Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2024 | Viewed by 9162

Special Issue Editors

James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Interests: phased array systems; array design and synthesis; array signal processing; beamforming; direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation; smart antennas; evolutionary computation; radar systems; wireless communications; non-destructive testing and evaluation; medical imaging and diagnosis
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Guest Editor
School of Computing Science, Sir Alwyn Williams Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8RZ, Scotland, UK
Interests: Internet-of-Things; cyber security; next generation networking; device-to-device communication; ad-hoc networking; trustworthy AI; blockchain
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Smart devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors are infiltrating our lives from all directions and helping us in various aspects of life. These devices will enable the realization of advanced services such as e-health and telemedicine, smart traffic, environment monitoring and control, digital sensing, virtual reality (VR) and navigation. Information fusion and communication with each other are crucial for the success of these smart devices and sensors. It is predicted that the number of IoT devices will reach 25 billion by the year 2025. It would be extremely challenging for the existing multiple access techniques and communication systems to accommodate such a huge number of devices, given the fact that these machines need to communicate with each other and with human beings to optimize their quality and performance. The next-generation, or 6G, communication system is well-positioned to address these challenges and aims to achieve even higher energy and spectral efficiency, lower latency, and greater system capacity.

Researchers around the globe are proposing cutting edge technologies for smart communication and networking as the key and enabling technologies in the realization of 6G communications, including artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, software-defined networks, tera-Hertz and millimeter wave communication, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), etc.

This Special Issue aims to attract and encourage submissions in the area of smart communication and networking in the 6G era. Both original research and review papers are welcome. The topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Millimeter-wave (mmWave) and tera-hertz (THz) communication;
  • Smart and highly directive antennas;
  • Ultra-high-precise positioning and localization;
  • Clouds, fog, and edge computing;
  • Advanced beamforming with very large-scale antenna;
  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning;
  • Intelligent sensing, communication and computing;
  • Blockchain for secure and resilient communication;
  • Cyber security for smart communication;
  • Next generation communication network architecture;
  • Enabling technologies for smart communication;
  • Network intelligence, self-organization, self-reconfiguration.

Dr. Minghui Li
Dr. Sye Loong Keoh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 6G communication, mmWave, smart antenna
  • beamforming
  • artificial intelligence
  • blockchain
  • cyber security
  • next-generation communication architecture

