Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 19th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS 2019)"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paweł Knapkiewicz
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw 50-372, Poland
Interests: MEMS; silicon-glass technology; sensors and sensor systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rafał Walczak
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw 50-372, Poland
Interests: lab-on-chip; silicon-glass technology; 3D printing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will publish selected papers from the 19th International Conference on Micro- and Nono-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, PowerMEMS 2019, 2–6 December 2019, Kraków, Poland.

We encourage you to publish significant and original works covering the following main topics:

  1. Materials for energy conversion
  2. Mechanical energy harvesting and actuation
  3. Thermal and chemical science and technologies for power, propulsion, and cooling
  4. Direct thermal energy-harvesting
  5. Electron, ion, photon, and radiation energy conversion
  6. Biochemical and bio-inspired power/energy systems
  7. Electrical energy harvesting, management, storage, and transfer
  8. Applications and innovations in micro energy systems
  9. PowerMEMS-in-Action

Dr. Paweł Knapkiewicz
Dr. Rafał Walczak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy conversion
  • energy harvesting
  • energy
  • power
  • MEMS
  • microsystems

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Inkjet 3D Printed MEMS Vibrational Electromagnetic Energy Harvester
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112800 - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a powerful tool that enables the printing of almost unlimited geometry in a few hours, from a virtual design to a real structure. In this paper, we present a micro-electromechanical energy harvester that utilized a 3D printed micromechanical structure [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a powerful tool that enables the printing of almost unlimited geometry in a few hours, from a virtual design to a real structure. In this paper, we present a micro-electromechanical energy harvester that utilized a 3D printed micromechanical structure combined with a miniature permanent magnet and a microelectronic coil towards a hybrid electromagnetic vibrational hybrid energy harvester. Various micromechanical structure geometries were designed, printed, and tested. The characteristic dimensions of the springs were from 200 m to 400 m and the total volume of the devices was below 1 cm3. The resonant frequencies (95–340 Hz range), as well as bandwidths (6–23 Hz range), for the developed prototypes were determined. The maximal generated output power was almost 24 W with a power density up to almost 600 W/cm3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermoelectric Harvesting Using Warm-Blooded Animals in Wildlife Tracking Applications
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2769; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112769 - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
This paper focuses on the design of an optimized thermal interface for a thermoelectric energy harvesting system mounted at endothermic animals. In this application scenario the mammal’s fur reduces the heat flux from the animal’s body through a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the design of an optimized thermal interface for a thermoelectric energy harvesting system mounted at endothermic animals. In this application scenario the mammal’s fur reduces the heat flux from the animal’s body through a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to the ambient air. This requires an adapted design of the thermal interface between TEG and body surface, to increase its thermal conductivity without harming the animal. For this purpose the thermal conductivity through a mammal’s fur is determined with a specially designed heatsink. An analytical model is built to predict the resulting thermal resistances and is validated with experimental results for two different fur lengths. We show that an optimized design of the thermal interface reduces its thermal resistance up to 38% compared to a trivial design while lowering its weight for about 23%. It is found that the most important design parameter of such a thermal connector is the ability to slide into the fur. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Minimal Volume Hermetic Packaging Design for High-Energy-Density Micro-Energy Systems
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102492 - 15 May 2020
Abstract
Hermetic packaging is critical to the function of many microscale energy storage and harvesting devices. State-of-the-art hermetic packaging strategies for energy technologies, however, are designed for macroscale devices and dramatically decrease the fraction of active materials when applied to micro-energy systems. We demonstrated [...] Read more.
Hermetic packaging is critical to the function of many microscale energy storage and harvesting devices. State-of-the-art hermetic packaging strategies for energy technologies, however, are designed for macroscale devices and dramatically decrease the fraction of active materials when applied to micro-energy systems. We demonstrated a minimal volume hermetic packaging strategy for micro-energy systems that increased the volume of active energy storage materials by 2× and 5× compared to the best lab scale microbatteries and commercial pouch cells. The minimal volume design used metal current collectors as a multifunctional hermetic shell and laser-machined hot melt tape to provide a thin, robust hermetic seal between the current collectors with a stronger adhesion to metals than most commercial adhesives. We developed the packaging using commercially available equipment and materials, and demonstrated a strategy that could be applied to many kinds of micro-energy systems with custom shape configurations. This minimal, versatile packaging has the potential to improve the energy density of current micro-energy systems for applications ranging from biomedical devices to micro-robots. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerator based on Metallized Porous PDMS and Parylene C
