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Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B: Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2022) | Viewed by 39831

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates
Interests: energy and the environment; internal combustion engines; combustion; fluid mechanics; laser-based flow diagnostics; biofuel and synthetic fuel utilization; applied chemical dynamics; transport phenomena
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. College of Engineering, Alasala University, Dammam 31483, Saudi Arabia
2. Center for Advanced Powertrain and Fuels Research (CAPF), Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK
Interests: propulsion and power generation; automotive engineering; aerospace; rail engineering; marine engineering; waste heat recovery systems; supercharging; turbocharging; ORC; sCO2; thermoelectrics; BEV; FCEV, HEV; PHEV; internal combustion engines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would herewith like to welcome submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Energy-saving and carbon-neutral technologies for maritime transport.” The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted mandatory measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping under IMO’s pollution prevention treaty (MARPOL); the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is mandatory for new ships as well as the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP). Since 2018, IMO also initiated a strategy for the reduction of GHG emissions from ships, mandating a reduction in carbon intensity of international shipping (i.e., average CO2 emissions per transport work) by at least 40% with respect to 2008 levels by 2030, with a further target of 70% by 2050,). At the same time, total annual GHG emissions from international shipping should be reduced by at least 50% with respect to 2008 levels by 2050.

Given IMO’s strong focus on improving energy efficiency of existing vessels and new buildings as well as drastically reducing GHG emissions, aiming to a complete decarbonization of shipping by the end of this century, various technological and operational measures have been proposed to improve ship energy efficiency and curtailing her CO2 emissions. The technological measures already proposed in the literature can be divided into two categories: First, those related to the improvement of the energy efficiency of the main and auxiliary engines and to the recuperation of waste heat from the engine. These measures are mainly related to engine-room installations. Second, those related to resistance reduction through the implementation of various technologies relevant to the structure of the ship (e.g., hull, propellers etc.). In addition, various operational measures have been proposed in the literature such as voyage optimization and weather routing as means of fuel saving and vessel-emitted CO2 curtailment. Furthermore, the use of alternative low-carbon and zero-carbon fuels such as natural gas, LPG, ammonia, hydrogen, alcohols, and biofuels in shipping has recently attracted increasing attention and intensive research has been undertaken in order to identify solutions that will improve the viability of these alternative fuels for shipping, since it has been proven that these fuels can contribute significantly to the realization of IMO’s goals for the decarbonization of shipping industry.

Our objective is to prepare a Special Issue that will provide an archival overview of all this bustling activity. Submissions covering all the aspects of energy-saving and carbon-neutral technologies for maritime transport are therefore strongly encouraged. We are looking forward to working with you on shedding light into critical issues that are of pressing concern to the shipping industry.

Dr. Theodoros Zannis
Prof. Dr. Dimitrios Kyritsis
Prof. Dr. Apostolos Pesyridis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • technological measures for energy-saving and GHG emission reduction from maritime transport
  • operational measures for energy-saving and GHG emission reduction from maritime transport
  • waste heat recovery systems—combined cycles in maritime transport
  • cogeneration and polygeneration systems in maritime transport
  • low-carbon and zero-carbon alternative fuels for shipping
  • CO2 capture technologies for maritime transport
  • alternative fuel production from on-board CO2 captured
  • carbon-neutral ships
  • on-board energy-saving technologies

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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26 pages, 5043 KiB  
Article
Estimates of the Decarbonization Potential of Alternative Fuels for Shipping as a Function of Vessel Type, Cargo, and Voyage
by Li Chin Law, Epaminondas Mastorakos and Stephen Evans
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7468; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207468 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4051
Abstract
Fuel transition can decarbonize shipping and help meet IMO 2050 goals. In this paper, HFO with CCS, LNG with CCS, bio-methanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, ammonia, and electricity were studied using empirical ship design models from a fleet-level perspective and at the Tank-To-Wake level, to [...] Read more.
