Special Issue "IoT in 5G"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jingon Joung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, South Korea
Interests: IoT, 5G, UAV communications, energy efficient communications, machine learning technology
Dr. Han Lim Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Interests: mmWave applications; RF circuits and systems; antennas; microwave sensors and RFIC/MMIC
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet-of-Things (IoT) has attracted prominent attention from researchers, engineers and investors in multidisciplinary fields as an essential enabler of the fifth generation (5G) communications. As 5G services have become increasingly prominent in applications employed in our daily life, the intelligent and efficient integration of various and extensive IoT devices within or with the 5G paradigm gives rise to many new challenges, from device implementation to service platform design, for these numerous applications. Stemming from an enthusiastic desire to achieve the integration of the IoT in 5G, this Special Issue invites submissions of technical papers that may address, but are not limited to, the topics below: 

  • IoT Implementation: sensors, actuators, architecture/integration, experimental results with prototypes, field tests, test-beds, deployment results, etc.
  • Power/Energy Efficient IoT: renewable energy, energy harvesting, wireless power transmission, batteries, microgrid, smart energy management, green IoT, etc.        
  • IoT Networks and Connectivity: software-defined radio/networks, virtualized networks, heterogeneous networks, routing protocols, millimeter wave connectivity, etc.          
  • IoT Services and Applications: intelligent transport, smart cities/buildings/home, IoT-assisted agriculture, data mining/collection/aggregation, big data analytics, machine learning, deep learning, artificial intelligence, localization, unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous vehicles, D2D, M2M, health care, financial technologies, etc.         
  • Security and Privacy of IoT: identification, authentication, cryptography, network security, etc.

Dr. Jingon Joung
Dr. Han Lim Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • IoT implementation
  • power/energy-efficient IoT
  • IoT networks and connectivity
  • IoT services and applications
  • security and privacy of IoT

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
DDTMS: Dirichlet-Distribution-Based Trust Management Scheme in Internet of Things
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070744 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
Information security is important for the Internet of Things (IoT), the security of front-end information is especially critical. With this consideration, the integrity and authenticity of sensed information directly impacts the results of back-end big data and cloud computing. The front end of [...] Read more.
Information security is important for the Internet of Things (IoT), the security of front-end information is especially critical. With this consideration, the integrity and authenticity of sensed information directly impacts the results of back-end big data and cloud computing. The front end of the IoT faces many security threats. In these security threats, internal attacks cannot be defended by traditional security schemes, such as encryption/decryption, authentication, and so on. Our contribution in this paper is that a DirichletDistribution-based Trust Management Scheme (DDTMS) in IoT is proposed to defend against the internal attacks. The novelty of our scheme can be summed up in two aspects. The first aspect considers the actual physical channel to extend the node behaviors from success and failure to success, failure, and uncertainty, meanwhile, the corresponding behaviors are weighted by using <ws, wf, wu>, in order to limit the measurement of each behavior by custom. In the second aspect, we introduce a third-party recommendation to calculate the trust value more acurrately. The simulated results demonstrate that DDTMS is better than the other two reputation models (Beta distribution and Gaussian distribution),and can more accurately describe the reputation changes to detect the malicious node quickly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Compact Crossed Inverted-V Antenna with a Common Reflector for Polarization Diversity in the IoT
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060637 - 06 Jun 2019
Abstract
This article presented a compact and high gain antenna with reconfigurable polarization based on two inverted-V dipoles fabricated in a crossed configuration, and with a common planar reflector. The proposed antenna could generate four different types of polarizations, such as vertical polarization (VP), [...] Read more.
