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Special Issue "Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Eng. David Chiaramonti

ReCord – Renewable Energy Consortium for Research and Demonstration and Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 40, Florence, Italy
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: Thermochemical biomass conversion processes; Liquid biofuel production
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andrea Kruse

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Conversion Technologies of Biobased Resources, Universität Hohenheim / University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrothermal carbonization; carbon materials; platform-chemicals from biomass; nutrient recovery; hydrothermal conversion; hydrothermal liquefaction; hydrothermal gasification; hydrothermal pretreatment
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Ing. Marco Klemm

DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Leipzig, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrothermal processes for solid and liquid products for different applications (e.g. solid fuel, carbon materials, liquid fuels, chemicals); balance, technical assessment and optimization of hydrothermal process; implementation of hydrothermal processes in provision chains; assessment of feedstock concerning application in hydrothermal processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The possibility of converting biomass into fuels and products through wet processes is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. Hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste and residues thus rised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue aims at collecting recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. The outcome will constitute a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Prof. Ing. David Chiaramonti
Prof. Dr. Andrea Kruse
Dr. Ing. Marco Klemm
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access bimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrothermal Processing
  • Liquefaction
  • Carbonisation
  • Biochar
  • Biofuels
  • Bioproducts
  • Biochemicals

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Key Development Factors of Hydrothermal Processes in Germany by 2030: A Fuzzy Logic Analysis
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3532; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123532
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
To increase resource efficiency, it is necessary to use biogenic residues in the most efficient and value-enhancing manner. For high water-containing biomass, hydrothermal processes (HTP) are particularly promising as they require wet conditions for optimal processing anyway. In Germany, however, HTP have not
[...] Read more.
To increase resource efficiency, it is necessary to use biogenic residues in the most efficient and value-enhancing manner. For high water-containing biomass, hydrothermal processes (HTP) are particularly promising as they require wet conditions for optimal processing anyway. In Germany, however, HTP have not yet reached the industrial level, although suitable substrates are available and technological progress has been made in previous years. This study aims to determine why this is by identifying key factors that need to occur HTP development in Germany until 2030. By using results of previous analyses within this context (i.e., literature review, SWOT analysis, expert survey, and focus group workshop) and combining them with the results of an expert workshop and Delphi-survey executed during this analysis, a comprehensive information basis on important development factors is created. Fuzzy logic is used to analyze these factors in terms of interconnections, relevance, and probability of occurrence by 2030. The results show that technological factors, such as a cost-efficient process water treatment and increased system integration of HTP into bio-waste and wastewater treatment plants, are given high relevance and probability of occurrence. The adaptation of the legal framework, for example, the approval of end products from HTP as standard fuels, has very high relevance but such adaptions are considered relatively unlikely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Microalgae Biocrude from Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Heteroatom Removal and Their Distribution in Distillation Cuts
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3360; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123360
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
To obtain drop-in fuel properties from 3rd generation biomass, we herein report the catalytic hydrotreatment of microalgae biocrude, produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina. Our contribution focuses on the effect of temperature, initial H2 pressure, and residence time on the
[...] Read more.
To obtain drop-in fuel properties from 3rd generation biomass, we herein report the catalytic hydrotreatment of microalgae biocrude, produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina. Our contribution focuses on the effect of temperature, initial H2 pressure, and residence time on the removal of heteroatoms (O and N) in a batch hydrotreating setup. In contrast to common experimental protocols for hydrotreating at batch scale, we devised a set of two-level factorial experiments and studied the most influential parameters affecting the removal of heteroatoms. It was found that up to 350 °C, the degree of deoxygenation (de-O) is mainly driven by temperature, whereas the degree of denitrogenation (de-N) also relies on initial H2 pressure and temperature-pressure interaction. Based on this, complete deoxygenation was obtained at mild operating conditions (350 °C), reaching a concurrent 47% denitrogenation. Moreover, three optimized experiments are reported with 100% removal of oxygen. In addition, the analysis by GC-MS and Sim-Dis gives insight to the fuel quality. The distribution of heteroatom N in lower (<340 °C) and higher (>340 °C) fractional cuts is studied by a fractional distillation unit following ASTM D-1160. Final results show that 63–68% of nitrogen is concentrated in higher fractional cuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Carbonization Brewer’s Spent Grains with the Focus on Improving the Degradation of the Feedstock
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113226
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
PDF Full-text (1416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrochar is a very interesting product from agricultural and food production residues. Unfortunately, severe conditions for complete conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is necessary, especially compared to the conversion of sugar compounds. The goal of this work is to improve the conversion of internal
[...] Read more.
Hydrochar is a very interesting product from agricultural and food production residues. Unfortunately, severe conditions for complete conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is necessary, especially compared to the conversion of sugar compounds. The goal of this work is to improve the conversion of internal carbohydrates by application of a two-steps process, by acid addition and slightly higher water content. A set of experiments at different temperatures (180, 200, and 220 °C), reaction times (2 and 4 h), and moisture contents (80% and 90%) was performed to characterize the solid (high heating value (HHV), elemental) and liquid product phase. Afterwards, acid addition for a catalyzed hydrolysis reaction during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and a two-steps reaction (180 and 220 °C) were tested. As expected, a higher temperature leads to higher C content of the hydrochar and a higher fixed carbon (FC) content. The same effect was found with the addition of acids at lower temperatures. In the two-steps reaction, a primary hydrolysis step increases the conversion of internal carbohydrates. Higher water content has no significant effect, except for increasing the solubility of ash components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion)
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