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Energy Conversion and Storage in Fuel Cells, Batteries and Hybrid Electric Systems

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 23038

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS (EA 4423), F-57000 Metz, France
Interests: electronics of components and systems for renewable energies; numerical simulation modeling and design of electronic architectures; wide-gap semiconductor components; fuel cell energy storage management; electrical energy storage; energy recovery; stationary and transportation applications

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Guest Editor
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, SATIE (UMR 8029), F-75141 Paris, France
Interests: power electronics; power management; control; hybrid electric vehicles; electrical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fuel cells, batteries and, more widely, energy storage systems are gaining attractiveness in stationary (microgrids and charging; EV-charging plants) and transportation (electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles) applications, with the aim of improving their efficiency, reliability and cost-effectiveness for real near-future deployments in buildings, downtown cities and urban areas. Power electronics conversion plays a major and key role in the power management and reliability of conversion interfaces. Novel and innovative semiconductor technologies, wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) are of great interest in the design and improvement of dynamic performances of electronics power conversion, also considered to be an answer to main energetic challenges. This Special Issue aims to collate experimental/numerical/field-scale investigations with novel solutions and review papers with state-of-the-art findings able to deliver a significant contribution to energy conversion and the energy storage community. Even though this Special Issue is open to all contributions related to energy conversion and storage in fuel cells and battery systems, potential focus areas include, but are not limited to, the following: stationary applications (renewable energies for cities, urban areas, smart microgrids) and transportation (electric and hybrid electric vehicles).

Prof. Dr. Alexandre De Bernardinis
Dr. Khaled Itani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • batteries
  • fuel cells
  • energy storage
  • hybrid electrical systems
  • power electronics
  • energy management
  • braking energy recovery

