Special Issue "Vehicular Networks and Communications"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Omprakash Kaiwartya
Website
Guest Editor
School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Campus, NG11 8NS, UK
Interests: Internet of Connected Vehicles (IoV), IoT use case Implementation of Sensor Networks, Electric Vehicle Charging Management: Recommendation and Planning (EV)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Zhengguo Sheng
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex, BN1 9RH, UK
Interests: vehicular communications, IoT, wireless communications and networking
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Wei-Chang Yeh
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan
Interests: Algorithms Design, Optimization, and Soft Computing Techniques
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Prof. Qian Fu
Website
Guest Editor
School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China
Interests: Energy Saving, Fuel Cell, Micro Systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vehicular networks have the potential to address most traffic-related issues ranging from traffic jams and accidents, to pollution control and traffic management. This is possible by the effective utilization of accurate traffic prediction, and cooperative traffic information sharing over vehicular networks. Due to the recent advances in sensor and communication technologies, vehicular networks are transforming towards the Internet of Connected Vehicles (IoV). Due to the enabling technologies for heterogeneous vehicular communications, including Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Roadside unit (V2R), Vehicle-to-Personal Devices (V2P), Vehicle-to-Mobile-Infrastructure (V2I), and Vehicle-to-Sensor (V2S) communications. In order to enable a Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X)-centric IoV framework, various technical questions need to be addressed, focusing on the quality of service in heterogeneous wireless communication environments.

You are welcome to submit an unpublished original research work related to the theme of ‘Vehicular Networks and Communications’ in sensor-enabled communication network environments. 

Dr. Omprakash Kaiwartya
Dr. Zhengguo Sheng
Prof. Wei-Chang Yeh
Prof. Qian Fu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • V2X communications, V2V, V2R, V2P, V2I, V2S
  • Routing, Data Dissemination, Data Aggregation, Path Section, Optimization
  • Medium Access Protocols, Congestion Control, Prioritization Techniques
  • Green Computing, Energy Consumption, Energy Harvesting, Lifetime Maximixation
  • Secure Communication, Security Optimization, Distibuted Security
  • Privacy Preservation, Privacy Loss, Secrate Communication
  • Vedio Transmission, Vedio Encoding/Decoding, Vedio Compression
  • Edge Computing, Fog Computing, Cloud Computing, Distributed Computing
  • Localization, Geographic, GPS outage, GPS free, GPS assisted
  • Propagation Modelling, Interference, Path Loss Modelling

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improved Road Segment-Based Geographical Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Electronics 2020, 9(8), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9081248 - 04 Aug 2020
Abstract
The real-time traffic information dissemination among on-road vehicles has been envisioned via realizing vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) as smart service-oriented roadside wireless sensor networks. The network enables various types of real-time traffic applications related to safety and infotainment for drivers and passengers. [...] Read more.
The real-time traffic information dissemination among on-road vehicles has been envisioned via realizing vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) as smart service-oriented roadside wireless sensor networks. The network enables various types of real-time traffic applications related to safety and infotainment for drivers and passengers. The information dissemination-centric routing protocols for vehicular networks have to dynamically adopt under the constrained network environment while considering the higher mobility of vehicular nodes and unpredictable physical topologies in the network. The issue needs to be addressed through smart and network-aware routing protocols. Geographical routing protocols have witnessed significant attention for information dissemination under these types of dynamic vehicular network environment. To this end, this paper presents an improved road segment-based geographical routing (ISR) protocol focusing on better head node selection for information dissemination. It divides the forwarding area into a number of road segments and selects a head node on each segment by focusing on traffic-aware information including the location, direction, and link quality-centric score for every vehicle on each road segment. Algorithms were developed for the complete process of head node selection and information dissemination among vehicles on the road segments. The simulation results attested the performance benefits of the proposed routing framework as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols considering dynamic vehicular traffic environment-related metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
CCN-Based Inter-Vehicle Communication for Efficient Collection of Road and Traffic Information
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010112 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
Recently, inter-vehicle communication, which helps to avoid collision accidents (by driving safety support system) and facilitate self-driving (by dissemination of road and traffic information), has attracted much attention. In this paper, in order to efficiently collect road/traffic information in the request/response manner, first [...] Read more.
