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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Demonstration of Single-Channel EEG Signal Using 32 × 32 Pixel OLED Screen and Camera

Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Department of Engineering and Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, G L Bajaj Institute of Technology and Management, Greater Noida 201306, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 734;
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
PDF [2569 KB, uploaded 28 June 2019]


Currently, the radiofrequency (RF)-based wireless technology deployed in electroencephalography (EEG) to diagnose brain diseases suffers from frequency spectrum and electromagnetic interference, and might also have adverse effects on the health of patients and equipment used in hospitals, especially in RF-restricted zones like intensive care units (ICUs). Optical wireless communication (OWC), specifically visible light communication (VLC), is featured in 5G network to complement the radiofrequency (RF) technologies due to the fact that huge unlicensed bandwidth and available infrastructure, both indoor and outdoor, reduces the implementation cost. The conventional VLC systems deploy photodiodes as receivers, requiring hardware and infrastructure modifications in addition to smaller field of view (FOV), but the use of cameras reduce the infrastructure cost due to inbuilt filters and a wider FOV coverage gives the ability to scale a larger area. The wider FOV and the movement of camera rotation, without any additional adjustments to maintain the line-of-sight (LOS), allows the patient to be anywhere within the room and FOV. This paper demonstrates a novel healthcare system for EEG using visible light optical camera communication (VL-OCC), where a 32 × 32 pixel OLED screen acts as transmitter and the receiver section consists of several different cameras such as digital single-lens reflex camera (DLSR), android smartphone, and Thorlabs camera. The experiments were performed in LOS deploying on-off keying (OOK) modulation at several distant measurements to determine the system reliability and stability through bit error rate (BER) performance. The proposed system results depict that the DSLR camera outperforms the smartphone and Thorlabs cameras, as it is capable of transmitting an error free bit rate of 2.8 kbps at 30 fps up to 5.5 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: visible light optical camera communication; organic light-emitting diode; 5G; healthcare; electroencephalography visible light optical camera communication; organic light-emitting diode; 5G; healthcare; electroencephalography

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Aggarwal, G.; Dai, X.; Saatchi, R.; Binns, R.; Sikandar, A. Experimental Demonstration of Single-Channel EEG Signal Using 32 × 32 Pixel OLED Screen and Camera. Electronics 2019, 8, 734.

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