IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 28194

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SOA University, Bhubaneswar 751030, India
Interests: machine learning and computational intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007, China
Interests: smart grid; electric engineering; smart energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000, China
Interests: computer control and detection technology; IoT; AI

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

There is a paradigm shift in energy production and distribution after the innovation of the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is now used in all areas of renewable energy production, i.e., generation, transmission, as well as distribution equipment. These devices enable monitoring and controlling the working of the equipment remotely in real time. This leads to reduced operational costs and lowers dependence on the already limited fossil fuels.

The use of renewable energy resources already provides a variety of benefits over conventional ones. The implementation of IoT will help to utilize these clean energy sources to a further extent.

Although the use of IoT in renewable energy management provides a variety of benefits, it is not without its challenges and obstacles. The challenge faced in utilizing IoT devices is that they are vulnerable to hacking. Since devices are connected to a network, there is a possibility of a cyberattack if the network is not secured properly. This can lead to hazardous and unfavorable conditions.

This Special Issue covers IoT applications for Renewable Energy management and control as well as its security aspects and the associated issues and challenges.

Suggested Topics:

  • IoT application in smart grid energy management
  • IoT application in renewable power generation
  • Forecasting demand with IoT
  • IoT application in power distribution
  • IoT application in power grid automation
  • IoT application in domestic power
  • Security of IoT networks
  • Advanced technology of electrical engineering

Dr. Srikanta Patnaik
Dr. Shengqing Li
Dr. Jianqi Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • IoT sensors
  • IoT-based actuators
  • smart grid and renewable energy
  • electrical engineering

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
IoT-Based Technologies for Wind Energy Microgrids Management and Control
by Shengqing Li, Srikanta Patnaik and Jianqi Li
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071540 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
As the world continues to shift towards clean and renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional fossil fuels [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 6506 KiB  
Article
An Efficiency Improvement Strategy for Triple-Active-Bridge-Based DC Energy Routers in DC Microgrids
by Xiaoli Meng, Qing Duan, Guanglin Sha, Caihong Zhao, Haoqing Wang, Xueli Wang and Zheng Lan
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071172 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
A triple-active bridge (TAB) can be used as a power conversion unit in a three-port DC energy router (DCER) such as a triple-active bridge-based DC energy router (TAB-DCER). The operational loss of a TAB can be seen as a key factor affecting the [...] Read more.
A triple-active bridge (TAB) can be used as a power conversion unit in a three-port DC energy router (DCER) such as a triple-active bridge-based DC energy router (TAB-DCER). The operational loss of a TAB can be seen as a key factor affecting the efficiency of a TAB-DCER. However, the RMS value of the inductor current of the TAB-DCER increases under single-phase shift (SPS) control, and this greatly increases the system operating losses. The use of phase-shifted plus PWM (PS-PWM) control can reduce the RMS value of the inductor current, but its mathematical model is complex, and involves difficult calculations. To address this problem, in the study reported here, we developed an optimal control strategy for the RMS value of the inductor current based on TAB-DCER. First, the working principle of a TAB-DCER under PS-PWM control was analyzed, and a circuit decomposition model was established. Second, the operating modes under PS-PWM control were analyzed, and corresponding expressions of port power and the RMS value of the inductor current were obtained. Third, an optimized mathematical model of the sum of squares of the RMS value of the inductor current of the TAB-DCER was constructed. Finally, a genetic algorithm was used to solve the mathematical model and derive the optimal phase shift angle; this resulted in a lower RMS value of the inductor current in the TAB-DCER and reduced the system operating losses. The simulation and experimental results show that the TAB-DCER used in the present study can reduce operating losses, improve system efficiency, and deliver coordinated power control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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15 pages, 2241 KiB  
Article
Identification of Critical Nodes in Power Grid Based on Improved PageRank Algorithm and Power Flow Transfer Entropy
by Jinhui Zeng, Yisong Wu, Jie Liu, Dong He and Zheng Lan
Electronics 2024, 13(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13010184 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Identifying critical nodes in the power grid is a crucial aspect of power system security and stability analysis. However, the current methods for identification fall short in fully accounting for the power transfer characteristics between nodes and the consequences of node removal on [...] Read more.