Fuel transition can decarbonize shipping and help meet IMO 2050 goals. In this paper, HFO with CCS, LNG with CCS, bio-methanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, ammonia, and electricity were studied using empirical ship design models from a fleet-level perspective and at the Tank-To-Wake level, to assist operators, technology developers, and policy makers. The cargo attainment rate CAR (i.e., cargo that must be displaced due to the low-C propulsion system), the ES (i.e., TTW energy needed per ton*n.m.), the CS (economic cost per ton*n.m.), and the carbon intensity index CII (gCO2 per ton*n.m.) were calculated so that the potential of the various alternatives can be compared quantitatively as a function of different criteria. The sensitivity of CAR towards ship type, fuel type, cargo type, and voyage distance were investigated. All ship types had similar CAR estimates, which implies that considerations concerning fuel transition apply equally to all ships (cargo, containership, tankers). Cargo type was the most sensitive factor that made a ship either weight or volume critical, indirectly impacting on the CAR of different fuels; for example, a hydrogen ship is weight-critical and has 2.3% higher CAR than the reference HFO ship at 20,000 nm. Voyage distance and fuel type could result in up to 48.51% and 11.75% of CAR reduction. In addition to CAR, the ES, CS, and CII for a typical mission were calculated and it was found that HFO and LNG with CCS gave about 20% higher ES and CS than HFO, and biodiesel had twice the cost, while ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen had 3–4 times the CS of HFO and electricity about 20 times, suggesting that decarbonisation of the world’s fleet will come at a large cost. As an example of including all factors in an effort to create a normalized scoring system, an equal weight was allocated to each index (CAR, ES, CS, and CII). Biodiesel achieved the highest score (80%) and was identified as the alternative with the highest potential for a deep-seagoing containership, followed by ammonia, hydrogen, bio-methanol, and CCS. Electricity has the lowest normalized score of 33%. A total of 100% CAR is achievable by all alternative fuels, but with compromises in voyage distance or with refuelling. For example, a battery containership carrying an equal amount of cargo as an HFO-fuelled containership can only complete 13% of the voyage distance or needs refuelling seven times to complete 10,000 n.m. The results can guide decarbonization strategies at the fleet level and can help optimise emissions as a function of specific missions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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30 pages, 6467 KiB  
Article
Design of Container Ship Main Engine Waste Heat Recovery Supercritical CO2 Cycles, Optimum Cycle Selection through Thermo-Economic Optimization with Genetic Algorithm and Its Exergo-Economic and Exergo-Environmental Analysis
by Athanasios G. Vallis, Theodoros C. Zannis, Evangelos V. Hristoforou, Elias A. Yfantis, Efthimios G. Pariotis, Dimitrios T. Hountalas and John S. Katsanis
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5398; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155398 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
In the present study, energy and exergy analyses of a simple supercritical, a split supercritical and a cascade supercritical CO2 cycle are conducted. The bottoming cycles are coupled with the main two-stroke diesel engine of a 6800 TEU container ship. An economic [...] Read more.
In the present study, energy and exergy analyses of a simple supercritical, a split supercritical and a cascade supercritical CO2 cycle are conducted. The bottoming cycles are coupled with the main two-stroke diesel engine of a 6800 TEU container ship. An economic analysis is carried out to calculate the total capital cost of these installations. The functional parameters of these cycles are optimized to minimize the electricity production cost (EPC) using a genetic algorithm. Exergo-economic and exergo-environmental analyses are conducted to calculate the cost of the exergetic streams and various exergo-environmental parameters. A parametric analysis is performed for the optimum bottoming cycle to investigate the impact of ambient conditions on the energetic, exergetic, exergo-economic and exergo-environmental key performance indicators. The theoretical results of the integrated analysis showed that the installation and operation of a waste heat recovery optimized split supercritical CO2 cycle in a 6800 TEU container ship can generate almost 2 MW of additional electric power with a thermal efficiency of 14%, leading to high fuel and CO2 emission savings from auxiliary diesel generators and contributing to economically viable shipping decarbonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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17 pages, 21144 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on NH3/O2 Counterflow Diffusion Flames
by Wenkai Yang, Ashraf N. Al Khateeb and Dimitrios C. Kyritsis
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062216 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
The impact of adding H2O2 in the fuel stream on the structure of non-premixed opposed-flow NH3/O2 flames was investigated numerically using a verified computational tool and validated mechanism. The results illustrate the dual role of the added [...] Read more.
