Special Issue "Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Manuel García Sanchez Website E-Mail
Signal Theory and Communications Department, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: wireless mobile communications; antenna design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For the last few decades, the millimeter wave frequency band (30-300 GHz) has been seen as a serious candidate to host very high data rate communications. Firstly used for high capacity radio links, then for broadband indoor wireless networks, the interest in this frequency band has been boosted, as it was proposed to accommodate future 5G mobile communication systems.

The large bandwidth available will enable a number of new use cases for 5G. In addition, due to the large propagation attenuation, this frequency band may present some additional advantages regarding frequency reuse and communication security. On the other hand, however, a number of issues have to be addressed to make mmWave communications viable. A lot of effort is currently being made in the following topics:

  • Channel measurement, modeling, and estimation;
  • Antenna design and antenna measurement;
  • Beamforming and energy efficiency;
  • Commercial hardware design and development;
  • MIMO and massive MIMO (m-MIMO);
  • Multicell cooperation;
  • Network planning and interference;
  • System performance assessment and optimization;
  • New case uses and applications.

Because of this strong effort, new advances are made on these topics every day. The main objective of this Special Issue is to report on the latest advances on mmWave communications. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to the list above.

Prof. Manuel García Sánchez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mmWave
  • 5G
  • wireless communications
  • radio channel
  • MIMO and m-MIMO
  • antenna beamforming
  • precoding
  • multicell cooperation
  • energy efficiency