Identifying critical nodes in the power grid is a crucial aspect of power system security and stability analysis. However, the current methods for identification fall short in fully accounting for the power transfer characteristics between nodes and the consequences of node removal on the security and stability of power grid operation. To enhance the effective and accurate identification of critical nodes in the power grid, a method is proposed. This method is based on improved PageRank algorithm and node-weighted power flow transfer entropy, referred to as IPRA-PFTE. Firstly, based on the power flow and equivalent impedance between nodes, and the introduction of virtual nodes, an improved PageRank algorithm is obtained. Then the node-weighted power flow transfer entropy is derived by considering the uniformity of the transfer power flow distribution in the system following the removal of a node. Finally, the importance of nodes is obtained by combining the improved PageRank algorithm with the node-weighted power flow transfer entropy. The method’s effectiveness and accuracy are validated through simulation using the IEEE 39-bus example and subsequent comparison with existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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18 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
Solution for Pursuit-Evasion Game of Agents by Adaptive Dynamic Programming
by Zifeng Gong, Bing He, Gang Liu and Xiaobo Zhang
Electronics 2023, 12(12), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122595 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
The paper studies a novel method for real-time solutions of the two-player pursuit-evasion game. The min-max principle is adopted to confirm the Nash equilibrium of the game. As agents in the game can form an Internet of Things (IoT) system, the real-time control [...] Read more.
The paper studies a novel method for real-time solutions of the two-player pursuit-evasion game. The min-max principle is adopted to confirm the Nash equilibrium of the game. As agents in the game can form an Internet of Things (IoT) system, the real-time control law of each agent is obtained by taking a linear-quadratic cost function in adaptive dynamic programming. By introducing the Lyapunov function, we consider the scenario when capture occurs. Since most actual systems are continuous, the policy iteration algorithm is used to make the real-time policy converge to the analytical solution of the Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we employ the value function approximation method to calculate the neural network parameters without directly solving the Hamilton–Jacobi–Isaacs equation. Simulation results depict the method’s feasibility in different scenarios of the pursuit-evasion game. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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16 pages, 4107 KiB  
Article
Harmonic Suppression Strategy of LCL Grid-Connected PV Inverter Based on Adaptive QPR_PC Control
by Shengqing Li, Shuishuang Zhou and Huanping Li
Electronics 2023, 12(10), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12102282 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
To reduce the influence of voltage harmonics on the grid current, a control strategy based on adaptive quasi-proportional phase compensated resonance (QPR_PC) is proposed. Firstly, the LCL grid-connected photovoltaic inverter system model is established, and the stability performance of the three-level inverter system [...] Read more.
To reduce the influence of voltage harmonics on the grid current, a control strategy based on adaptive quasi-proportional phase compensated resonance (QPR_PC) is proposed. Firstly, the LCL grid-connected photovoltaic inverter system model is established, and the stability performance of the three-level inverter system under double closed-loop control is analyzed using the output impedance model of the inverter. Then, a QPR regulator for the zero steady-state error tracking of AC signals is studied. To solve the problem that the system has poor robustness against frequency changes when the traditional QPR regulator is used in the static coordinate system, this paper improves the traditional QPR regulator to optimize the response characteristics of the closed-loop system. Based on the QPR regulator, a phase margin compensation structure is introduced to form QPR_PC control. Then adaptive frequency design is added to ensure good control even when the power grid frequency drifts, which is the control strategy proposed in this paper. Verification shows that the proposed method improves the phase margin of output impedance at a specific frequency, restrains the interference of the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics of grid voltage, and improves the dynamic performance of the system and the quality of grid-connected current. Finally, the simulation results show that the total harmonic distortion rate of grid-connected current is reduced by 1.03% after adopting this strategy, which verifies the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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15 pages, 5278 KiB  
Article
Admittance Remodeling Strategy of Grid-Connected Inverter Based on Improving GVF
by Shengqing Li, Simin Huang, Weihua He and Dong Zhang
Electronics 2023, 12(9), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12092122 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
With the continuous enhancement of weak grid characteristics, the negative effects of grid voltage feedforward (GVF) and PLL on grid-connected inverters become more and more serious and are coupled. Therefore, it is difficult to effectively solve the system stability problem by only improving [...] Read more.