The impact of adding H2O2 in the fuel stream on the structure of non-premixed opposed-flow NH3/O2 flames was investigated numerically using a verified computational tool and validated mechanism. The results illustrate the dual role of the added H2O2 within the fuel jet. A small amount of H2O2 within the NH3 stream acted as a fuel additive that enhanced the reaction rate via reducing the kinetic time scale. However, a novel flame structure appeared when the H2O2 mole fraction within the fuel stream increased to χH2O2 > 16%. Unlike the pure NH3/O2 flame, a premixed reaction zone was discerned on the fuel side, in which H2O2 reacts with NH3 and played the role of an oxidizer. Then, the remaining NH3 that survived premixed combustion continues reacting with O2 and forms a non-premixed flame. As a result of this structure, it was shown that the well-established conclusion of “near-equilibrium” non-premixed flame analysis in which the strain on the flame is determined by the momentum fluxes of the counter-flowing streams does not hold for the flames that were studied in this paper. It was also shown that when H2O2 acted as an oxidizer, it produced substantial amounts of HO2, which allowed for low-temperature formation of NO2 through the reaction of NO with HO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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32 pages, 25520 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Boil-Off and Sloshing Relevant to Future Liquid Hydrogen Carriers
by Jessie R. Smith, Savvas Gkantonas and Epaminondas Mastorakos
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062046 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 7631
Abstract
This study presents an approach for estimating fuel boil-off behaviour in cryogenic energy carrier ships, such as future liquid hydrogen (LH2) carriers. By relying on thermodynamic modelling and empirical formulas for ship motion and propulsion, the approach can be used to investigate boil-off [...] Read more.
This study presents an approach for estimating fuel boil-off behaviour in cryogenic energy carrier ships, such as future liquid hydrogen (LH2) carriers. By relying on thermodynamic modelling and empirical formulas for ship motion and propulsion, the approach can be used to investigate boil-off as a function of tank properties, weather conditions, and operating velocities during a laden voyage. The model is first calibrated against data from a liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier and is consequently used to investigate various design configurations of an LH2 ship. Results indicate that an LH2 ship with the same tank volume and glass wool insulation thickness as a conventional LNG carrier stores 40% of the fuel energy and is characterised by a boil-off rate nine times higher and twice as sensitive to sloshing. Adding a reliquefaction unit can reduce the LH2 fuel depletion rate by at least 38.7% but can increase its variability regarding velocity and weather conditions. In calm weather, LH2 boil-off rates can only meet LNG carrier standards by utilising at least 6.6 times the insulation thickness. By adopting fuel cell propulsion in an LH2 ship, a 1.1% increase in fuel delivery is expected. An LH2 ship with fuel cells and reliquefaction is required to be at least 1.7 times larger than an existing LNG carrier to deliver the same energy. Further comparison of alternative scenarios indicates that LH2 carriers necessitate significant redesigns if LNG carrier standards are desired. The present approach can assist future feasibility studies featuring other vessels and propulsion technologies, and can be seen as an extendable framework that can predict boil-off in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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32 pages, 92593 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Alternative Fuels for Shipping in Terms of Lifecycle Energy and Cost
by Li Chin Law, Beatrice Foscoli, Epaminondas Mastorakos and Stephen Evans
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8502; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248502 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 11892
Abstract
Decarbonization of the shipping sector is inevitable and can be made by transitioning into low- or zero-carbon marine fuels. This paper reviews 22 potential pathways, including conventional Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) marine fuel as a reference case, “blue” alternative fuel produced from natural [...] Read more.
Decarbonization of the shipping sector is inevitable and can be made by transitioning into low- or zero-carbon marine fuels. This paper reviews 22 potential pathways, including conventional Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) marine fuel as a reference case, “blue” alternative fuel produced from natural gas, and “green” fuels produced from biomass and solar energy. Carbon capture technology (CCS) is installed for fossil fuels (HFO and liquefied natural gas (LNG)). The pathways are compared in terms of quantifiable parameters including (i) fuel mass, (ii) fuel volume, (iii) life cycle (Well-To-Wake—WTW) energy intensity, (iv) WTW cost, (v) WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and (vi) non-GHG emissions, estimated from the literature and ASPEN HYSYS modelling. From an energy perspective, renewable electricity with battery technology is the most efficient route, albeit still impractical for long-distance shipping due to the low energy density of today’s batteries. The next best is fossil fuels with CCS (assuming 90% removal efficiency), which also happens to be the lowest cost solution, although the long-term storage and utilization of CO2 are still unresolved. Biofuels offer a good compromise in terms of cost, availability, and technology readiness level (TRL); however, the non-GHG emissions are not eliminated. Hydrogen and ammonia are among the worst in terms of overall energy and cost needed and may also need NOx clean-up measures. Methanol from LNG needs CCS for decarbonization, while methanol from biomass does not, and also seems to be a good candidate in terms of energy, financial cost, and TRL. The present analysis consistently compares the various options and is useful for stakeholders involved in shipping decarbonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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16 pages, 3115 KiB  
Article
Design and Assessment of ADRC-Based Autopilot for Energy-Efficient Ship Steering
by Zenon Zwierzewicz, Lech Dorobczyński and Jarosław Artyszuk
Energies 2021, 14(23), 7937; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237937 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
This paper looks at a typical problem encountered in the process of designing an automatic ship’s course stabilisation system with the use of a relatively new methodology referred to as the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC). The main advantage of this approach over [...] Read more.