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Design of a SIW Variable Phase Shifter for Beam Steering Antenna Systems
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8091013 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper proposes a new beam steering antenna system consisting of two variable reflection-type phase shifters, a 3 dB coupler, and a 90° phase transition. The entire structure is designed and fabricated on a single layer of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), which makes [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new beam steering antenna system consisting of two variable reflection-type phase shifters, a 3 dB coupler, and a 90° phase transition. The entire structure is designed and fabricated on a single layer of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), which makes it a low loss and low-profile antenna system. Surface mount tuning varactor diodes are chosen as electrical phase control elements. By changing the biasing voltage of the varactor diodes in the phase shifter circuits, the far-field radiation pattern of the antenna steers from −25° to 25°. The system has a reflection coefficient better than −10 dB for a 2 GHz bandwidth centered at 17 GHz, a directive radiation pattern with a maximum of 10.7 dB gain at the mid-band frequency, and cross polarization better than 20 dB. A prototype is fabricated and measured for design verification. The measured far-field radiation patterns, co and cross polarization, and the reflection coefficient of the antenna system agree with simulated results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Permittivity of Undoped Silicon in the Millimeter Wave Range
Electronics 2019, 8(8), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8080886 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
With the rapid development of millimeter wave technology, it is a fundamental requirement to understand the permittivity of materials in this frequency range. This paper describes the dielectric measurement of undoped silicon in the E-band (60–90 GHz) using a free-space quasi-optical system. This [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of millimeter wave technology, it is a fundamental requirement to understand the permittivity of materials in this frequency range. This paper describes the dielectric measurement of undoped silicon in the E-band (60–90 GHz) using a free-space quasi-optical system. This system is capable of creating local plane wave, which is desirable for dielectric measurement in the millimeter wave range. Details of the design and performance of the quasi-optical system are presented. The principle of dielectric measurement and retrieval process are described incorporating the theories of wave propagation and scattering parameters. Measured results of a sheet of undoped silicon are in agreement with the published results in the literature, within a discrepancy of 1%. It is also observed that silicon has a small temperature coefficient for permittivity. This work is helpful for understanding the dielectric property of silicon in the millimeter wave range. The method is applicable to other electronic materials as well as liquid samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Broadband W-Band Waveguide Package and Application to Low Noise Amplifier Module
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050523 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
In this paper, the broadband millimeter-wave waveguide package, which can cover the entire W-band (75–110 GHz) is presented and applied to build a low noise amplifier module. For this purpose, a broadband waveguide-to-microstrip transition was designed using an extended E-plane probe [...] Read more.
In this paper, the broadband millimeter-wave waveguide package, which can cover the entire W-band (75–110 GHz) is presented and applied to build a low noise amplifier module. For this purpose, a broadband waveguide-to-microstrip transition was designed using an extended E-plane probe in a low-loss and thin dielectric substrate. The end of the probe substrate was firmly fixed on to the waveguide wall in order to minimize the performance degradation caused by the probable bending of the substrate. In addition, we predicted and analyzed in-band resonances by the simulations that are caused by the empty spaces in the waveguide package to accommodate integrated circuits (ICs) and external bias circuits. These resonances are removed by designing an asymmetrical bias space structure with a radiation boundary at an external bias connection plane. The bond-wires, which are used to connect the ICs with the transition, can generate impedance mismatches and limit the bandwidth performance of the waveguide package. Their effect is carefully compensated for by designing the broadband two-section matching circuits in the transition substrate. Finally, the broadband waveguide package is designed using a commercial three-dimensional electromagnetic structure simulator and applied to build a W-band low noise amplifier module. The measurement of the back-to-back connected waveguide-to-microstrip transition including the empty spaces for the ICs and bias circuits showed the insertion loss less than 3.5 dB and return loss higher than 13.3 dB across the entire W-band without any in-band resonances. The measured insertion loss includes the losses of 8.7 mm-long microstrip line and 41.8 mm-long waveguide section. The designed waveguide package was utilized to build the low noise amplifier module that had a measured gain greater than 14.9 dB from 75 GHz to 105 GHz (>12.9 dB at the entire W-band) and noise figure less than 4.4 dB from 93.5 GHz to 94.5 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Efficiency K-band MMIC Linear Amplifier Using Diode Compensation
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050487 - 30 Apr 2019
Abstract
This paper describes the design and measured performance of a high-efficiency and linearity-enhanced K-band MMIC amplifier fabricated with a 0.15 μm GaAs pHEMT processing technology. The linearization enhancement method utilizing a parallel nonlinear capacitance compensation diode was analyzed and verified. The three-stage MMIC [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design and measured performance of a high-efficiency and linearity-enhanced K-band MMIC amplifier fabricated with a 0.15 μm GaAs pHEMT processing technology. The linearization enhancement method utilizing a parallel nonlinear capacitance compensation diode was analyzed and verified. The three-stage MMIC operating at 20–22 GHz obtained an improved third-order intermodulation ratio (IM3) of 20 dBc at a 27 dBm per carrier output power while demonstrating higher than a 27 dB small signal gain and 1-dB compression point output power of 30 dBm with 33% power added efficiency (PAE). The chip dimension was 2.00 mm × 1.40 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multi-User Linear Equalizer and Precoder Scheme for Hybrid Sub-Connected Wideband Systems
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040436 - 16 Apr 2019
Abstract
Millimeter waves and massive multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) are two promising key technologies to achieve the high demands of data rate for the future mobile communication generation. Due to hardware limitations, these systems employ hybrid analog–digital architectures. Nonetheless, most of the works developed [...] Read more.
Millimeter waves and massive multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) are two promising key technologies to achieve the high demands of data rate for the future mobile communication generation. Due to hardware limitations, these systems employ hybrid analog–digital architectures. Nonetheless, most of the works developed for hybrid architectures focus on narrowband channels, and it is expected that millimeter waves be wideband. Moreover, it is more feasible to have a sub-connected architecture than a fully connected one, due to the hardware constraints. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to design a sub-connected hybrid analog–digital multi-user linear equalizer combined with an analog precoder to efficiently remove the multi-user interference. We consider low complexity user terminals employing pure analog precoders, computed with the knowledge of a quantized version of the average angles of departure of each cluster. At the base station, the hybrid multi-user linear equalizer is optimized by using the bit-error-rate (BER) as a metric over all the subcarriers. The analog domain hardware constraints, together with the assumption of a flat analog equalizer over the subcarriers, considerably increase the complexity of the corresponding optimization problem. To simplify the problem at hand, the merit function is first upper bounded, and by leveraging the specific properties of the resulting problem, we show that the analog equalizer may be computed iteratively over the radio frequency (RF) chains by assigning the users in an interleaved fashion to the RF chains. The proposed hybrid sub-connected scheme is compared with a fully connected counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Beam Scanning Capabilities of a 3D-Printed Perforated Dielectric Transmitarray
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040379 - 28 Mar 2019
Abstract
In this paper, the design of a beam scanning, 3D-printed dielectric Transmitarray (TA) working in Ka-band is discussed. Thanks to the use of an innovative three-layer dielectric unit-cell that exploits tapered sections to enhance the bandwidth, a 50 × 50 elements transmitarray with [...] Read more.
In this paper, the design of a beam scanning, 3D-printed dielectric Transmitarray (TA) working in Ka-band is discussed. Thanks to the use of an innovative three-layer dielectric unit-cell that exploits tapered sections to enhance the bandwidth, a 50 × 50 elements transmitarray with improved scanning capabilities and wideband behavior has been designed and experimentally validated. The measured radiation performances over a scanning coverage of ±27 shown a variation of the gain lower than 2.9 dB and a 1-dB bandwidth in any case higher than 23%. The promising results suggest that the proposed TA technology is a valid alternative to realize a passive multibeam antenna, with the additional advantage that it can be easily manufactured using 3D-printing techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printing Using a 60 GHz Millimeter Wave Segmented Parabolic Reflective Curved Antenna
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020203 - 11 Feb 2019
Abstract
This paper proposes a segmented parabolic curved antenna, which can be used in the base station of a 60 GHz millimeter wave communication system, with an oblique Yagi antenna as a feed. By analyzing the reflection and multi-path interference cancellation phenomenon when the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a segmented parabolic curved antenna, which can be used in the base station of a 60 GHz millimeter wave communication system, with an oblique Yagi antenna as a feed. By analyzing the reflection and multi-path interference cancellation phenomenon when the main lobe of the Yagi antenna is reflected, the problem of main lobe splitting is solved. 3D printing technology relying on PLA (polylactic acid) granule raw materials was used to make the coaxial connector bracket and segmented parabolic surface. The reflective surface was vacuum coated (via aluminum evaporation) with low-loss aluminum. The manufacturing method is environmentally friendly and the structure was printed with 0.1 mm accuracy based on large-scale commercial applications at a low cost. The experimental results show that the reflector antenna proposed in this paper achieves a high gain of nearly 20 dBi in 57–64 GHz frequency band and ensures that the main lobe does not split. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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