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 6688 KiB  
Article
Wideband Millimeter-Wave Perforated Hemispherical Dielectric Resonator Antenna
by Waled Albakosh, Rawad Asfour, Yas Khalil and Salam K. Khamas
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091694 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
This paper presents a novel wideband circularly polarized millimeter-wave (mmWave) hemispherical dielectric resonator antenna (HDRA). Two distinct configurations of alumina dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) are investigated, each featuring a different coating: the first configuration incorporates a polyimide layer, while the second involves a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel wideband circularly polarized millimeter-wave (mmWave) hemispherical dielectric resonator antenna (HDRA). Two distinct configurations of alumina dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) are investigated, each featuring a different coating: the first configuration incorporates a polyimide layer, while the second involves a perforated alumina. Both configurations demonstrate promising characteristics, including impedance and axial ratio (AR) bandwidths of 58% and 17.7%, respectively, alongside a maximum gain of 10 dBic at 28 GHz. Leveraging additive manufacturing technology, the HDRA with the perforated coating layer is fabricated, simplifying assembly and eliminating potential air gaps between layers, thereby enhancing the overall performance. This innovative approach yields a circularly polarized (CP) HDRA suitable for Beyond 5G (B5G) communication systems. Agreement between measurements and simulations validates the efficacy of the proposed design, affirming its potential in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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23 pages, 5232 KiB  
Article
Continual Monitoring of Respiratory Disorders to Enhance Therapy via Real-Time Lung Sound Imaging in Telemedicine
by Murdifi Muhammad, Minghui Li, Yaolong Lou and Chang-Sheng Lee
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091669 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2237
Abstract
This work presents a configurable Internet of Things architecture for acoustical sensing and analysis for frequent remote respiratory assessments. The proposed system creates a foundation for enabling real-time therapy and patient feedback adjustment in a telemedicine setting. By allowing continuous remote respiratory monitoring, [...] Read more.
This work presents a configurable Internet of Things architecture for acoustical sensing and analysis for frequent remote respiratory assessments. The proposed system creates a foundation for enabling real-time therapy and patient feedback adjustment in a telemedicine setting. By allowing continuous remote respiratory monitoring, the system has the potential to give clinicians access to assessments from which they could make decisions about modifying therapy in real-time and communicate changes directly to patients. The system comprises a wearable wireless microphone array interfaced with a programmable microcontroller with embedded signal conditioning. Experiments on the phantom model were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing acoustic lung images for detecting obstructions in the airway and provided controlled validation of noise resilience and imaging capabilities. An optimized denoising technique and design innovations provided 7 dB more SNR and 7% more imaging accuracy for the proposed system, benchmarked against digital stethoscopes. While further clinical studies are warranted, initial results suggest potential benefits over single-point digital stethoscopes for internet-enabled remote lung monitoring needing noise immunity and regional specificity. The flexible architecture aims to bridge critical technical gaps in frequent and connected respiratory function at home or in busy clinical settings challenged by ambient noise interference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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14 pages, 3098 KiB  
Article
An Assessment of Receiver Algorithms for Distributed Massive MIMO Systems: Investigating Design Solutions and Performance
by Ali Gashtasbi, Mário Marques da Silva and Rui Dinis
Electronics 2024, 13(8), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13081560 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 827
Abstract
This study investigates receiver design solutions for distributed Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (D-m MIMO) systems, taking into account parameters such as number of access points as well as concerns related to channel estimates that use single-carrier frequency-domain equalization (SC-FDE). A significant contribution [...] Read more.
This study investigates receiver design solutions for distributed Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (D-m MIMO) systems, taking into account parameters such as number of access points as well as concerns related to channel estimates that use single-carrier frequency-domain equalization (SC-FDE). A significant contribution of this research is the integration of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes to simplify coding complexity and enhance communication efficiency. The research examines different receiver designs, such as spatial antenna correlation and sophisticated channel estimation methods. The authors propose integrating LDPC codes into the receiver architecture to simplify computations and enhance error correction and decoding. Moreover, the paper examines performance evaluation measures and approaches, highlighting the trade-offs among complexity, spectral efficiency, and error performance. The comparative analysis indicates the benefits, in terms of performance, of incorporating LDPC codes and improving system throughput and dependability. We examine four distinct receiver algorithms: zero-forcing (ZF), minimum mean square error (MMSE), maximum ratio combining (MRC), and equal gain combining (EGC). The study shows that MRC and EGC receivers work well in D-m MIMO because they make the receiver system less computationally demanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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13 pages, 392 KiB  
Article
On the Use of Near-Field Constellation Focusing for Physical Layer Security with Extremely Large Antenna Arrays
by João Ferreira, João Guerreiro, Rui Dinis and Paulo Montezuma
Electronics 2024, 13(5), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13050869 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 612
Abstract
In the fast-changing world of wireless communications, the combination of extremely large antenna arrays (ELAAs) and energy-efficient transmission methods is envisioned for the 6G. The application of directivity in the transmitted constellation can increase physical layer security (PLS) and promote the energy efficiency [...] Read more.
