Special Issue "Advanced Battery Technologies: New Applications and Management Systems"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Manuela González
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Oviedo, 33204 Gijón, Spain
Interests: Li-ion battery technologies; battery management systems (BMS); battery fast-charging; battery diagnosis and prognosis
Prof. Dr. David Anseán
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Oviedo, 33204 Gijón, Spain
Interests: lithium-ion battery testing and characterization; lithium-ion battery degradation mechanisms via non-invasive methods; incremental capacity and peak area analyses; mechanistic battery modeling; battery lithium plating; battery fast charging; battery diagnosis and prognosis; battery state of charge and state of health determination methods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the high performance of new battery technologies combined with the continuous improvement of their cost-competitiveness have been key to the development of an exciting range of applications in both commercial and industrial fields. Some examples of the broad spectrum of battery applications include: biomedical devices and portable electronics (cell phones and laptops, power tools, drones and electronic instrumentation), sustainable transportation (electric and hybrid aircraft, land and water vehicles) and stationary applications (smart grids, energy storage from renewable energy generation, telecommunications and uninterruptible power supplies).
However, battery systems are complex and still face problems mainly related to degradation, safety and management. The diagnosis of battery status (State-of-Charge and State-of-Heath) is necessary to determine the optimal charging/discharging strategy, avoiding hazardous operation conditions and extending battery life. Other main issue is the minimization of recharging time, which requires the implementation of reliable and efficient fast-charge methods. Therefore, the successful development of new applications with advanced battery technologies is only possible with a parallel development of electronic circuits dedicated to battery protection and management.
The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight emerging applications with advanced battery technologies, address recent breakthroughs in the design of Battery Management Systems (BMS), efficient battery fast-chargers, smart batteries, and integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) in electromobility and stationary applications.
The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Disruptive Battery Technologies
  • Advanced Battery Management Systems (BMS)
  • Efficient Battery Fast-Chargers
  • Smart Batteries with New Functionalities
  • Innovative Control Strategies for Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS): Electromobility and Stationary Applications

Prof. Dr. Manuela González
Prof. Dr. David Anseán
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Disruptive Battery Technologies
  • Advanced Battery Management Systems (BMS)
  • Efficient Battery Fast-Chargers
  • Smart Batteries with New Functionalities
  • Innovative Control Strategies for Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS): Electromobility and Stationary Applications

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle
Estimation of the State of Charge of Lithium Batteries Based on Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm
Electronics 2020, 9(9), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9091425 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
The state of charge (SOC) estimation of the battery is one of the important functions of the battery management system of the electric vehicle, and the accurate SOC estimation is of great significance to the safe operation of the electric vehicle and the [...] Read more.
The state of charge (SOC) estimation of the battery is one of the important functions of the battery management system of the electric vehicle, and the accurate SOC estimation is of great significance to the safe operation of the electric vehicle and the service life of the battery. Among the existing SOC estimation methods, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm is widely used for SOC estimation due to its lossless transformation and high estimation accuracy. However, the traditional UKF algorithm is greatly affected by system noise and observation noise during SOC estimation. Therefore, we took the lithium cobalt oxide battery as the analysis object, and designed an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) algorithm based on innovation and residuals to estimate SOC. Firstly, the second-order RC equivalent circuit model was established according to the physical characteristics of the battery, and the least square method was used to identify the parameters of the model and verify the model accuracy. Then, the AUKF algorithm was used for SOC estimation; the AUKF algorithm monitors the changes of innovation and residual in the filter and updates system noise covariance and observation noise covariance in real time using innovation and residual, so as to adjust the gain of the filter and realize the optimal estimation. Finally came the error comparison analysis of the estimation results of the UKF algorithm and AUKF algorithm; the results prove that the accuracy of the AUKF algorithm is 2.6% better than that of UKF algorithm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Battery Charging Procedure Proposal Including Regeneration of Short-Circuited and Deeply Discharged LiFePO4 Traction Batteries
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9060929 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The presented paper discusses the most often damages applying for lithium traction and non-traction cells. The focus is therefore given on investigation of possibilities related to the recovery of such damaged lithium-ion batteries, more specifically after long-term short-circuit and deep discharge. For this [...] Read more.