This article presented a compact and high gain antenna with reconfigurable polarization based on two inverted-V dipoles fabricated in a crossed configuration, and with a common planar reflector. The proposed antenna could generate four different types of polarizations, such as vertical polarization (VP), horizontal polarization (HP), right-hand circular polarization (RHCP), and left-hand circular polarization (LHCP). A pair of inverted-V dipoles drove the polarization diversity, where each dipole had an integrated matching circuit and a microstrip balun. Using a crossed inverted-V configuration with a ground plane as the common reflector, we could achieve compactness in size, high directivity, and a wider beamwidth than a normal dipole antenna. To verify the performance of the proposed antenna, we fabricated a sub-6GHz antenna with a Taconic TLX-9 substrate, which had a relative permittivity of 2.5. The proposed antenna showed a measured 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 752 MHz (5.376 GHz to 6.128 GHz). The peak gains for the VP, HP, RHCP and LHCP operations at 5.8 GHz were about 5.2 dBi, 4.61 dBi, 5.25 dBic, and 5.51 dBic, respectively. In addition, the half-power beamwidth (HPBW) for all the polarizations were greater than 78° in the operation band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Micro Energy Grid in 5G Era: Platforms, Business Cases, Testbeds, and Next Generation Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040468 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As fifth-generation mobile communication systems give rise to new smart grid technologies, such as distributed energy resources, advanced communication systems, the Internet of Things, and big data analytics, the development of novel platforms and business models that ensure reliability and profitability of microgrid [...] Read more.
As fifth-generation mobile communication systems give rise to new smart grid technologies, such as distributed energy resources, advanced communication systems, the Internet of Things, and big data analytics, the development of novel platforms and business models that ensure reliability and profitability of microgrid operations become increasingly important. In this study, we introduce an open micro energy grid platform to operate the widely distributed microgrids in Korea. Subsequently, we present commercial microgrid business models supported by the open micro energy grid platform equipped with an artificial intelligence engine and provide test results from testbeds connected to the platform. In contrast to the existing microgrid business models in the market, we propose a universal architecture and business model of the future microgrid, comprising (i) an energy robot-management operation business model, (ii) electric vehicle-based demand response, (iii) blockchain technology for energy trading, and (iv) a service-oriented business model. Finally, we propose a new business model for an intelligent virtual power plant (VPP) operator along with the architecture of the VPP and its proof of concept (PoC). We expect the proposed business model to provide energy solution providers with guidelines to develop various VPP services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
A Privacy-Preserving Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme with Deniability for IoT
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040450 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
User authentication for the Internet of Things (IoT) is a vital measure as it consists of numerous unattended connected devices and sensors. For security, only the user authenticated by the gateway node can access the real-time data gathered by sensor nodes. In this [...] Read more.
User authentication for the Internet of Things (IoT) is a vital measure as it consists of numerous unattended connected devices and sensors. For security, only the user authenticated by the gateway node can access the real-time data gathered by sensor nodes. In this article, an efficient privacy-preserving authentication and key agreement scheme for IoT is developed which enables the user, the gateway node and sensor nodes to authenticate with each other. Only the trusted gateway node can determine the real identity of user; however, no other entities can get information about user’ identity by just intercepting all exchanged messages during authentication phase. The gateway cannot prove the received messages from the sender to a third party, and thus preserving the privacy of the sender. The correctness of the proposed scheme is proved to be feasible by using BAN logic, and its security is proved under the random oracle model. The execution time of the proposed scheme is evaluated and compared with existing similar schemes, and the results demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient and applicable for IoT applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of Indoor Propagation Model Below and Above 6 GHz for 5G Wireless Networks
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010044 - 01 Jan 2019
Abstract
It has been widely speculated that the performance of the next generation based wireless network should meet a transmission speed on the order of 1000 times more than the current cellular communication systems. The frequency bands above 6 GHz have received significant attention [...] Read more.
