Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer Science & Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 20156

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: numerical methods; low-rank compression techniques; uncertainty quantifications; wireless power transfer applications; model order reduction; model predictive control; development of integral formulations for the study of low- and high-frequency electromagnetic devices
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Guest Editor
Institute of Fundamentals and Theory in Electrical Engineering, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: Modelling and Simulation of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Problems; Electromagnetic Compatibility; Numerical Optimization and Synthesis of Antennas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The functionality of new generation electromagnetic devices, and especially electronic based systems (EBS), has vastly increased in the last decade while, at the same time, the operating frequencies have increased, and the dimensions have strongly decreased. Together—beside others—these facts lead to challenges in the system design, especially in terms of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues. With the increased integration density of EBS, it has become more and more complicated to evaluate the EMC behavior of such devices in terms of measurement. Hence, the application of numerical methods in every design step is becoming increasingly important.

Therefore, we propose a Special Issue entitled “Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications”. The aim of this issue is to summarize the state-of-the-art approaches in the EMC-aware design of EBS, as well as to discuss the development of new numerical simulation methods for EMC.

Dr. Riccardo Torchio
Prof. Dr. Thomas Bauernfeind
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • electromagnetic interference (EMI)
  • electronic-based systems
  • modeling
  • design

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 3934 KiB  
Article
Broadband Modeling and Simulation Strategy for Conducted Emissions of Power Electronic Systems Up to 400 MHz
by Christian Riener, Herbert Hackl, Jan Hansen, Andreas Barchanski, Thomas Bauernfeind, Amin Pak and Bernhard Auinger
Electronics 2022, 11(24), 4217; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11244217 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
Energy efficiency is becoming one of the most important topics in electronics. Among others, wide band-gap semiconductors can raise efficiency and lead to shrinking volumes in power conversion systems. As different markets have regulations that require different designs, it is necessary to cope [...] Read more.
Energy efficiency is becoming one of the most important topics in electronics. Among others, wide band-gap semiconductors can raise efficiency and lead to shrinking volumes in power conversion systems. As different markets have regulations that require different designs, it is necessary to cope with a large variety of similar designs. By using effective modeling and simulation strategies, the efforts of building these variants can be diminished, and re-designs can be avoided. In this paper, we present a universally valid way to come to reasonable simulation results for conducted emissions of a power electronic system in the frequency range from 150 kHz up to 400 MHz. After giving an overview of the state-of-the-art, the authors show how to implement and set up a simulation environment for a gallium-nitride (GaN) power converter. It shows how to differentiate between important and not that important components for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), how to model these components, the printed circuit board, the load, and the setup, including the Line Impedance Stabilization Networks (LISNs), etc. Multiport S-parameter strategies as well as vector fitting methods are employed. Computational costs are kept low, and all simulations are verified with measurements; thus, this model is valid up to 400 MHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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18 pages, 5556 KiB  
Article
Time–Frequency Analysis of Experimental Measurements for the Determination of EMI Noise Generators in Power Converters
by Javier Oyarzun, Iosu Aizpuru and Igor Baraia-Etxaburu
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233898 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
In the context of recent decades in which there has been great development in power electronics systems with increasingly better operating characteristics, the study of the factors that affect the behaviour of these systems in terms of electromagnetic interference (EMI) is mandatory. Within [...] Read more.
In the context of recent decades in which there has been great development in power electronics systems with increasingly better operating characteristics, the study of the factors that affect the behaviour of these systems in terms of electromagnetic interference (EMI) is mandatory. Within this general perspective, it is essential to know the time and frequency characteristics of the switching signals, as they are the main sources of EMI noise. This work analyses the suitability of different spectral analysis techniques, specifically short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT), to extract the frequency characteristics of the switching signals of a converter. Thus, a test bench based on a half-bridge was designed as a preliminary step in the development of a model of noise generators. After the analysis of the main parameters of these techniques, a comparison of the results obtained was carried out. It was concluded that both techniques are considered valid and complementary; not only that, but they overcome some limitations of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) as they offer the possibility of determining which are the frequency components associated with different types of events occurring at different times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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17 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
EMC Analysis of the Inverting Boost/Buck Converter Topology
by Daniel Kircher and David Johannes Pommerenke
Electronics 2022, 11(20), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11203388 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis of an inverting buck/boost converter. The inverting buck/boost converter differs from other DC/DC converters, such as the noninverting boost or buck converters, in that one inductor terminal is connected to the ground and not to [...] Read more.
This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis of an inverting buck/boost converter. The inverting buck/boost converter differs from other DC/DC converters, such as the noninverting boost or buck converters, in that one inductor terminal is connected to the ground and not to the input or output of the converter, i.e., neither input nor output is isolated from an EMC perspective. A SPICE model was developed for analyzing the EMC properties of the circuit. Two electromagnetic interference EMI-relevant resonances were observed depending on the state of the switch. Simulations are confirmed with measurements using a circuit designed from discrete components. Further, integrated commercially available converters were analyzed and showed EMC properties that were similar to those of the general model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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16 pages, 9578 KiB  
Article
Fundamental Investigation of Wave Propagation inside IC-Striplines upon Excitation with Hertzian Dipole Moments
by Dominik Kreindl, Thomas Bauernfeind, Bernhard Weiss, Christian Stockreiter, Suresh Kumar Yenumula, Bhuvnesh Narayanan and Manfred Kaltenbacher
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162488 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
To characterize the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of integrated circuits (ICs), especially the radiated emissions in the near field, transversal electromagnetic cell (TEM cell) or IC-stripline measurements (IEC 61967) are utilized. Due to the ongoing miniaturization and the increasing operating frequencies, accurate EMC characterization [...] Read more.
To characterize the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of integrated circuits (ICs), especially the radiated emissions in the near field, transversal electromagnetic cell (TEM cell) or IC-stripline measurements (IEC 61967) are utilized. Due to the ongoing miniaturization and the increasing operating frequencies, accurate EMC characterization of ICs is becoming more important to achieve first-time-right designs. In order to avoid expensive redesigns, the prediction of these measurements in terms of a simulation workflow would be of high interest. Because of the high computational burden needed to conduct 3D full-wave finite element (FEM) simulations of both the device under test (DUT) and the measurement system, an equivalent representation of the DUT by means of analytical incident fields, such as Hertzian dipole moments, can be considered. In order to develop an order-reduced model of this kind, it is essential to have a solid understanding of the coupling and wave propagation effects inside the measurement systems. In the present paper, a fundamental investigation of the coupling paths between an IC-stripline and electric or magnetic dipole moments is presented and the results are compared to the existing analytical models. The results show that these analytical models, originally developed for TEM cells, are only partially valid for IC-striplines. It has also been shown that even for simple test structures, such as loop and monopole antennas, the representation in terms of one single dipole moment is insufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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14 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Signal Launch Imperfections for Edge Mount RF Connectors
by Christian Riener, Thomas Bauernfeind, Samuel Kvasnicka, Klaus Roppert, Herbert Hackl and Manfred Kaltenbacher
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11131990 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
In this paper, common practice RF design guidelines for SMA edge mount connectors are investigated in terms of numerical simulations and VNA measurements. These guidelines are used in a variety of applications for coaxial-to-planar interfaces but often do not provide information regarding the [...] Read more.
In this paper, common practice RF design guidelines for SMA edge mount connectors are investigated in terms of numerical simulations and VNA measurements. These guidelines are used in a variety of applications for coaxial-to-planar interfaces but often do not provide information regarding the physical origins of increased insertion and transmission losses. The presented results in this work focus on different RF PCB design features and their impact on electromagnetic field distributions in the launching zone. The presented investigations should raise awareness on the issue of electromagnetic field resonances occurring in the RF frequency range and assist PCB design engineers to identify potential issues occurring at an coaxial-to-planar interface. The investigated PCB features facilitate a high performance RF PCB design up to a frequency of 26 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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24 pages, 99316 KiB  
Article
Simulation Based Poynting Vector Description of the Field Regions for Simple Radiating Structures
by Paul Baumgartner, Anna Masiero, Christian Riener and Thomas Bauernfeind
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11131967 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Estimating the coupling properties between a radiating structure and other conductive elements, the field behavior of the radiating source is essential to know. One well-known classification of the field behavior are the field-regions around antennas, namely, the far-field, the radiating near-field, and the [...] Read more.