With the continuous enhancement of weak grid characteristics, the negative effects of grid voltage feedforward (GVF) and PLL on grid-connected inverters become more and more serious and are coupled. Therefore, it is difficult to effectively solve the system stability problem by only improving the PLL structure. Firstly, based on an improved phase-locked loop structure (CCF-PLL) with complex coefficient filter and considering the influence of GVF, the output admittance model of a grid-connected inverter is established. Through stability analysis, it is found that conventional GVF leads the total output admittance phase of the inverter, thus reducing the system stability margin under the weak grid. Then, an improved admittance remodeling strategy of the grid-connected inverter is proposed. An all-pass filter is introduced into the GVF loop to correct the phase of the total output admittance of the inverter, and the phase margin is used as the constraint to design the control parameters, which effectively improves the stability of the system under the weak grid. Finally, the simulation results show that, compared with traditional GVF, the proposed strategy can obviously improve the distortion of grid-connected current waveforms and improve system stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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11 pages, 2667 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Detection of Nickel Plated Punched Steel Strip Parameters Based on Improved Circle Fitting Algorithm
by Binfang Cao, Jianqi Li, Yincong Liang, Xuan Sun and Weihao Li
Electronics 2023, 12(8), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12081865 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Nickel-plated punched steel strip is a product obtained by punching holes on the surface of cold-rolled white sheet steel strip and then electrochemical nickel plating. It is necessary to make accurate and fast detection of punching circle parameters, since it is of crucial [...] Read more.
Nickel-plated punched steel strip is a product obtained by punching holes on the surface of cold-rolled white sheet steel strip and then electrochemical nickel plating. It is necessary to make accurate and fast detection of punching circle parameters, since it is of crucial importance to ensuring the quality of nickel-plated punched steel strips. Accordingly, in this article, an improved circle fitting algorithm of nickel-plated punched steel strip is proposed. Firstly, the least squares fitting is performed to obtain the circle center and radius dataset by iterative algorithm with different values for the initial point positions and intervals. Then, the mean shift algorithm is used to optimize the results after iteration, and the segmented fitted circle centers are all concentrated around the true circle center to obtain the best radius and center coordinates. Finally, comparison experiments with different numbers of circular holes and verification experiments with nickel-plated punched steel strips are carried out. As the results show, the algorithm proposed in this article is more robust than the least squares algorithm in detecting multiple circles and has better real-time performance than the Hough transform. Therefore, it can meet the industrial production needs with high accuracy and real-time requirements, such as nickel-plated punched steel strips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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13 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Path Planning for Multiple UAVs with Incomplete Information
by Junjie Xue, Jie Zhu, Jiangtao Du, Weijie Kang and Jiyang Xiao
Electronics 2023, 12(4), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040980 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
To address the dynamic path planning for multiple UAVs using incomplete information, this paper studies real-time conflict detection and intelligent resolution methods. When the UAVs execute the task under the condition of incomplete information, the mission strategy of different UAVs may conflict with [...] Read more.
To address the dynamic path planning for multiple UAVs using incomplete information, this paper studies real-time conflict detection and intelligent resolution methods. When the UAVs execute the task under the condition of incomplete information, the mission strategy of different UAVs may conflict with each other due to the difference in target, departure place, time and other factors. Based on the multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm (MADDPG), we designed new global reward and partial local reward functions for the UAVs’ path planning and named the improved algorithm as a complex memory driver-MADDPG (CMD-MADDPG). Thus, the trained UAVs can effectively and efficiently perform path planning tasks in conditions of incomplete information (each UAV does not know its reward function and so on). Finally, the simulation verifies that the proposed method can realize fast and accurate dynamic path planning for multiple UAVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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14 pages, 3690 KiB  
Article
A Novel Geometric Parameter Self-Calibration Method for Portable CBCT Systems
by Jie Zhang, Bing He, Zhengwei Yang and Weijie Kang
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030720 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
In outdoor environments or environments with space restrictions, it is difficult to transport and use conventional computed tomography (CT) systems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid reconstruction of portable cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems. However, owing to its portability and the characteristics [...] Read more.