Prof. Dr. Alexandre De Bernardinis
Dr. Khaled Itani
Guest Editors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 9625 KiB  
Article
A Control Strategy for Achieving Constant Voltage Output with an Extensive ZVS Operating Range in Bidirectional Wireless EV Charging Systems
by Guangyao Li, Yafei Chen, Hailong Zhang, Junchen Xie, Seungjin Jo and Dong-Hee Kim
Energies 2024, 17(8), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17081819 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Variations in the coupling coefficient of loosely coupled transformers and dynamic loads have a significant impact on the overall performance of bidirectional inductive power transfer (BIPT) systems. However, a wide range of load and coupling coefficient variations are common in the actual charging [...] Read more.
Variations in the coupling coefficient of loosely coupled transformers and dynamic loads have a significant impact on the overall performance of bidirectional inductive power transfer (BIPT) systems. However, a wide range of load and coupling coefficient variations are common in the actual charging process, which may cause the converter on both sides to operate in a hard switching state, resulting in switching noise, reduced efficiency, and potential safety concerns. In this paper, a triple-phase-shift control (TPSC) strategy is proposed to study the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operating range and constant-voltage output (CVO) characteristics of the double-side-LCC (DS-LCC) topology. To ensure a CVO over the wide range of coupling coefficient variations, a dual-phase-shift control is introduced for AC voltage matching. Based on this, the third phase-shift angle control between the converters on both sides is introduced to ensure the ZVS realization. Meanwhile, the time-domain model is developed to analyze the rationality of the proposed third phase-shift angle and the ZVS operating range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed TPSC strategy is validated through a 1.5 kW experimental prototype with an air gap of 100–150 mm. Full article
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17 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Energy Storage System Integrated with a Wave Energy Converter: Data-Driven Stochastic Power Management for Output Power Smoothing
by Dario Pelosi, Federico Gallorini, Giacomo Alessandri and Linda Barelli
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051167 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Beyond solar and wind energy, wave energy is gaining great interest due to its very high theoretical potential, although its stochastic nature causes intermittent and fluctuating power production. Energy storage system (ESS) integration to wave energy converter (WEC) plants represents a promising solution [...] Read more.
Beyond solar and wind energy, wave energy is gaining great interest due to its very high theoretical potential, although its stochastic nature causes intermittent and fluctuating power production. Energy storage system (ESS) integration to wave energy converter (WEC) plants represents a promising solution to mitigate this issue. To overcome the technological limits of the single storage devices, the hybridization of complementary ESSs represents an effective solution, extending the operating range over different timeframes. This paper analyzes the benefits of Li-ion battery–supercapacitor hybrid ESS integration into a grid-connected WEC, aiming at smoothing the produced power oscillations. The hybridization concept involves coupling a power-intensive technology, such as a supercapacitor devoted to managing fluctuations at higher frequency, with a battery technology exploited to manage power variations over longer timeframes to mitigate degradation issues. In this study, a multi-objective data-driven power management strategy, based on the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm, is implemented to minimize power fluctuations in terms of power ramp (representing the power variation between two consecutive values with a 1 s time step), both at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) and the Li-ion battery terminals, thanks to the supercapacitor peak-shaving function. The SPSA management strategy, together with a suitable sizing procedure, allows a reduction of more than 70% in the power oscillations at the PCC with respect to those at the WEC terminals, while decreasing battery stress by more than 25% if compared to a non-hybrid ESS consisting of a Li-ion battery. This shows how supercapacitor features can extend battery lifespan when integrated in a hybrid ESS. Full article
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15 pages, 7290 KiB  
Article
AC-DC-DC Converter for Small Power Energy Storage Systems
by Szymon Piasecki, Serafin Bachman, Jarosław Zaleski, Marek Jasinski and Marek Turzyński
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7556; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227556 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
The energy transformation driven by the development of renewable energy sources has become a reality for all power grid users. Prosumer energy, primarily utilizing photovoltaic installations, is one of the fastest-growing market segments. The advancement of technology, a decrease in electrochemical energy storage [...] Read more.
The energy transformation driven by the development of renewable energy sources has become a reality for all power grid users. Prosumer energy, primarily utilizing photovoltaic installations, is one of the fastest-growing market segments. The advancement of technology, a decrease in electrochemical energy storage prices, and changes in the legal framework governing energy billing for grid-fed power have led to a growing interest in expanding prosumer installations with energy storage modules. This article presents the authors’ concept and expected functionalities of a prosumer system equipped with energy storage based on theoretical assumptions, simulation analyses, and experimental research. Additionally, it covers the design and functionality of a hybrid converter; its experimental validation, including an analysis of operational modes; the development of a control algorithm under real conditions; and the efficiency testing of the device. Full article
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15 pages, 4984 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Using Ternary Metal Oxide Nanocomposite as Hole-Transporting Material
by K. P. Muthukumaran, V. Arjun, A. Nithya, Sadhasivam Thangarasu, Tae Hwan Oh and S. Karuppuchamy
Energies 2023, 16(9), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16093696 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
This work uses a hole-transporting copper cobaltite/copper oxide nanocomposite to fabricate carbon-based MAPbI3 PSCs. The copper cobaltite/copper oxide HTM-based PSC results show the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE = 7.32%) compared with an HTM-free device. The highest photocurrent density (Jsc = [...] Read more.
This work uses a hole-transporting copper cobaltite/copper oxide nanocomposite to fabricate carbon-based MAPbI3 PSCs. The copper cobaltite/copper oxide HTM-based PSC results show the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE = 7.32%) compared with an HTM-free device. The highest photocurrent density (Jsc = 15.17 mA/cm2), open-circuit voltage (Voc = 0.82 V), and fill factor (FF = 0.59) are achieved for the PSC fabricated with hydrothermally synthesized copper cobaltite/copper oxide nanocomposites. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to analyze the charge transfer resistance (Rs) and the capacitive behavior of copper cobaltite/copper oxide nanocomposite. The maximum electron lifetime of 35.16 μs is witnessed for the PSCs fabricated with 3 mg mL−1 of copper cobaltite/copper oxide (H1). The efficiency of the copper cobaltite/copper oxide-based PSC remains unchanged, showing no further perovskite layer degradation. Full article
