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Comparative Study of Indoor Propagation Model Below and Above 6 GHz for 5G Wireless Networks

Wireless Communication Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
College of Engineering, IT and Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin 0815, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 44;
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
PDF [6310 KB, uploaded 1 January 2019]


It has been widely speculated that the performance of the next generation based wireless network should meet a transmission speed on the order of 1000 times more than the current cellular communication systems. The frequency bands above 6 GHz have received significant attention lately as a prospective band for next generation 5G systems. The propagation characteristics for 5G networks need to be fully understood for the 5G system design. This paper presents the channel propagation characteristics for a 5G system in line of sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios. The diffraction loss (DL) and frequency drop (FD) are investigated based on collected measurement data. Indoor measurement results obtained using a high-resolution channel sounder equipped with directional horn antennas at 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz as a comparative study of the two bands below and above 6 GHz. The parameters for path loss using different path loss models of single and multi-frequencies have been estimated. The excess delay, root mean square (RMS) delay spread and the power delay profile of received paths are analyzed. The results of the path loss models show that the path loss exponent (PLE) in this indoor environment is less than the free space path loss exponent for LOS scenario at both frequencies. Moreover, the PLE is not frequency dependent. The 3GPP path loss models for single and multi-frequency in LOS scenarios have good performance in terms of PLE that is as reliable as the physically-based models. Based on the proposed models, the diffraction loss at 28 GHz is approximately twice the diffraction loss at 3.5 GHz. The findings of the power delay profile and RMS delay spread indicate that these parameters are comparable for frequency bands below and above 6 GHz. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5G; smart city; IoT; channel propagation; 3.5 GHz; 28 GHz; delay spread; path loss 5G; smart city; IoT; channel propagation; 3.5 GHz; 28 GHz; delay spread; path loss

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Al-Samman, A.M.; Abd. Rahman, T.; Al-Hadhrami, T.; Daho, A.; Hindia, M.N.; Azmi, M.H.; Dimyati, K.; Alazab, M. Comparative Study of Indoor Propagation Model Below and Above 6 GHz for 5G Wireless Networks. Electronics 2019, 8, 44.

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