In outdoor environments or environments with space restrictions, it is difficult to transport and use conventional computed tomography (CT) systems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid reconstruction of portable cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems. However, owing to its portability and the characteristics of temporary construction environments, high precision spatial location is difficult to achieve with portable CBCT systems. To overcome these limitations, we propose an iterative self-calibration improvement method with a self-calculated initial value based on the projection relationship and image features. The CT value of an open field image was used as the weight value of the projection data in the subsequent experiments to reduce the nonlinear attenuation of the projection intensity. Subsequently, an initial value was obtained based on the invariance of the rotation axis. Finally, self-calibration was realized iteratively using the reconstructed image. This method overcomes the main problem of the rotation axis invariance calibration algorithm—high similarity between the adjacent positions of symmetrical homogeneous materials. The proposed method not only improves the precision of self-calibration based on the projection relationship, but also reduces the performance cost and solution time of the self-calibration algorithm based on the image features. Thus, it satisfies the precision requirements for self-calibration of portable CBCT systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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14 pages, 4668 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Integrated Energy Optimal Compensation
by Shengwen Li, Xiao Chang, Haoqing Wang, Ning Liu, Yizhao Liu, Yang Yang and Qing Duan
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030531 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
This paper presents an advanced dynamic voltage restorer with integrated energy optimal compensation (EOC-DVR), which combines the advantages of pre-sag compensation and energy minimization compensation. The performance parameters of the EOC-DVR, such as the compensatory capability, loss of energy, and duration of compensation, [...] Read more.
This paper presents an advanced dynamic voltage restorer with integrated energy optimal compensation (EOC-DVR), which combines the advantages of pre-sag compensation and energy minimization compensation. The performance parameters of the EOC-DVR, such as the compensatory capability, loss of energy, and duration of compensation, can be balanced by this optimal compensation strategy. Additionally, the impact on the load is further reduced by the proposed method. By analyzing the working process of optimal comprehensive energy, the compensation limit of the strategy is discussed. After that, both the voltage and active power of the system for compensating are obtained by analyzing the compensation characteristics of the strategy. Therefore, the relations of the formula and curve between the related physical quantities can be obtained. Finally, simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink are provided to verify the effectiveness of proposed compensation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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17 pages, 21103 KiB  
Article
Research on the Electromagnetic Characteristics of an Integrated Multi-Winding Inductive Filtering Converter Transformer and Its Filter System
by Jianying Li, Yuexing Zhang, Jianqi Li, Minsheng Yang, Jingying Wan and Xunchang Xiao
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010227 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
In this paper, the electromagnetic characteristics of a novel integrated multi-winding inductive filtering converter transformer, including two parallel-connected delta filter windings with zero impedance, are studied. First, based on Ansoft, a 3D FEM model of the novel converter transformer is built according to [...] Read more.
In this paper, the electromagnetic characteristics of a novel integrated multi-winding inductive filtering converter transformer, including two parallel-connected delta filter windings with zero impedance, are studied. First, based on Ansoft, a 3D FEM model of the novel converter transformer is built according to its structural parameters and material characteristics. Next, the external circuit connection based on the established 3D FEM model is realized so the corresponding field-circuit coupling model can be established under three different working conditions. On this basis, the electric field characteristics, magnetic field characteristics, winding electromagnetic force characteristics, and core loss characteristics of the novel converter transformer with different conditions are analyzed. The results show that because the harmonic current is effectively suppressed, the flux chain passing through the windings of the novel converter transformer is closer to the sinusoidal wave and the harmonic magnetic potential is effectively suppressed; the electromagnetic force received by each winding of the converter transformer and the high-frequency vibration component are significantly reduced; and the transformer core loss is also significantly reduced. The research on the internal electromagnetic characteristics of the integrated multi-winding inductive filter converter transformer reveals the mechanism of reducing vibration and noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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20 pages, 2084 KiB  
Article
Online Adaptive Dynamic Programming-Based Solution of Networked Multiple-Pursuer and Single-Evader Game
by Zifeng Gong, Bing He, Chen Hu, Xiaobo Zhang and Weijie Kang
Electronics 2022, 11(21), 3583; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11213583 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