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071625 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have recently become a powerful technology for energy harvesting and self-powered sensor networks. One of their main advantages is the possibility to employ a wide range of materials, especially for fabricating inexpensive and easy-to-use devices. This paper reports the fabrication [...] Read more.
Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have recently become a powerful technology for energy harvesting and self-powered sensor networks. One of their main advantages is the possibility to employ a wide range of materials, especially for fabricating inexpensive and easy-to-use devices. This paper reports the fabrication and preliminary characterization of a novel flexible triboelectric nanogenerator which could be employed for driving future low power consumption wearable devices. The proposed TENG is a single-electrode device operating in contact-separation mode for applications in low-frequency energy harvesting from intermittent tapping loads involving the human body, such as finger or hand tapping. The novelty of the device lies in the choice of materials: it is based on a combination of a polysiloxane elastomer and a poly (para-xylylene). In particular, the TENG is composed, sequentially, of a poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate which was made porous and rough with a steam-curing step; then, a metallization layer with titanium and gold, deposited on the PDMS surface with an optimal substrate–electrode adhesion. Finally, the metallized structure was coated with a thin film of parylene C serving as friction layer. This material provides excellent conformability and high charge-retaining capability, playing a crucial role in the triboelectric process; it also makes the device suitable for employment in harsh, wet environments owing to its inertness and barrier properties. Preliminary performance tests were conducted by measuring the open-circuit voltage and power density under finger tapping (~2 N) at ~5 Hz. The device exhibited a peak-to-peak voltage of 1.6 V and power density peak of 2.24 mW/m2 at ~0.4 MΩ. The proposed TENG demonstrated ease of process, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and flexibility. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Is LiI a Potential Dopant Candidate to Enhance the Thermoelectric Performance in Sb-Free GeTe Systems? A Prelusive Study
Energies 2020, 13(3), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030643 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
As a workable substitute for toxic PbTe-based thermoelectrics, GeTe-based materials are emanating as reliable alternatives. To assess the suitability of LiI as a dopant in thermoelectric GeTe, a prelusive study of thermoelectric properties of GeTe1−xLiIx (x = 0–0.02) alloys [...] Read more.
As a workable substitute for toxic PbTe-based thermoelectrics, GeTe-based materials are emanating as reliable alternatives. To assess the suitability of LiI as a dopant in thermoelectric GeTe, a prelusive study of thermoelectric properties of GeTe1−xLiIx (x = 0–0.02) alloys processed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) are presented in this short communication. A maximum thermoelectric figure of merit, zT ~ 1.2, was attained at 773 K for 2 mol% LiI-doped GeTe composition, thanks to the combined benefits of a noted reduction in the thermal conductivity and a marginally improved power factor. The scattering of heat carrying phonons due to the presumable formation of Li-induced “pseudo-vacancies” and nano-precipitates contributed to the conspicuous suppression of lattice thermal conductivity, and consequently boosted the zT of the Sb-free (GeTe)0.98(LiI)0.02 sample when compared to that of pristine GeTe and Sb-rich (GeTe)x(LiSbTe2)2 compounds that were reported earlier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Separation-Independent Wearable 6.78 MHz Near-Field Radiative Wireless Power Transfer using Electrically Small Embroidered Textile Coils
Energies 2020, 13(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030528 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Achieving a wireless power transfer (WPT) link insensitive to separation is a key challenge to achieving power autonomy through wireless-powering and wireless energy harvesting over a longer range. While coupled WPT has been widely used for near-field high-efficiency WPT applications, the efficiency of [...] Read more.
Achieving a wireless power transfer (WPT) link insensitive to separation is a key challenge to achieving power autonomy through wireless-powering and wireless energy harvesting over a longer range. While coupled WPT has been widely used for near-field high-efficiency WPT applications, the efficiency of the WPT link is highly sensitive to separation and alignment, making it unsuitable for mobile systems with unknown or loose coupling such as wearables. On the other hand, while ultra-high frequency (UHF) and microwave uncoupled radiative WPT (0.3–3 GHz) enables meters-long separation between the transmitter and the receivers, the end-to-end efficiency of the WPT link is adversely limited by the propagation losses. This work proposes radiative WPT, in the 6.78 MHz license-free band, as a hybrid solution to separation-independent WPT, thus mitigating the losses associated with coil separation. Resonant electrically small antennas were fabricated using embroidered textile coils and tuned using L-matching networks, for wearable WPT. The antenna’s efficiency and near-fields have been evaluated numerically and experimentally. The proposed WPT link achieves a stable forward transmission of S 21 > 17 dB and S 21 > 28 dB, independent of coil separation on the XZ and XY planes respectively, in a 27 m 3 volume space. The presented approach demonstrates the highest WPT link efficiency at more than 1-m separation and promises higher end-to-end efficiency compared to UHF WPT. Full article
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