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Article

Proving a Concept of Flexible Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

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Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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ComSensus d.o.o., Brezje pri Dobu 8, 1233 Dob, Slovenia
3
Laboratory of Electric Power Supply, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3607; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143607
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 10 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
It is widely recognized that in the transition from conventional electrical power systems (EPSs) towards smart grids, electrical voltage frequency will be greatly affected. This is why this research is extremely valuable, especially since rate-of-change-of-frequency (RoCoF) is often considered as a potential means of resolving newly arisen problems, but is often challenged in practice due to the noise and its oscillating character. In this paper, the authors further developed and tested one of the new technologies related to under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) protection. Since the basic idea was to enhance the selected technology’s readiness level, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) setup with an RTDS was assembled. The under-frequency technology was implemented in an intelligent electronic device (IED) and included in the HIL setup. The IED acted as one of several protection devices, representing a last-resort system protection scheme. All main contributions of this research deal with using RoCoF in an innovative UFLS scheme under test: (i) appropriate selection and parameterization of RoCoF filtering techniques does not worsen under-frequency load shedding during fast-occurring events, (ii) locally measured RoCoF can be effectively used for bringing a high level of flexibility to a system-wide scheme, and (iii) diversity of relays and RoCoF-measuring techniques is an advantage, not a drawback. View Full-Text
Keywords: under-frequency load shedding; intelligent electronic device; proof of concept; hardware-in-the-loop testing; real-time digital simulator; frequency stability margin; rate-of-change-of-frequency under-frequency load shedding; intelligent electronic device; proof of concept; hardware-in-the-loop testing; real-time digital simulator; frequency stability margin; rate-of-change-of-frequency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sodin, D.; Ilievska, R.; Čampa, A.; Smolnikar, M.; Rudez, U. Proving a Concept of Flexible Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing. Energies 2020, 13, 3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143607

AMA Style

Sodin D, Ilievska R, Čampa A, Smolnikar M, Rudez U. Proving a Concept of Flexible Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing. Energies. 2020; 13(14):3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143607

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sodin, Denis, Rajne Ilievska, Andrej Čampa, Miha Smolnikar, and Urban Rudez. 2020. "Proving a Concept of Flexible Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing" Energies 13, no. 14: 3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143607

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