking the new possibilities and benefits of using PSHIL with respect to previous approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Distributed Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Using a Grid-Forming Converter as Power Interface
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3770; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153770 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents an approach to extend the capabilities of smart grid laboratories through the concept of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHiL) testing by re-purposing existing grid-forming converters. A simple and cost-effective power interface, paired with a remotely located Digital Real-time Simulator (DRTS), facilitates Geographically [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach to extend the capabilities of smart grid laboratories through the concept of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHiL) testing by re-purposing existing grid-forming converters. A simple and cost-effective power interface, paired with a remotely located Digital Real-time Simulator (DRTS), facilitates Geographically Distributed Power Hardware Loop (GD-PHiL) in a quasi-static operating regime. In this study, a DRTS simulator was interfaced via the public internet with a grid-forming ship-to-shore converter located in a smart-grid testing laboratory, approximately 40 km away from the simulator. A case study based on the IEEE 13-bus distribution network, an on-load-tap-changer (OLTC) controller and a controllable load in the laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of such a setup. A simple compensation method applicable to this multi-rate setup is proposed and evaluated. Experimental results indicate that this compensation method significantly enhances the voltage response, whereas the conservation of energy at the coupling point still poses a challenge. Findings also show that, due to inherent limitations of the converter’s Modbus interface, a separate measurement setup is preferable. This can help achieve higher measurement fidelity, while simultaneously increasing the loop rate of the PHiL setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Proving a Concept of Flexible Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3607; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143607 - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
It is widely recognized that in the transition from conventional electrical power systems (EPSs) towards smart grids, electrical voltage frequency will be greatly affected. This is why this research is extremely valuable, especially since rate-of-change-of-frequency (RoCoF) is often considered as a [...] Read more.
It is widely recognized that in the transition from conventional electrical power systems (EPSs) towards smart grids, electrical voltage frequency will be greatly affected. This is why this research is extremely valuable, especially since rate-of-change-of-frequency (RoCoF) is often considered as a potential means of resolving newly arisen problems, but is often challenged in practice due to the noise and its oscillating character. In this paper, the authors further developed and tested one of the new technologies related to under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) protection. Since the basic idea was to enhance the selected technology’s readiness level, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) setup with an RTDS was assembled. The under-frequency technology was implemented in an intelligent electronic device (IED) and included in the HIL setup. The IED acted as one of several protection devices, representing a last-resort system protection scheme. All main contributions of this research deal with using RoCoF in an innovative UFLS scheme under test: (i) appropriate selection and parameterization of RoCoF filtering techniques does not worsen under-frequency load shedding during fast-occurring events, (ii) locally measured RoCoF can be effectively used for bringing a high level of flexibility to a system-wide scheme, and (iii) diversity of relays and RoCoF-measuring techniques is an advantage, not a drawback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Multiphysics Real-Time Simulator for Model-Based Design of a DC Shipboard Microgrid
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3580; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143580 - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
Recent and strict regulations in the maritime sector regarding exhaust gas emissions has led to an evolution of shipboard systems with a progressive increase of complexity, from the early utilization of electric propulsion to the realization of an integrated shipboard power system organized [...] Read more.
Recent and strict regulations in the maritime sector regarding exhaust gas emissions has led to an evolution of shipboard systems with a progressive increase of complexity, from the early utilization of electric propulsion to the realization of an integrated shipboard power system organized as a microgrid. Therefore, novel approaches, such as the model-based design, start to be experimented by industries to obtain multiphysics models able to study the impact of different designing solutions. In this context, this paper illustrates in detail the development of a multiphysics simulation framework, able to mimic the behaviour of a DC electric ship equipped with electric propulsion, rotating generators and battery energy storage systems. The simulation platform has been realized within the retrofitting project of a Ro-Ro Pax vessel, to size components and to validate control strategies before the system commissioning. It has been implemented on the Opal-RT simulator, as the core component of the future research infrastructure of the University of Genoa, which will include power converters, storage systems, and a ship bridge simulator. The proposed model includes the propulsion plant, characterized by propellers and ship dynamics, and the entire shipboard power system. Each component has been detailed together with its own regulators, such as the automatic voltage regulator of synchronous generators, the torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motors and the current control loop of power converters. The paper illustrates also details concerning the practical deployment of the proposed models within the real-time simulator, in order to share the computational effort among the available processor cores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of DER Voltage Regulation Technologies Using Real-Time Simulations
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3562; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143562 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Grid operators are now considering using distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide distribution voltage regulation rather than installing costly voltage regulation hardware. DER devices include multiple adjustable reactive power control functions, so grid operators have the difficult decision of selecting the best operating [...] Read more.