Recently, inter-vehicle communication, which helps to avoid collision accidents (by driving safety support system) and facilitate self-driving (by dissemination of road and traffic information), has attracted much attention. In this paper, in order to efficiently collect road/traffic information in the request/response manner, first a basic method, Content-centric network (CCN) for Vehicular network (CV), is proposed, which applies CCN cache function to inter-vehicle communication. Content naming and routing, which take vehicle mobility into account, are investigated. On this basis, the CV method is extended (called ECV) to avoid the cache miss problem caused by vehicle movement, and is further enhanced (called ECV+) to more efficiently exploit cache buffer in vehicles, caching content according to a probability decided by a channel usage rate. Extensive evaluations on the network simulator Scenargie, with a realistic open street map, confirm that the CV method and its extensions (ECV, ECV+) effectively reduce the average number of hops of data packets (by up to 47%, 63%, and 83%, respectively) and greatly improve the content acquisition success rate (by up to 356%, 444%, and 689%, respectively), compared to the method without a cache mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modified Echo State Network Enabled Dynamic Duty Cycle for Optimal Opportunistic Routing in EH-WSNs
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010098 - 03 Jan 2020
Abstract
Minimizing energy consumption is one of the major challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to the limited size of batteries and the resource constrained tiny sensor nodes. Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks (EH-WSNs) is one of the promising solutions to minimize [...] Read more.
Minimizing energy consumption is one of the major challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to the limited size of batteries and the resource constrained tiny sensor nodes. Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks (EH-WSNs) is one of the promising solutions to minimize the energy consumption in wireless sensor networks for prolonging the overall network lifetime. However, static energy harvesting in individual sensor nodes is normally limited and unbalanced among the network nodes. In this context, this paper proposes a modified echo state network (MESN) based dynamic duty cycle with optimal opportunistic routing (OOR) for EH-WSNs. The proposed model is used to act as a predictor for finding the expected energy consumption of the next slot in dynamic duty cycle. The model has adapted a whale optimization algorithm (WOA) for optimally selecting the weights of the neurons in the reservoir layer of the echo state network towards minimizing energy consumption at each node as well as at the network level. The adapted WOA enabled energy harvesting model provides stable output from the MESN relying on optimal weight selection in the reservoir layer. The dynamic duty cycle is updated based on energy consumption and optimal threshold energy for transmission and reception at bit level. The proposed OOR scheme uses multiple energy centric parameters for selecting the relay set oriented forwarding paths for each neighbor nodes. The performance analysis of the proposed model in realistic environments attests the benefits in terms of energy centric metrics such as energy consumption, network lifetime, delay, packet delivery ratio and throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art-techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Video Streaming in Urban Vehicular Environments: Junction-Aware Multipath Approach
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111239 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In multipath video streaming transmission, the selection of the best vehicle for video packet forwarding considering the junction area is a challenging task due to the several diversions in the junction area. The vehicles in the junction area change direction based on the [...] Read more.
In multipath video streaming transmission, the selection of the best vehicle for video packet forwarding considering the junction area is a challenging task due to the several diversions in the junction area. The vehicles in the junction area change direction based on the different diversions, which lead to video packet drop. In the existing works, the explicit consideration of different positions in the junction areas has not been considered for forwarding vehicle selection. To address the aforementioned challenges, a Junction-Aware vehicle selection for Multipath Video Streaming (JA-MVS) scheme has been proposed. The JA-MVS scheme considers three different cases in the junction area including the vehicle after the junction, before the junction and inside the junction area, with an evaluation of the vehicle signal strength based on the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), which is based on the multipath data forwarding concept using greedy-based geographic routing. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated based on the Packet Loss Ratio (PLR), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and End-to-End Delay (E2ED) metrics. The JA-MVS is compared against two baseline schemes, Junction-Based Multipath Source Routing (JMSR) and the Adaptive Multipath geographic routing for Video Transmission (AMVT), in urban Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Resource Allocation in D2D-Based V2V Communication
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090962 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is the major enabler of Vehicle-to-Everything communication in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 14. The user equipment/device can engage either in direct communication with the infrastructure, use a relay node, or it can communicate directly with another device with [...] Read more.
Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is the major enabler of Vehicle-to-Everything communication in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 14. The user equipment/device can engage either in direct communication with the infrastructure, use a relay node, or it can communicate directly with another device with or without infrastructure support. The user equipment can be either a hand-held cellular device or a moving vehicle. The coexistence of cellular user equipment with the vehicular user equipment imposes different Quality of Service (QOS) requirements due to the rapid mobility of the vehicles and interference. Resource allocation is an important task by which the user equipment is allocated the required resources based on different QOS parameters. In this paper, we introduced the case of three types of users which share uplink resources: two types of vehicular users, and a third user that acts as a handheld cellular phone, which is nearly static. By keeping in mind, the differential QOS requirements for the three types of users, we have calculated the optimum power and then applied a 3-dimensional graph-based matching and hypergraph coloring based resource block (RB) allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Distributed Token Passing Protocol for Time Constrained Data Gathering in VANETs
Electronics 2019, 8(8), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8080823 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel approach for time constrained information gathering in a typical Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET), based on a token passing scheme, adapted to wireless communications by creating a virtual ring where nodes are connected to a predecessor and a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel approach for time constrained information gathering in a typical Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET), based on a token passing scheme, adapted to wireless communications by creating a virtual ring where nodes are connected to a predecessor and a successor node. To address the typical fast topology changes of VANETs, we proposed a specific approach, called Tom Thumb that is a distributed protocol that node-by-node circulates a special packet, called token, which collects the information stored in each vehicle until returning to the first unit within a specified time constraint. The protocol has been properly designed in terms of (i) the more effective hop-by-hop and distributed heuristic implementing the objective function (ii) the token packet format, i.e., the syntax and semantics of its fields. Finally, the performance of the proposed approach is validated for different time constraints and numbers of vehicles, always pointing out a remarkable gain, especially in the presence of severe constraints, i.e., in terms of time deadline, collected information amount and success probability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Demonstration of Single-Channel EEG Signal Using 32 × 32 Pixel OLED Screen and Camera
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070734 - 28 Jun 2019
Abstract
Currently, the radiofrequency (RF)-based wireless technology deployed in electroencephalography (EEG) to diagnose brain diseases suffers from frequency spectrum and electromagnetic interference, and might also have adverse effects on the health of patients and equipment used in hospitals, especially in RF-restricted zones like intensive [...] Read more.
Currently, the radiofrequency (RF)-based wireless technology deployed in electroencephalography (EEG) to diagnose brain diseases suffers from frequency spectrum and electromagnetic interference, and might also have adverse effects on the health of patients and equipment used in hospitals, especially in RF-restricted zones like intensive care units (ICUs). Optical wireless communication (OWC), specifically visible light communication (VLC), is featured in 5G network to complement the radiofrequency (RF) technologies due to the fact that huge unlicensed bandwidth and available infrastructure, both indoor and outdoor, reduces the implementation cost. The conventional VLC systems deploy photodiodes as receivers, requiring hardware and infrastructure modifications in addition to smaller field of view (FOV), but the use of cameras reduce the infrastructure cost due to inbuilt filters and a wider FOV coverage gives the ability to scale a larger area. The wider FOV and the movement of camera rotation, without any additional adjustments to maintain the line-of-sight (LOS), allows the patient to be anywhere within the room and FOV. This paper demonstrates a novel healthcare system for EEG using visible light optical camera communication (VL-OCC), where a 32 × 32 pixel OLED screen acts as transmitter and the receiver section consists of several different cameras such as digital single-lens reflex camera (DLSR), android smartphone, and Thorlabs camera. The experiments were performed in LOS deploying on-off keying (OOK) modulation at several distant measurements to determine the system reliability and stability through bit error rate (BER) performance. The proposed system results depict that the DSLR camera outperforms the smartphone and Thorlabs cameras, as it is capable of transmitting an error free bit rate of 2.8 kbps at 30 fps up to 5.5 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Design of Functional Device for Vehicular Cloud Computing
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050583 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Relay technology application becomes prevalent nowadays, as it can effectively extend the communication distance, especially for vehicular networks with a limited communication range. Combined with vehicular cloud (VC), transmission efficiency can be improved by offloading partial data. Hence, designing a vehicle relay algorithm [...] Read more.