It has been widely speculated that the performance of the next generation based wireless network should meet a transmission speed on the order of 1000 times more than the current cellular communication systems. The frequency bands above 6 GHz have received significant attention lately as a prospective band for next generation 5G systems. The propagation characteristics for 5G networks need to be fully understood for the 5G system design. This paper presents the channel propagation characteristics for a 5G system in line of sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios. The diffraction loss (DL) and frequency drop (FD) are investigated based on collected measurement data. Indoor measurement results obtained using a high-resolution channel sounder equipped with directional horn antennas at 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz as a comparative study of the two bands below and above 6 GHz. The parameters for path loss using different path loss models of single and multi-frequencies have been estimated. The excess delay, root mean square (RMS) delay spread and the power delay profile of received paths are analyzed. The results of the path loss models show that the path loss exponent (PLE) in this indoor environment is less than the free space path loss exponent for LOS scenario at both frequencies. Moreover, the PLE is not frequency dependent. The 3GPP path loss models for single and multi-frequency in LOS scenarios have good performance in terms of PLE that is as reliable as the physically-based models. Based on the proposed models, the diffraction loss at 28 GHz is approximately twice the diffraction loss at 3.5 GHz. The findings of the power delay profile and RMS delay spread indicate that these parameters are comparable for frequency bands below and above 6 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
Filtering Methods for Efficient Dynamic Access Control in 5G Massive Machine-Type Communication Scenarios
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010027 - 26 Dec 2018
Abstract
One of the three main use cases of the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G) is massive machine-type communications (mMTC). The latter refers to the highly synchronized accesses to the cellular base stations from a great number of wireless devices, as a product [...] Read more.
One of the three main use cases of the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G) is massive machine-type communications (mMTC). The latter refers to the highly synchronized accesses to the cellular base stations from a great number of wireless devices, as a product of the automated exchange of small amounts of data. Clearly, an efficient mMTC is required to support the Internet-of-Things (IoT). Nevertheless, the method to change from idle to connected mode, known as the random access procedure (RAP), of 4G has been directly inherited by 5G, at least, until the first phase of standardization. Research has demonstrated the RAP is inefficient to support mMTC, hence, access control schemes are needed to obtain an adequate performance. In this paper, we compare the benefits of using different filtering methods to configure an access control scheme included in the 5G standards: the access class barring (ACB), according to the intensity of access requests. These filtering methods are a key component of our proposed ACB configuration scheme, which can lead to more than a three-fold increase in the probability of successfully completing the random access procedure under the most typical network configuration and mMTC scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
FacePET: Enhancing Bystanders’ Facial Privacy with Smart Wearables/Internet of Things
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120379 - 03 Dec 2018
Abstract
Given the availability of cameras in mobile phones, drones and Internet-connected devices, facial privacy has become an area of major interest in the last few years, especially when photos are captured and can be used to identify bystanders’ faces who may have not [...] Read more.
Given the availability of cameras in mobile phones, drones and Internet-connected devices, facial privacy has become an area of major interest in the last few years, especially when photos are captured and can be used to identify bystanders’ faces who may have not given consent for these photos to be taken and be identified. Some solutions to protect facial privacy in photos currently exist. However, many of these solutions do not give a choice to bystanders because they rely on algorithms that de-identify photos or protocols to deactivate devices and systems not controlled by bystanders, thereby being dependent on the bystanders’ trust in these systems to protect his/her facial privacy. To address these limitations, we propose FacePET (Facial Privacy Enhancing Technology), a wearable system worn by bystanders and designed to enhance facial privacy. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of the FacePET and discuss some open research issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
Competition in Service Provision between Slice Operators in 5G Networks
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110315 - 12 Nov 2018
Abstract
Network slicing is gaining an increasing importance as an effective way to introduce flexibility in the management of resources in 5G networks. We envision a scenario where a set of network operators outsource their respective networks to one Infrastructure Provider (InP), and use [...] Read more.
Network slicing is gaining an increasing importance as an effective way to introduce flexibility in the management of resources in 5G networks. We envision a scenario where a set of network operators outsource their respective networks to one Infrastructure Provider (InP), and use network slicing mechanisms to request the resources as needed for service provision. The InP is then responsible for the network operation and maintenance, while the network operators become Virtual Network Operators (VNOs). We model a setting where two VNOs compete for the users in terms of quality of service, by strategically distributing its share of the aggregated cells capacity managed by the InP among its subscribers. The results show that the rate is allocated among the subscribers at each cell in a way that mimics the overall share that each VNO is entitled to, and that this allocation is the Nash equilibrium of the strategic slicing game between the VNOs. We conclude that network sharing and slicing provide an attractive flexibility in the allocation of resources without the need to enforce a policy through the InP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
Power-Efficient Random Access Design for Machine Type Communication
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110286 - 30 Oct 2018
Abstract
Machine type communication (MTC) is the key solution to the information exchange between devices. It is the fundamental part of the Internet of Things (IoT). MTC is quite different from the human type communication (HTC), as most of the MTC applications have low [...] Read more.