Grid operators are now considering using distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide distribution voltage regulation rather than installing costly voltage regulation hardware. DER devices include multiple adjustable reactive power control functions, so grid operators have the difficult decision of selecting the best operating mode and settings for the DER. In this work, we develop a novel state estimation-based particle swarm optimization (PSO) for distribution voltage regulation using DER-reactive power setpoints and establish a methodology to validate and compare it against alternative DER control technologies (volt–VAR (VV), extremum seeking control (ESC)) in increasingly higher fidelity environments. Distribution system real-time simulations with virtualized and power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL)-interfaced DER equipment were run to evaluate the implementations and select the best voltage regulation technique. Each method improved the distribution system voltage profile; VV did not reach the global optimum but the PSO and ESC methods optimized the reactive power contributions of multiple DER devices to approach the optimal solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the First Replica Controller in Korean Power Systems
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133343 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, examine, and evaluate the industrial experiences and effectiveness of a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) replica controller installed in Korea in 2019 through a review of its configuration, test platform, and practical application, and further [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, examine, and evaluate the industrial experiences and effectiveness of a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) replica controller installed in Korea in 2019 through a review of its configuration, test platform, and practical application, and further to propose operational guidelines for replica controllers. Four representative practical cases were conducted: a Dynamic Performance Test (DPT) under a sufficiently large-scale power system prior to the Site Acceptance Test (SAT), pre-verification for on-site controller modification during operation stage, parameter tuning to mitigate the control interaction, and time domain simulation for Sub-Synchronous Torsional Interaction (SSTI). None of these four cases can be performed in a Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) or on-site. Therefore, TCSC control performance was accurately verified under the entire Korean power system based on a large-scale real-time simulator, which demonstrated its effectiveness as a powerful tool for operations including multiple power electronics devices. Our review herein of these four practical cases is expected to show the usefulness of replica controllers, to demonstrate their strength to deal with practical field events, and to contribute to the further expansion of the application area from a perspective of electric utility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Remote Laboratory Testing Demonstration
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092283 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The complexity of a smart grid with a high share of renewable energy resources introduces several issues in testing power equipment and controls. In this context, real-time simulation and Hardware in the Loop (HIL) techniques can tackle these problems that are typical for [...] Read more.
The complexity of a smart grid with a high share of renewable energy resources introduces several issues in testing power equipment and controls. In this context, real-time simulation and Hardware in the Loop (HIL) techniques can tackle these problems that are typical for power system testing. However, implementing a convoluted HIL setup in a single infrastructure can be physically impossible or can increase the time required to test a smart grid application in detail. This paper introduces the Joint Test Facility for Smart Energy Networks with Distributed Energy Resources (JaNDER) that allows users to exchange data in real-time between two or more infrastructures. This tool enables the integration of infrastructures, exploiting the synergies between them, and creating a virtual infrastructure that can perform more experiments using a combination of the resources installed in each infrastructure. In particular, JaNDER can extend a HIL setup. In order to validate this new testing concept, a coordinated voltage controller has been tested in a Controller HIL setup where JaNDER was used to interact with an actual On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) controller located in a remote infrastructure. The results show that the latency introduced by JaNDER is not critical; hence, under certain circumstances, it can be used to expand the real-time testing without affecting the stability of the experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation Methodology for Power Converters Using LabVIEW FPGA
Energies 2020, 13(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020373 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Nowadays, the use of the hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation has gained popularity among researchers all over the world. One of its main applications is the simulation of power electronics converters. However, the equipment designed for this purpose is difficult to acquire [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the use of the hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation has gained popularity among researchers all over the world. One of its main applications is the simulation of power electronics converters. However, the equipment designed for this purpose is difficult to acquire for some universities or research centers, so ad-hoc solutions for the implementation of HIL simulation in low-cost hardware for power electronics converters is a novel research topic. However, the information regarding implementation is written at a high technical level and in a specific language that is not easy for non-expert users to understand. In this paper, a systematic methodology using LabVIEW software (LabVIEW 2018) for HIL simulation is shown. A fast and easy implementation of power converter topologies is obtained by means of the differential equations that define each state of the power converter. Five simple steps are considered: designing the converter, modeling the converter, solving the model using a numerical method, programming an off-line simulation of the model using fixed-point representation, and implementing the solution of the model in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This methodology is intended for people with no experience in the use of languages as Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) for Real-Time Simulation (RTS) and HIL simulation. In order to prove the methodology’s effectiveness and easiness, two converters were simulated—a buck converter and a three-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)—and compared with the simulation of commercial software (PSIM® v9.0) and a real power converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Advanced Laboratory Testing Methods Using Real-Time Simulation and Hardware-in-the-Loop Techniques: A Survey of Smart Grid International Research Facility Network Activities
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3267; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123267 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The integration of smart grid technologies in interconnected power system networks presents multiple challenges for the power industry and the scientific community. To address these challenges, researchers are creating new methods for the validation of: control, interoperability, reliability of Internet of Things systems, [...] Read more.
The integration of smart grid technologies in interconnected power system networks presents multiple challenges for the power industry and the scientific community. To address these challenges, researchers are creating new methods for the validation of: control, interoperability, reliability of Internet of Things systems, distributed energy resources, modern power equipment for applications covering power system stability, operation, control, and cybersecurity. Novel methods for laboratory testing of electrical power systems incorporate novel simulation techniques spanning real-time simulation, Power Hardware-in-the-Loop, Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop, Power System-in-the-Loop, and co-simulation technologies. These methods directly support the acceleration of electrical systems and power electronics component research by validating technological solutions in high-fidelity environments. In this paper, members of the Survey of Smart Grid International Research Facility Network task on Advanced Laboratory Testing Methods present a review of methods, test procedures, studies, and experiences employing advanced laboratory techniques for validation of range of research and development prototypes and novel power system solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
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