Relay technology application becomes prevalent nowadays, as it can effectively extend the communication distance, especially for vehicular networks with a limited communication range. Combined with vehicular cloud (VC), transmission efficiency can be improved by offloading partial data. Hence, designing a vehicle relay algorithm and implementation embedded vehicle device is critical. In this paper, VC is considered to deal with the complexity computation in our proposed system model. Without a loss of generality, an end-to-end vehicle communication with one assisted vehicle is analyzed firstly on a transmission link based on VC. Here, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the receiving end and link outage probability is obtained to enhance the link reliability. The VC computing helps us further simplify computational complexity. Subsequently, an embedded vehicle-enabled device is designed to achieve the optimal path relay selection in realistic vehicular environments. In the functional device framework, we display an optimal path relay selection algorithm according to the link quality. Finally, the performance of the transmission link on the outage probability related with SNR is verified in the simulation results. Meanwhile, the effect of the relay gain is also analyzed. The application of a vehicle-enabled embedded device could improve the performance of vehicular networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy System and Time Window Applied to Traffic Service Network Problems under a Multi-Demand Random Network
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050539 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The transportation network promotes key human development links such as social production, population movement and resource exchange. As cities continue to expand, transportation networks become increasingly complex. A bad traffic network design will affect the quality of urban development and cause regional economic [...] Read more.
The transportation network promotes key human development links such as social production, population movement and resource exchange. As cities continue to expand, transportation networks become increasingly complex. A bad traffic network design will affect the quality of urban development and cause regional economic losses. How to plan transportation routes and allocate transportation resources is an important issue in today’s society. This study uses the network reliability method to solve traffic network problems. Network reliability refers to the probability of a successful connection between the source and sink nodes in the network. There are many systems in the world that use network architecture; therefore, network reliability is widely used in various practical problems and cases. In the past, some scholars have used network reliability to solve traffic service network problems. However, the processing of time is not detailed enough to fully express the real user’s time requirements and does not consider that the route traffic will affect the reliability of the entire network. This study improves on past network reliability methods by using a fuzzy system and a time window to construct a network model. Using the concept of fuzzy systems, according to past experience, data or expert predictions to define the degree of flow, time and reliability, can also determine the relationship between these factors. The time window can be adjusted according to the time limit in reality, reaching the limit of the complete expression time. In addition, the network reliability algorithm used in this study is a direct algorithm. Compared with the past indirect algorithms, the computation time is greatly reduced and complex problems can be solved more efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Enabling Green Wireless Sensor Networks: Energy Efficient T-MAC Using Markov Chain Based Optimization
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050534 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to the rapidly growing sensor-enabled connected world around us, with the continuously decreasing size of sensors from smaller to tiny, energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks has drawn ample consideration in both academia as well as in industries’ R&D. The literature of [...] Read more.
Due to the rapidly growing sensor-enabled connected world around us, with the continuously decreasing size of sensors from smaller to tiny, energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks has drawn ample consideration in both academia as well as in industries’ R&D. The literature of energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is focused on the three layers of wireless communication, namely the physical, Medium Access Control (MAC) and network layers. Physical layer-centric energy efficiency techniques have limited capabilities due to hardware designs and size considerations. Network layer-centric energy efficiency approaches have been constrained, in view of network dynamics and available network infrastructures. However, energy efficiency at the MAC layer requires a traffic cooperative transmission control. In this context, this paper presents a one-dimensional discrete-time Markov chain analytical model of the Timeout Medium Access Control (T-MAC) protocol. Specifically, an analytical model is derived for T-MAC focusing on an analysis of service delay, throughput, energy consumption and power efficiency under unsaturated traffic conditions. The service delay model calculates the average service delay using the adaptive sleep wakeup schedules. The component models include a queuing theory-based throughput analysis model, a cycle probability-based analytical model for computing the probabilities of a successful transmission, collision, and the idle state of a sensor, as well as an energy consumption model for the sensor’s life cycle. A fair performance assessment of the proposed T-MAC analytical model attests to the energy efficiency of the model when compared to that of state-of-the-art techniques, in terms of better power saving, a higher throughput and a lower energy consumption under various traffic loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Secure Intelligent Vehicular Network Using Fog Computing
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040455 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
VANET (vehicular ad hoc network) has a main objective to improve driver safety and traffic efficiency. The intermittent exchange of real-time safety message delivery in VANET has become an urgent concern due to DoS (denial of service) and smart and normal intrusions (SNI) [...] Read more.