Estimating the coupling properties between a radiating structure and other conductive elements, the field behavior of the radiating source is essential to know. One well-known classification of the field behavior are the field-regions around antennas, namely, the far-field, the radiating near-field, and the reactive near-field. The different kinds of near-fields are distinguished by the reactive and radiating parts of the electromagnetic field, whereas in the far-field region the field behaves as a plane wave in the direction of propagation. One way to describe these field characteristics is to use the complex Poynting vector, which defines the electromagnetic power flow. This work presents a Poynting-vector-based approach to classify and visualize the field behavior around simple radiators using numerical simulations. First, the approach is applied to simple antenna structures such as dipoles and loop antennas. Later, the introduced field regions are utilized to predict the coupling behavior of practical applications, the coupling between single elements of a linear antenna array, and the coupling behavior of an electrically large loop antenna. It could be shown that the introduced approach, defining a surface description of the boundary between the near-field regions, enables the possibility of predicting the coupling behavior between radiating structures. The introduced error estimator for the far-field also delivers knowledge about the far-field quality in different angular directions and distances. All simulations have been executed applying a one-dimensional partial element equivalent circuit method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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17 pages, 7112 KiB  
Article
A SPICE Model for IGBTs and Power MOSFETs Focusing on EMI/EMC in High-Voltage Systems
by Badri Khvitia, Anna Gheonjian, Zviadi Kutchadze and Roman Jobava
Electronics 2021, 10(22), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10222822 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6548
Abstract
We describe two models of Power Transistors (IGBT, MOSFET); both were successfully used for the analysis of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) while modeling high-voltage systems (PFC, DC/DC, inverter, etc.). The first semi-mathematical–behavioral insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) model introduces nonlinear negative [...] Read more.
We describe two models of Power Transistors (IGBT, MOSFET); both were successfully used for the analysis of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) while modeling high-voltage systems (PFC, DC/DC, inverter, etc.). The first semi-mathematical–behavioral insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) model introduces nonlinear negative feedback generated in the semiconductor’s p+ and n+ layers, which are located near the metal contact of the IGBT emitter, to better describe the dynamic characteristics of the transistor. A simplified model of the metal–oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) in the IGBT is used to simplify this IGBT model. The second simpler behavioral model could be used to model both IGBTs and MOSFETs. Model parameters are obtained from datasheets and then adjusted using results from a single measurement test. Modeling results are compared with measured turn-on and turn-off waveforms for different types of IGBTs. To check the validation of the models, a brushless DC electric motor test setup with an inverter was created. Despite the simplicity of the presented models, a comparison of model predictions with hardware measurements revealed that the model accurately forecasted switch transients and aided EMI–EMC investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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10 pages, 21071 KiB  
Article
A Regulated Pulse Current Driver with Spread Spectrum Clock Generator
by Ming-Shian Lin
Electronics 2021, 10(21), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212661 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1527
Abstract
This paper presents a regulated pulse current driver with a spread spectrum clock generator (SSCG) to lower the electromagnetic interference (EMI) effect. An SSCG is used and implemented by applying a triangular wave to modulate a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The results show a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a regulated pulse current driver with a spread spectrum clock generator (SSCG) to lower the electromagnetic interference (EMI) effect. An SSCG is used and implemented by applying a triangular wave to modulate a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The results show a 7 dBm reduction in the peak power level with a frequency deviation of 10%, demonstrating that the dominate harmonic is spread and distributed to adjacent frequencies, and the magnitude of harmonics is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that the driver with a spread spectrum clock generator would help to reduce interference in sensitive electronic components and be suitable for portable consumer electronics applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Interference, Compatibility and Applications)
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