Diversity of Phytoplankton and Their Associated Microbiomes in the Changing Marine Environment

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 1803

Special Issue Editors

College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
Interests: harmful algal blooms; diversity of dinoflagellates and their cysts; taxonomy of dinoflagellate

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Guest Editor
Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: harmful algal blooms; molecular ecology of dinoflagellates; microbiomes of dinoflagellates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, climate change (CO2 elevation and temperature increase) has experienced an unprecedented rise, which has severely impacted the diversity and distribution of marine phytoplankton. The change in the species composition of these algae in some regions have resulted in the dominance of some small-sized species, such as harmful algal blooms (HABs), which appear to have increased in frequency, intensity and duration in coastal and estuarine waters worldwide. This has led to detrimental health effects and increased the mortality of wildlife and humans, whilst also exacerbating adverse ecological disasters and causing significant economic losses. Many bacteria and fungi could be involved in the processes of HAB formation and decline. The use metabarcoding to an extent has aided us in learning about the species diversity of phytoplankton and their microbiomes; however, their reaction to the changing environment is yet not fully understood. Therefore, in this Special Issue, we request submissions of papers dealing with the diversity of phytoplankton species, HABs, and the role of microbiomes in the processes of HABs.

Dr. Zhangxi Hu
Dr. Yunyan Deng
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • marine phytoplankton
  • harmful algal blooms
  • microbiomes
  • climate change

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Interactions between Noctiluca scintillans and Three Co-Occurring Microalgae in Response to Varying Nutrient Levels
by Junyue Wang, Ning Mao, Mingyang Xu, Yifan Chen, Yinghao Wang, Yuefeng Cai, Nanjing Ji and Xin Shen
Diversity 2024, 16(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/d16040215 - 30 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is a globally distributed bloom-forming species. Previous studies have shown that the primary reason for the frequent occurrence of N. scintillans blooms may be the proliferation of microalgae due to eutrophication, which provides a sufficient source of food. Meanwhile, [...] Read more.
The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is a globally distributed bloom-forming species. Previous studies have shown that the primary reason for the frequent occurrence of N. scintillans blooms may be the proliferation of microalgae due to eutrophication, which provides a sufficient source of food. Meanwhile, N. scintillans may release nutrients into the environment, thus affecting the population dynamics of microalgae. Thus, to investigate the interaction between N. scintillans and co-occurring microalgae, this study examined the population dynamics of N. scintillans and their interaction with three representative microalgae species in response to varying nutrient levels. The findings indicate that the growth of N. scintillans is slow when co-cultured with diatom Skeletonema costatum. Moreover, a high density and rapid growth rate of S. costatum may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of N. scintillans. Conversely, the population abundance of N. scintillans increased with the rise in the population density and nutritional level of Heterocapsa steinii (dinoflagellate) and Heterosigma akashiwo (raphidophyceae). Notably, N. scintillans can discharge specific nutrients into the aquatic environment, which can subsequently be assimilated and exploited by H. steinii. Thus, the interaction between the species and population dynamics of plankton, as well as changes in nutrient levels within the ecosystem, played a significant role in influencing the growth and population dynamics of N. scintillans. The mutualistic association between N. scintillans and microalgae may establish a transient closed loop, thereby fostering the sustained proliferation and subsequent expansion of N. scintillans. Full article
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12 pages, 3871 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of the Unarmored Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium trapeziforme (Dinophyceae) from Jiaozhou Bay, China
by Menghan Gao, Zhangxi Hu, Zhaohe Luo, Yunyan Deng, Lixia Shang, Yuanyuan Sun and Yingzhong Tang
Diversity 2023, 15(12), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15121186 - 29 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The genus Gymnodinium contains more than 230 extant species, approximately 30% of which have not been reported since their original description. Approximately eight Gymnodinium species have been reported or described in the coastal waters of China. This work reports the presence of Gymnodinium [...] Read more.
The genus Gymnodinium contains more than 230 extant species, approximately 30% of which have not been reported since their original description. Approximately eight Gymnodinium species have been reported or described in the coastal waters of China. This work reports the presence of Gymnodinium trapeziforme from Jiaozhou Bay, China, in 2020, and its morphological and phylogenetic characterization by using light and scanning electron microscopy and systematic analysis based on partial LSU rDNA sequences. We observed the typical diagnostic features of G. trapeziforme, including a small size, biconical to ovoid shape, and a sulcal extension intruded to the epicone and connected to the horseshoe-shaped apical structure complex (ASC). Additionally, we firstly observed that the ASC consisted of three parallel series of vesicles, with the central one possessing knobs, and having more than 10 amphiesmal vesicles within the ASC. The nucleus was cucurbit-shaped, and the amphiesmal vesicles covering the cell surface, which would be peeled off for the cells in stress. While our molecular phylogeny inferred with the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) confirmed the conspecificity of our isolate with the holotype G. trapeziforme (accession No. EF192414), we found a difference of 14 bases in the D1–D6 domains of the LSU rDNA sequences between the two entities, which indicates a detectable speciation of the two populations. Our work provides a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of G. trapeziforme that was isolated from the coastal water of China, which also broadens the geographical distribution of this species. Full article
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