Machine type communication (MTC) is the key solution to the information exchange between devices. It is the fundamental part of the Internet of Things (IoT). MTC is quite different from the human type communication (HTC), as most of the MTC applications have low requirements on data rate and latency. However, the battery life or the power consumption are very critical to MTC. Therefore, one of the most important issues involving MTC is to provide an efficient method for an MTC device to access the cellular network due to the fact that the data transmission is triggered by the device in some MTC scenarios. We address the issues in the traditional random access procedure in the LTE system and propose a power-efficient random access signal design for MTC. We analyze the bandwidth selection under different coverage requirements and propose an effective bandwidth concept to enable a power optimized random access signal design for MTC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
5G Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication Implementation Challenges and Operational Issues with IoT Devices
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090981 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To meet the diverse industrial and market demands, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has classified the fifth-generation (5G) into ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC), enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Researchers conducted studies to achieve the implementation of the mentioned [...] Read more.
To meet the diverse industrial and market demands, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has classified the fifth-generation (5G) into ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC), enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Researchers conducted studies to achieve the implementation of the mentioned distributions efficiently, within the available spectrum. This paper aims to highlight the importance of URLLC in accordance with the approaching era of technology and industry requirements. While highlighting a few implementation issues of URLLC, concerns for the Internet of things (IoT) devices that depend on the low latency and reliable communications of URLLC are also addressed. In this paper, the recent progress of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization and the implementation of URLLC are included. Finally, the research areas that are open for further investigation in URLLC implementation are highlighted, and efficient implementation of URLLC is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessReview
Current State of Multicast Routing Protocols for Disruption Tolerant Networks: Survey and Open Issues
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020162 - 01 Feb 2019
Abstract
The deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications in remote areas, such as environmental sensing areas, requires Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) support due to the lack of continuous network connectivity. IoT devices in DTN generate and store data until a network link is [...] Read more.
The deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) applications in remote areas, such as environmental sensing areas, requires Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) support due to the lack of continuous network connectivity. IoT devices in DTN generate and store data until a network link is available for data transmission. Data mules or ferries are scheduled to travel among intermittent networks to collect data and disseminate configuration updates from control centers to all participating nodes in a reliable manner. The incorporation of efficient, reliable multicast algorithms into DTN helps to overcome the current limitations in updating large numbers of nodes in remote areas with identical configurations. In this paper, the current state of multicast routing protocols in DTN is outlined according to their design aspects. Open issues are also discussed to provide impetus for further research into the Reliable Multicast DTN (RMDTN) protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessReview
Power Consumption Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Commercial Products and Their Implications for IoT Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120386 - 04 Dec 2018
Abstract
Internet of things (IoT) has become a very important business segment for the industry since it is estimated that 50 billion devices will be interconnected by 2020, where 30% of them are forecasted to use Bluetooth low energy as the enabling communication protocol. [...] Read more.
Internet of things (IoT) has become a very important business segment for the industry since it is estimated that 50 billion devices will be interconnected by 2020, where 30% of them are forecasted to use Bluetooth low energy as the enabling communication protocol. IoT involves smart devices that can be connected to the cloud in order to share and process all types of data collected through sensors. Moreover, 100% of smartphones and tablets shipped in 2018 include Bluetooth low energy, which will allow the interoperation with the upcoming 5G standard. As a result, different low-power hardware platforms have become available to either build prototypes, or implement full IoT solutions. One fundamental aspect while choosing a development platform is to analyze the power consumption of its components to build an optimal low-power application and extend the battery life. In this work, we present current consumption measurements of four Bluetooth low energy commercial platforms configured as central and as peripheral devices, these measurements are aimed to provide the data that are not available in the datasheets and which is needed to select, in an optimal way, the proper connection parameters for the protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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