VANET (vehicular ad hoc network) has a main objective to improve driver safety and traffic efficiency. The intermittent exchange of real-time safety message delivery in VANET has become an urgent concern due to DoS (denial of service) and smart and normal intrusions (SNI) attacks. The intermittent communication of VANET generates huge amount of data which requires typical storage and intelligence infrastructure. Fog computing (FC) plays an important role in storage, computation, and communication needs. In this research, fog computing (FC) integrates with hybrid optimization algorithms (OAs) including the Cuckoo search algorithm (CSA), firefly algorithm (FA), firefly neural network, and the key distribution establishment (KDE) for authenticating both the network level and the node level against all attacks for trustworthiness in VANET. The proposed scheme is termed “Secure Intelligent Vehicular Network using fog computing” (SIVNFC). A feedforward back propagation neural network (FFBP-NN), also termed the firefly neural, is used as a classifier to distinguish between the attacking vehicles and genuine vehicles. The SIVNFC scheme is compared with the Cuckoo, the FA, and the firefly neural network to evaluate the quality of services (QoS) parameters such as jitter and throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Computing in Sensors-Enabled Internet of Things: Neuro Fuzzy Logic-Based Load Balancing
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040384 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Energy is a precious resource in the sensors-enabled Internet of Things (IoT). Unequal load on sensors deplete their energy quickly, which may interrupt the operations in the network. Further, a single artificial intelligence technique is not enough to solve the problem of load [...] Read more.
Energy is a precious resource in the sensors-enabled Internet of Things (IoT). Unequal load on sensors deplete their energy quickly, which may interrupt the operations in the network. Further, a single artificial intelligence technique is not enough to solve the problem of load balancing and minimize energy consumption, because of the integration of ubiquitous smart-sensors-enabled IoT. In this paper, we present an adaptive neuro fuzzy clustering algorithm (ANFCA) to balance the load evenly among sensors. We synthesized fuzzy logic and a neural network to counterbalance the selection of the optimal number of cluster heads and even distribution of load among the sensors. We developed fuzzy rules, sets, and membership functions of an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system to decide whether a sensor can play the role of a cluster head based on the parameters of residual energy, node distance to the base station, and node density. The proposed ANFCA outperformed the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of node death rate percentage, number of remaining functioning nodes, average energy consumption, and standard deviation of residual energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Transmission Capacity Characterization in VANETs with Enhanced Distributed Channel Access
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030340 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The traditional research on the capacity of the Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) mainly lacks realistic models mimicking the behaviors of vehicles and the MAC protocol applied by IEEE 802.11p. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper, the network transmission capacity analysis for [...] Read more.
The traditional research on the capacity of the Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) mainly lacks realistic models mimicking the behaviors of vehicles and the MAC protocol applied by IEEE 802.11p. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper, the network transmission capacity analysis for VANETs is carried out from the perspective of the spatial geometric relationship among different vehicles. Specifically, the transmission scheme in this system is set to mimic enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) protocol, in which the division of priorities is taken into account both the data type and the transmission distance requirement. Meanwhile, the moving pattern of vehicles is described as the classic car-following model according to realistic characteristics of VANET, and the propagation channel is modeled as a combination of large-scale path-loss and small-scale Rayleigh fading. Based on this model, the transmission opportunity under EDCA protocol is quantified and compared with that of CSMA/CA, and then the outage probability is calculated under the worst interfered scenario. Finally, the transmission capacity is thereby calculated and verified by the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Multi-Layer Problems and Solutions in VANETs: A Review
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020204 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
The Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology supports the vehicular communications through Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Communication, by operating at 5.9 GHz band (U.S. Standard). The Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer are defined by the [...] Read more.
The Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology supports the vehicular communications through Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Communication, by operating at 5.9 GHz band (U.S. Standard). The Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer are defined by the IEEE 802.11p, while the IEEE 1609 family of standards define the Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE); a suite of communication and security standards in the Vehicular Area Networks (VANETs). There has been a lot of research regarding several challenges in VANETs, from spectrum utilization to multichannel operation and from routing to security issues. The aim of all is to improve the performance of the network and support scalability in VANETs; which is defined as the ability of the network to handle the addition of vehicles (nodes) without suffering noticeable degradation of performance or administrative overhead. In this paper, we aim to highlight multilayer challenges concerning the performance of the VANETs, the already proposed solutions, and the possible future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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