This paper presents a new scheme for the online solution of a networked multi-agent pursuit–evasion game based on an online adaptive dynamic programming method. As a multi-agent in the game can form an Internet of Things (IoT) system, by incorporating the relative distance [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new scheme for the online solution of a networked multi-agent pursuit–evasion game based on an online adaptive dynamic programming method. As a multi-agent in the game can form an Internet of Things (IoT) system, by incorporating the relative distance and the control energy as the performance index, the expression of the policies when the agents reach the Nash equilibrium is obtained and proved by the minmax principle. By constructing a Lyapunov function, the capture conditions of the game are obtained and discussed. In order to enable each agent to obtain the policy for reaching the Nash equilibrium in real time, the online adaptive dynamic programming method is used to solve the game problem. Furthermore, the parameters of the neural network are fitted by value function approximation, which avoids the difficulties of solving the Hamilton-Jacobi–Isaacs equation, and the numerical solution of the Nash equilibrium is obtained. Simulation results depict the feasibility of the proposed method for use on multi-agent pursuit–evasion games. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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21 pages, 18522 KiB  
Article
The Research on Harmonic Transfer Characteristics of Integrated Multi-Winding Inductive Filtering Converter Transformer and Its Filter System
by Jianying Li, Yunchang Xiao, Minsheng Yang, Jianqi Li and Jingying Wan
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11132088 - 3 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
A novel integrated multi-winding inductive filter converter and its filter system used in HVDC conversion station are proposed. Specifically, the schemes include two paralleled-connected delta filter windings with zero impedance, and the 11th and 13th tuned filtering branches are installed at the taps. [...] Read more.
A novel integrated multi-winding inductive filter converter and its filter system used in HVDC conversion station are proposed. Specifically, the schemes include two paralleled-connected delta filter windings with zero impedance, and the 11th and 13th tuned filtering branches are installed at the taps. On this basis, the 5th and 7th harmonic filters are eliminated and the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonics of the valve-side are suppressed. Moreover, the cost of the filter is reduced, and the negative impact on the converter transformer body caused by the transfer of harmonic current is avoided, such as vibration, noise, and harmonic loss. In this paper, first, the mathematical models of integrated multi-winding inductive filter converter and its filter system are established. Accordingly, the current relationships between the primary winding side and two secondary winding sides are derived. Then, the transfer path of each characteristic harmonic current in the new system is analyzed and discussed. Moreover, a simulation model is established to study the operation characteristics of the system. Finally, through the designed experimental prototype, a new DC transferring system platform is constructed to testify the operation characteristics of an integrated multi-winding inductive filter converter and its filter system. The experimental results show that the total harmonic distortion rate of the grid-winding current can be reduced to 4.68% only by installing the 11th and 13th tuned filters, so the effect of active filtering is approximated realized by the passive filtering method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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15 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
Editable and Verifiable Anonymous Authentication Incorporating Blockchain in the Internet of Energy
by Qiaolian Zhang, Fenhua Bai, Zhuo Yu, Yingli Liu, Tao Shen, Anke Xie and Lin Huang
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11131992 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
With the continuous development of the Internet of Energy, the access of a large number of distributed renewable energy has caused difficulties in energy management. The traditional energy management mode cannot meet the needs of existing energy management and trading. Therefore, this paper [...] Read more.
With the continuous development of the Internet of Energy, the access of a large number of distributed renewable energy has caused difficulties in energy management. The traditional energy management mode cannot meet the needs of existing energy management and trading. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated energy management platform based on blockchain, which allows multiple decentralized energy management systems to conduct unified identity authentication. At the same time, an editable and verifiable anonymous authentication (EVAA) scheme integrating blockchain in the Internet of Energy is designed, which combines the idea of chameleon hash (CH) and the algorithm of elliptic curve encryption (ECC) to realize the dual identity authentication of user information. Finally, the generated certificate is stored in the chain through blockchain consensus. The scheme is mainly constructed using multiple secure cryptographic algorithms, which combine the advantages of blockchain for information authentication. Thus, it can accomplish user cross-system authentication and transaction, and achieve more secure editable anonymous identity authentication through the algorithm performance test, compared with the existing similar schemes under the unified test standard. This paper not only ensures the operation efficiency, but also reflects the obvious advantage of realizing higher intensity security performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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19 pages, 8668 KiB  
Article
A Novel Strategy for Monitoring a PV Junction Box Based on LoRa in a 3 kW Residential PV System
by Min-Soo Kim, Do-Hyun Kim, Hee-Je Kim and Kandasamy Prabakar
Electronics 2022, 11(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11050709 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
Recently, 3 kW residential PV (Photovoltaic) junction boxes have mainly been installed on the roof or outer wall of building. Wired and wireless monitoring systems are being implemented by RS-485 and WIFI/IoT. However, conventional monitoring systems have a communication limitation according to the [...] Read more.