The presented paper discusses the most often damages applying for lithium traction and non-traction cells. The focus is therefore given on investigation of possibilities related to the recovery of such damaged lithium-ion batteries, more specifically after long-term short-circuit and deep discharge. For this purpose, initially, the short-circuit was applied to the selected type of traction LiFePO4 cell. Also, the deeply discharged cell was identified and observed. Both damaged cells would exhibit visible damage if electro-mechanical properties were measured. Individual types of damage require a different approach for battery regeneration to recover cells as much as possible. For this purpose, experimental set-up for automated system integrating proposed recovery methods were realized, while battery under test undergone a full-range of regeneration procedure. As a verification of the proposed regeneration algorithms, the test of delivered Ampere-hours (Ah) for various discharging currents was realized both for short-circuited as well as deeply discharged cells. Received results have been compared to the new/referenced cell, which undergoes the same test of delivered Ah. From the final evaluation is seen, that proposed procedure can recover damaged cell up to 80% of its full capacity if short-circuit was applied, or 70% if a deeply discharged cell is considered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Novel High-Efficiency Double-Input Bidirectional DC/DC Converter for Battery Cell-Voltage Equalizer with Flyback Transformer
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121426 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
Large-scale battery cells are connected in series, which inevitably leads to a phenomenon that the cell voltage is unbalanced. With a conventional equalizer, it is challenging to maintain excellent characteristics in terms of its size, design cost, and equalization efficiency. In order to [...] Read more.
Large-scale battery cells are connected in series, which inevitably leads to a phenomenon that the cell voltage is unbalanced. With a conventional equalizer, it is challenging to maintain excellent characteristics in terms of its size, design cost, and equalization efficiency. In order to improve the defects in the above equalization circuit, a novel voltage equalization circuit is designed, which can work in two modes. A bidirectional direct current–direct current (DC–DC) equalization structure is adopted, which can quickly equalize two high or low-power batteries without using an external energy buffer. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed circuit, a 12-cell battery 2800-MAh battery string was applied for experimental verification. Computer monitoring (LabVIEW) was adopted in the whole system to intelligently adjust the energy imbalance of the battery pack. The experimental results showed excellent overall performance in terms of equalization was achieved through the newly proposed method. That is, the circuit equalization speed, design cost, and volume have a good balance performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Method to Identify Lithium Battery Parameters and Estimate SOC Based on Different Temperatures and Driving Conditions
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121391 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
State of charge (SOC) plays a significant role in the battery management system (BMS), since it can contribute to the establishment of energy management for electric vehicles. Unfortunately, SOC cannot be measured directly. Various single Kalman filters, however, are capable of estimating SOC. [...] Read more.
State of charge (SOC) plays a significant role in the battery management system (BMS), since it can contribute to the establishment of energy management for electric vehicles. Unfortunately, SOC cannot be measured directly. Various single Kalman filters, however, are capable of estimating SOC. Under different working conditions, the SOC estimation error will increase because the battery parameters cannot be estimated in real time. In order to obtain a more accurate and applicable SOC estimation than that of a single Kalman filter under different driving conditions and temperatures, a second-order resistor capacitor (RC) equivalent circuit model (ECM) of a battery was established in this paper. Thereafter, a dual filter, i.e., an unscented Kalman filter–extended Kalman filter (UKF–EKF) was developed. With the EKF updating battery parameters and the UKF estimating the SOC, UKF–EKF has the ability to identify parameters and predict the SOC of the battery simultaneously. The dual filter was verified under two different driving conditions and three different temperatures, and the results showed that the dual filter has an improvement on SOC estimation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Temperature-Dependent Second-Order RC Model
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8091012 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Accurate estimation of battery state of charge (SOC) is of great significance for extending battery life, improving battery utilization, and ensuring battery safety. Aiming to improve the accuracy of SOC estimation, in this paper, a temperature-dependent second-order RC equivalent circuit model is established [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of battery state of charge (SOC) is of great significance for extending battery life, improving battery utilization, and ensuring battery safety. Aiming to improve the accuracy of SOC estimation, in this paper, a temperature-dependent second-order RC equivalent circuit model is established for lithium-ion batteries, based on the battery electrical characteristics at different ambient temperatures. Then, a dual Kalman filter algorithm is proposed to estimate the battery SOC, using the proposed equivalent circuit model. The SOC estimation results are compared with the SOC value obtained from experiments, and the estimation errors under different temperature conditions are found to be within ±0.4%. These results prove that the proposed SOC estimation algorithm, based on a temperature-dependent second-order RC equivalent circuit model, provides accurate SOC estimation performance with high temperature adaptability and robustness. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Health Monitoring of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070751 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Because of the complex physiochemical nature of the lithium-ion battery, it is difficult to identify the internal changes that lead to battery degradation and failure. This study develops an ultrasonic sensing technique for monitoring the commercial lithium-ion pouch cells and demonstrates this technique [...] Read more.