In the fast-changing world of wireless communications, the combination of extremely large antenna arrays (ELAAs) and energy-efficient transmission methods is envisioned for the 6G. The application of directivity in the transmitted constellation can increase physical layer security (PLS) and promote the energy efficiency of transmission. In such scenarios, large constellations can be divided into multiple binary phase shift keying (BPSK) components, with each component being individually amplified and transmitted by an antenna. In this work, we consider an ELAA acting as a transmitter and constellation decomposition at the sub-array level. We investigate the impact of considering a near-field channel model in terms of secrecy rate and mutual information. In addition to the energy efficiency of the constellation decomposition, it is demonstrated that the particularities of near-field beamforming increase the PLS, namely in terms of robustness to eavesdropping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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16 pages, 1913 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Telemetry and Deep Neural Networks for Anomaly Detection in 6G Software-Defined Networks
by Grzegorz Rzym, Amadeusz Masny and Piotr Chołda
Electronics 2024, 13(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13020382 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
With the increasing availability of computational power, contemporary machine learning has undergone a paradigm shift, placing a heightened emphasis on deep learning methodologies. The pervasive automation of various processes necessitates a critical re-evaluation of contemporary network implementations, specifically concerning security protocols and the [...] Read more.
With the increasing availability of computational power, contemporary machine learning has undergone a paradigm shift, placing a heightened emphasis on deep learning methodologies. The pervasive automation of various processes necessitates a critical re-evaluation of contemporary network implementations, specifically concerning security protocols and the imperative need for swift, precise responses to system failures. This article introduces a meticulously crafted solution designed explicitly for 6G software-defined networks (SDNs). The approach employs deep neural networks for anomaly detection within network traffic, contributing to a more robust security framework. Furthermore, the paper delves into the realm of network monitoring automation by harnessing dynamic telemetry, providing a specialized and forward-looking strategy to tackle the distinctive challenges inherent in SDN environments. In essence, our proposed solution aims to elevate the security and responsiveness of 6G mobile networks. By addressing the intricate challenges posed by next-generation network architectures, it seeks to fortify these networks against emerging threats and dynamically adapt to the evolving landscape of next-generation technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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15 pages, 3510 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Pick-and-Place System Using MobileNet
by Fan Hong, Donavan Wei Liang Tay and Alfred Ang
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030621 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
The current development of a robotic arm solution for the manufacturing industry requires performing pick-and-place operations for work pieces varying in size, shape, and color across different stages of manufacturing processes. It aims to reduce or eliminate the human error and human intervention [...] Read more.
The current development of a robotic arm solution for the manufacturing industry requires performing pick-and-place operations for work pieces varying in size, shape, and color across different stages of manufacturing processes. It aims to reduce or eliminate the human error and human intervention in order to save manpower costs and enhance safety at the workplace. Machine learning has become more and more prominent for object recognition in these pick-and-place applications with the aid of imaging devices and advances in the image processing hardware. One of the key tasks in object recognition is feature extraction and object classification based on convolutional neural network (CNN) models, which are generally computationally intensive. In this paper, an intelligent object detection and picking system based on MobileNet is developed and integrated into an educational six-axis robotic arm, which requires less computation resources. An experimental test is conducted on six-axis robotic arm called Niryo One to train the model and identify three objects with difference shapes and colors. It is shown by the confusion matrix that the MobileNet model achieves an accuracy of 91%, a dramatic improvement compared to 65% of the Niryo One’s original sequential model. The statistical study also shows the MobileNet can achieve a higher precision with more clustered spread of accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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Review

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17 pages, 3863 KiB  
Review
Sixth-Generation (6G) Networks for Improved Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication in Industry 4.0
by Izabela Rojek, Piotr Kotlarz, Janusz Dorożyński and Dariusz Mikołajewski
Electronics 2024, 13(10), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13101832 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The sixth generation of mobile networks (6G) has the potential to revolutionize the way we communicate, interact, and use information for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0, while also improving coverage in places that were previously considered difficult to access [...] Read more.
The sixth generation of mobile networks (6G) has the potential to revolutionize the way we communicate, interact, and use information for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0, while also improving coverage in places that were previously considered difficult to access and/or digitally excluded, and supporting more devices and users. The 6G network will have an impact through a combination of many technologies: the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence/machine learning, virtual and augmented reality, cloud computing, and cyber security. New solutions and architectures and concepts for their use need to be developed to take full advantage of this. This article provides an overview of the challenges in this area and the proposed solutions, taking into account the disruptive technologies that are yet to be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication and Networking in the 6G Era)
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