Recently, 3 kW residential PV (Photovoltaic) junction boxes have mainly been installed on the roof or outer wall of building. Wired and wireless monitoring systems are being implemented by RS-485 and WIFI/IoT. However, conventional monitoring systems have a communication limitation according to the distance and environment. It cannot receive any information when a failure of the PV junction box occurs. Therefore, there is a need for a strategy to determine whether the fuse and diode in the PV junction box are faulty through voltage and current sensors. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for monitoring PV junction boxes, based on LoRa (Long Range). The TTGO LoRa32 V2.0 module with LoRa and various input and output ports is utilized. The wireless TX module transmits various data collected from the PV junction box to the RX module in real time. In addition, the RX module displays the received data on an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen so that the user can intuitively identify it, and the data is recorded on the internal storage device or database in the web server. The manufactured PV junction box monitoring system was tested under a 3 kW PV system. Additionally, communication reception has stable signal intensity overall, both indoors and outdoors. In particular, it shows excellent characteristics in maintaining RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) > −99 dBm and PER (Packet Error Rate) < 2.7%, up to a radius of 200 m, even in NLOS (Non Line-Of-Sight) environments. Although some packet loss occurred, it was confirmed that invisible communication was possible up to 300 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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15 pages, 4080 KiB  
Article
Efficient Management of Fast Charging Systems Based on a Real-Time Monitoring System
by Do-Hyun Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Kandasamy Prabakar and Hee-Je Kim
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040520 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Fast charging technology is attracting attention due to the increase in the use of batteries such as EV (Electric Vehicle), LEV (Light Electric Vehicle) and ESSs (Energy Storage Systems). Fast charging of the battery has problems such as fire, heat, and performance degradation [...] Read more.
Fast charging technology is attracting attention due to the increase in the use of batteries such as EV (Electric Vehicle), LEV (Light Electric Vehicle) and ESSs (Energy Storage Systems). Fast charging of the battery has problems such as fire, heat, and performance degradation of the battery. In the case of fast charging, a large current is applied to the battery to charge it. For this reason, information of battery voltage, battery current and temperature is important when charging a battery. Excessive current, overvoltage, and overheating beyond the standard value can cause deterioration of battery performance and a direct cause of fire. Therefore, the condition of the battery must be operated in the condition that meets the battery standard. To overcome these problems, we are trying to solve problems such as battery overheating and accidents by applying real-time monitoring technology, User Mode and Auto Control Mode. In this paper, we propose a real-time monitoring system based on the PHPOC Wi-Fi Shield. It operates to efficiently manage the charger and battery status based on real-time data, and is verified through real-time monitoring of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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11 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Mutual Inductance Calculation of Circular Coils Sandwiched between 3-Layer Magnetic Mediums for Wireless Power Transfer Systems
by Minsheng Yang, Zhongqi Li, Min Zhang and Jingying Wan
Electronics 2021, 10(23), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10233043 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
The mutual inductance between coils directly affects many aspects of performance in wireless power transmission systems. Therefore, a reliable calculation method for the mutual inductance between coils is of great significance to the optimal design of transmission coil structures. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
The mutual inductance between coils directly affects many aspects of performance in wireless power transmission systems. Therefore, a reliable calculation method for the mutual inductance between coils is of great significance to the optimal design of transmission coil structures. In this paper, a mutual inductance calculation for circular coils sandwiched between 3-layer magnetic mediums in a wireless power transmission system is proposed. First, the structure of circular coils sandwiched between 3-layer magnetic mediums is presented, and then a mutual inductance model of the circular coils is established. Accordingly, a corresponding magnetic vector potential analysis method is proposed based on Maxwell equations and the Bessel transform. Finally, the mutual inductance calculation method for circular coils between 3-layer magnetic mediums is obtained. The correctness of the proposed mutual inductance calculation method is verified by comparing the calculated, simulated, and measured mutual inductance data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Applications for Renewable Energy Management and Control)
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