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27 pages, 11572 KiB  
Article
Electrothermal Multicriteria Comparative Analysis of Two Competitive Powertrains Applied to a Two Front Wheel Driven Electric Vehicle during Extreme Regenerative Braking Operations
by Khaled Itani and Alexandre De Bernardinis
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8506; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228506 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The powertrain performance in an electric vehicle is fully dependent on the electrical and thermal constraints of the static converters ensuring the power transfer taking place between the energy storage systems and the electromechanical machines. These constraints depend on the architectures of the [...] Read more.
The powertrain performance in an electric vehicle is fully dependent on the electrical and thermal constraints of the static converters ensuring the power transfer taking place between the energy storage systems and the electromechanical machines. These constraints depend on the architectures of the power converters, and their control strategies. Particularly, the maximal limits are reached in maneuvers such as hard regenerative braking circumstances. Indeed, braking recovery is a critical phase in the vehicle’s operation, and its duration and intensity may strongly impact the vehicle’s battery behavior or integrated hybrid storage system. The innovative objective of the paper is to propose an electrothermal multicriteria comparative study based on electrical and thermal criteria for two competitive powertrains. These semi-active power configurations (a 3-level DC/DC converter-based, and a Z-source converter-based) are implemented in a two-front wheel driven electric vehicle during extreme regenerative braking conditions. Open-loop and closed-loop controls were implemented in the Z-source using the maximal constant boost control with 3rd harmonic injection modulation technique. We considered two paralleled IGBT modules instead of the single shoot-through structure. Our approach is based on simulation during an extreme braking maneuver leading to heavy repercussions on the overall powertrain system. The aim is to investigate the challenging structure of the Z-source. Results showed that the proposed 3-level DC/DC-based topology has better performances in terms of power losses, efficiency, thermal behavior, and electromagnetic interference. Full article
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13 pages, 3758 KiB  
Article
Li4Ti5O12 Coated by Biomass-Derived Carbon Quantum Dots as Anode Material with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Marcin Krajewski, Chun-Hao Chen, Zhi-Ting Huang and Jeng-Yu Lin
Energies 2022, 15(20), 7715; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207715 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its stable reversibility, high-rate cyclability, and high operational potential. On the other hand, it suffers from poor electronic conductivity and low capacitance. To overcome these [...] Read more.
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its stable reversibility, high-rate cyclability, and high operational potential. On the other hand, it suffers from poor electronic conductivity and low capacitance. To overcome these disadvantages, modification of the LTO surface is frequently undertaken. Considering this idea, the production of a biomass-derived carbon-coated LTO material (LTO/C) and its application as an anode in LIBs is described in this work. The carbon precursor was obtained from commercial carrot juice, which was degraded using microwaves. According to the UV studies, the carbon precursor revealed similar properties to carbon quantum dots. Then, it was deposited on LTO synthetized through a sol-gel method. The LTO/C electrode exhibited a high specific capacity of 211 mAhg−1 at 0.1 C. Capacity retention equal to 53% of the initial value was found for the charge–discharge rate increase from 0.1 C to 20 C. The excellent electrochemical performance of LTO/C was caused by the carbon coating, which provided (i) short diffusion pathways for the Li+ ions into the LTO structure and (ii) enhanced electronic conductivity. The obtained results indicated that biomass-derived carbon quantum dot-coated LTO can be considered as a promising anode for LIBs. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 1493 KiB  
Review
A Paradox over Electric Vehicles, Mining of Lithium for Car Batteries
by John H. T. Luong, Cang Tran and Di Ton-That
Energies 2022, 15(21), 7997; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15217997 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 14827
Abstract
Lithium, a silver-white alkali metal, with significantly high energy density, has been exploited for making rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). They have become one of the main energy storage solutions in modern electric cars (EVs). Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are three other key components [...] Read more.
Lithium, a silver-white alkali metal, with significantly high energy density, has been exploited for making rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). They have become one of the main energy storage solutions in modern electric cars (EVs). Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are three other key components of LiBs that power electric vehicles (EVs). Neodymium and dysprosium, two rare earth metals, are used in the permanent magnet-based motors of EVs. The operation of EVs also requires a high amount of electricity for recharging their LiBs. Thus, the CO2 emission is reduced during the operation of an EV if the recharged electricity is generated from non-carbon sources such as hydroelectricity, solar energy, and nuclear energy. LiBs in EVs have been pushed to the limit because of their limited storage capacity and charge/discharge cycles. Batteries account for a substantial portion of the size and weight of an EV and occupy the entire chassis. Thus, future LiBs must be smaller and more powerful with extended driving ranges and short charging times. The extended range and longevity of LiBs are feasible with advances in solid-state electrolytes and robust electrode materials. Attention must also be focused on the high-cost, energy, and time-demand steps of LiB manufacturing to reduce cost and turnover time. Solid strategies are required to promote the deployment of spent LiBs for power storage, solar energy, power grids, and other stationary usages. Recycling spent LiBs will alleviate the demand for virgin lithium and 2.6 × 1011 tons of lithium in seawater is a definite asset. Nonetheless, it remains unknown whether advances in battery production technology and recycling will substantially reduce the demand for lithium and other metals beyond 2050. Technical challenges in LiB manufacturing and lithium recycling must be overcome to sustain the deployment of EVs for reducing CO2 emissions. However, potential environmental problems associated with the production and operation of EVs deserve further studies while promoting their global deployment. Moreover, the combined repurposing and remanufacturing of spent LiBs also increases the environmental benefits of EVs. EVs will be equipped with more powerful computers and reliable software to monitor and optimize the operation of LiBs. Full article
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