Because of the complex physiochemical nature of the lithium-ion battery, it is difficult to identify the internal changes that lead to battery degradation and failure. This study develops an ultrasonic sensing technique for monitoring the commercial lithium-ion pouch cells and demonstrates this technique through experimental studies. Data fusion analysis is implemented using the ultrasonic sensing data to construct a new battery health indicator, thus extending the capabilities of traditional battery management systems. The combination of the ultrasonic sensing and data fusion approach is validated and shown to be effective for degradation assessment as well as early failure indication. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Fractional-Order Kinetic Battery Model of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering a Nonlinear Capacity
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040394 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Accurate battery models are integral to the battery management system and safe operation of electric vehicles. Few investigations have been conducted on the influence of current rate (C-rate) on the available capacity of the battery, for example, the kinetic battery model (KiBaM). However, [...] Read more.
Accurate battery models are integral to the battery management system and safe operation of electric vehicles. Few investigations have been conducted on the influence of current rate (C-rate) on the available capacity of the battery, for example, the kinetic battery model (KiBaM). However, the nonlinear characteristics of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are closer to a fractional-order dynamic system because of their electrochemical materials and properties. The application of fractional-order models to represent physical systems is timely and interesting. In this paper, a novel fractional-order KiBaM (FO-KiBaM) is proposed. The available capacity of a ternary LIB module is tested at different C-rates, and its parameter identifications are achieved by the experimental data. The results showed that the estimated errors of available capacity in the proposed FO-KiBaM were low over a wide applied current range, specifically, the mean absolute error was only 1.91%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Semiactive Hybrid Energy Management System: A Solution for Electric Wheelchairs
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030345 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Many disabled people use electric wheelchairs (EWs) in their daily lives. EWs take a considerable amount of time to charge and are less efficient in high-power-demand situations. This paper addresses these two problems using a semiactive hybrid energy storage system (SA-HESS) with a [...] Read more.
Many disabled people use electric wheelchairs (EWs) in their daily lives. EWs take a considerable amount of time to charge and are less efficient in high-power-demand situations. This paper addresses these two problems using a semiactive hybrid energy storage system (SA-HESS) with a smart energy management system (SEMS). The SA-HESS contained a lithium-ion battery (LIB) and supercapacitor (SC) connected to a DC bus via a bidirectional DC–DC converter. The first task of the proposed SEMS was to charge the SA-HESS rapidly using a fuzzy-logic-controlled charging system. The second task was to reduce the stress of the LIB. The proposed SEMS divided the discharging operation into starting-, normal-, medium-, and high-power currents. The LIB was used in normal conditions, while the SC was mostly utilized during medium-power conditions, such as starting and uphill climbing of the EW. The conjunction of LIB and SC was employed to meet the high-power demand for smooth and reliable operation. A prototype was designed to validate the proposed methodology, and a comparison of the passive hybrid energy management system (P-HESS) and SA-HESS was performed under different driving tracks and loading conditions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system required less charging time and effectively utilized the power of the SC compared with P-HESS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Perspective on Commercial Li-ion Battery Testing, Best Practices for Simple and Effective Protocols
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010152 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Validation is an integral part of any study dealing with modeling or development of new control algorithms for lithium ion batteries. Without proper validation, the impact of a study could be drastically reduced. In a perfect world, validation should involve testing in deployed [...] Read more.
Validation is an integral part of any study dealing with modeling or development of new control algorithms for lithium ion batteries. Without proper validation, the impact of a study could be drastically reduced. In a perfect world, validation should involve testing in deployed systems, but it is often unpractical and costly. As a result, validation is more often conducted on single cells under control laboratory conditions. Laboratory testing is a complex task, and improper implementation could lead to fallacious results. Although common practice in open literature, the protocols used are usually too quickly detailed and important details are left out. This work intends to fully describe, explain, and exemplify a simple step-by-step single apparatus methodology for commercial battery testing in order to facilitate and standardize validation studies. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop