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Article

Distributed Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Using a Grid-Forming Converter as Power Interface

1
RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
2
Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
3
Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3770; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153770
Received: 20 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 19 July 2020 / Published: 22 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Real-Time Simulation of Power and Energy Systems)
This paper presents an approach to extend the capabilities of smart grid laboratories through the concept of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHiL) testing by re-purposing existing grid-forming converters. A simple and cost-effective power interface, paired with a remotely located Digital Real-time Simulator (DRTS), facilitates Geographically Distributed Power Hardware Loop (GD-PHiL) in a quasi-static operating regime. In this study, a DRTS simulator was interfaced via the public internet with a grid-forming ship-to-shore converter located in a smart-grid testing laboratory, approximately 40 km away from the simulator. A case study based on the IEEE 13-bus distribution network, an on-load-tap-changer (OLTC) controller and a controllable load in the laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of such a setup. A simple compensation method applicable to this multi-rate setup is proposed and evaluated. Experimental results indicate that this compensation method significantly enhances the voltage response, whereas the conservation of energy at the coupling point still poses a challenge. Findings also show that, due to inherent limitations of the converter’s Modbus interface, a separate measurement setup is preferable. This can help achieve higher measurement fidelity, while simultaneously increasing the loop rate of the PHiL setup. View Full-Text
Keywords: geographically distributed real-time simulation; remote power hardware-in-the-Loop; grid-forming converter; hardware-in-the-loop; simulation fidelity; energy-based metric; energy residual; quasi-stationary geographically distributed real-time simulation; remote power hardware-in-the-Loop; grid-forming converter; hardware-in-the-loop; simulation fidelity; energy-based metric; energy residual; quasi-stationary
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vogel, S.; Nguyen, H.T.; Stevic, M.; Jensen, T.V.; Heussen, K.; Rajkumar, V.S.; Monti, A. Distributed Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Using a Grid-Forming Converter as Power Interface. Energies 2020, 13, 3770. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153770

AMA Style

Vogel S, Nguyen HT, Stevic M, Jensen TV, Heussen K, Rajkumar VS, Monti A. Distributed Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Using a Grid-Forming Converter as Power Interface. Energies. 2020; 13(15):3770. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153770

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vogel, Steffen; Nguyen, Ha T.; Stevic, Marija; Jensen, Tue V.; Heussen, Kai; Rajkumar, Vetrivel S.; Monti, Antonello. 2020. "Distributed Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Using a Grid-Forming Converter as Power Interface" Energies 13, no. 15: 3770. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153770

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