This paper looks at a typical problem encountered in the process of designing an automatic ship’s course stabilisation system with the use of a relatively new methodology referred to as the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC). The main advantage of this approach over classic autopilots based on PID algorithms, still in the majority, is that it eliminates the tuning problem and, thus, ensures a much better average performance of the ship in various speed, loading, nautical and weather conditions during a voyage. All of these factors call for different and often dynamically variable autopilot parameters, which are difficult to assess, especially by the ship’s crew or owner. The original result of this article is that the required controller parameters are approximated based on some canonical model structure and analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of a wide class of ships. Another novelty is the use of a fully verified, realistic numerical hydrodynamic model of the ship as a simulation model as well as a basis for deriving a simplified model structure suitable for controller design. The preliminary results obtained indicate good performance of the proposed ADRC autopilot and provide prospects for its successful implementation on a real ship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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41 pages, 20456 KiB  
Article
Analysing the Performance of Ammonia Powertrains in the Marine Environment
by Thomas Buckley Imhoff, Savvas Gkantonas and Epaminondas Mastorakos
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7447; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217447 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5865
Abstract
This study develops system-level models of ammonia-fuelled powertrains that reflect the characteristics of four oceangoing vessels to evaluate the efficacy of ammonia as an alternative fuel in the marine environment. Relying on thermodynamics, heat transfer, and chemical engineering, the models adequately capture the [...] Read more.
This study develops system-level models of ammonia-fuelled powertrains that reflect the characteristics of four oceangoing vessels to evaluate the efficacy of ammonia as an alternative fuel in the marine environment. Relying on thermodynamics, heat transfer, and chemical engineering, the models adequately capture the behaviour of internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel processing equipment, and exhaust aftertreatment components. The performance of each vessel is evaluated by comparing its maximum range and cargo capacity to a conventional vessel. Results indicate that per unit output power, ammonia-fuelled internal combustion engines are more efficient, require less catalytic material, and have lower auxiliary power requirements than ammonia gas turbines. Most merchant vessels are strong candidates for ammonia fuelling if the operators can overcome capacity losses between 4% and 9%, assuming that the updated vessels retain the same range as a conventional vessel. The study also establishes that naval vessels are less likely to adopt ammonia powertrains without significant redesigns. Ammonia as an alternative fuel in the marine sector is a compelling option if the detailed component design continues to show that the concept is practically feasible. The present data and models can help in such feasibility studies for a range of vessels and propulsion technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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Review

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25 pages, 4348 KiB  
Review
A Conceptual Transdisciplinary Framework to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in Ship Operation Cycles to Meet IMO’s Initial Green House Gas Strategy Goals: Case Study for an Iranian Shipping Company
by Seyed Vahid Vakili, Fabio Ballini, Dimitrios Dalaklis and Aykut I. Ölçer
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062098 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
Through a systematic, holistic and transdisciplinary approach and by proposing five phases of “goal information”, “system analyzing”, “scenario construction”, “multi-criteria assessment” and “strategy building”, the study offers a process for recognizing and prioritizing energy-efficient barriers in the ship’s operational cycle according to decision-makers’ [...] Read more.
Through a systematic, holistic and transdisciplinary approach and by proposing five phases of “goal information”, “system analyzing”, “scenario construction”, “multi-criteria assessment” and “strategy building”, the study offers a process for recognizing and prioritizing energy-efficient barriers in the ship’s operational cycle according to decision-makers’ concerns. The study utilized the proposed conceptual transdisciplinary framework for overcoming energy efficiency barriers in ship operating cycles. The framework categorizes the barriers in the operational cycle into five disciplines, i.e., operations, policy and regulations, technology and innovation, human element and economics, and applies the framework to an Iranian shipping company. The results show that the economic discipline has the highest priority, and the human discipline has the least importance for the company’s decision makers. In addition, “adverse selection” (operational discipline), “policy implementation” (policy and regulatory discipline), “split incentives” (economic discipline), “limited access to capital” (economic discipline) and “imperfect budgeting” were the main barriers to energy efficiency in the company. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Saving and Carbon-Neutral Technologies for Maritime Transport)
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