Special Issue "Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jochen Neuhaus

Department of Urology, Research Laboratory, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: improving the diagnosis of prostate cancer, bladder cancer and other urologic diseases by development of biomarkers; proteomics; NMR-metabolomics; understanding of molecular mechanisms of receptor signaling and trafficking; elucidating the role of the tumor microenvironment; improvement of minimal invasive focal therapies and immune response priming in urologic cancers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men, worldwide, ranking first in more-developed regions and second (behind lung cancer) in less-developed regions. There are considerable variations in incidence and mortality rates in different countries and populations. Despite all efforts, mortality is still high and about one patient in 39 will die of PCa. Detection of PCa and clinical decision making mostly relies on clinical examination and PSA-levels, followed by invasive biopsy where indicated. However, known limitations of PSA diagnostics and the health risks of biopsy taking require more reliable biomarkers to diagnose PCa in first place, stratify for indolent and aggressive tumors in second place and finally allowing non-invasive monitoring of disease development and treatment effects.

This special issue aims to comprehensively cover all aspects of novel PCa biomarker development and validation with special emphasis on new approaches and adaptation of biomarkers to population peculiarities. We also invite manuscripts elucidating the molecular background of biomarkers. Original work, as well as reviews, are welcome.

Thank you for your consideration.

Prof. Dr. Jochen Neuhaus
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  •  prostate cancer biomarkers
  •  diagnostic, stratification and monitoring
  •  metabolomics
  •  proteomics
  •  genetics
  •  epidemiology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Seven New Prostate Cancer Biomarkers and the Potential Future of the ‘Biomarker Laboratory’
Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030049
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the third highest cause of male mortality in the developed world, with the burden of the disease increasing dramatically with demographic change. There are significant limitations to the current diagnostic regimens and no established effective screening modality. To this end, [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the third highest cause of male mortality in the developed world, with the burden of the disease increasing dramatically with demographic change. There are significant limitations to the current diagnostic regimens and no established effective screening modality. To this end, research has discovered hundreds of potential ‘biomarkers’ that may one day be of use in screening, diagnosis or prognostication. However, the barriers to bringing biomarkers to clinical evaluation and eventually into clinical usage have yet to be realised. This is an operational challenge that requires some new thinking and development of paradigms to increase the efficiency of the laboratory process and add ‘value’ to the clinician. Value comes in various forms, whether it be a process that is seamlessly integrated into the hospital laboratory environment or one that can provide additional ‘information’ for the clinical pathologist in terms of risk profiling. We describe, herein, an efficient and tissue-conserving pipeline that uses Tissue Microarrays in a semi-automated process that could, one day, be integrated into the hospital laboratory domain, using seven putative prostate cancer biomarkers for illustration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Metabolomics Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review
Diagnostics 2019, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9010021
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis with current biomarkers is difficult and often results in unnecessary invasive procedures as well as over-diagnosis and over-treatment, highlighting the need for novel biomarkers. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of available metabolomics PCa biomarkers, [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis with current biomarkers is difficult and often results in unnecessary invasive procedures as well as over-diagnosis and over-treatment, highlighting the need for novel biomarkers. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of available metabolomics PCa biomarkers, particularly for clinically significant disease. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed for publications from July 2008 to July 2018 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to report biomarkers with respect to their application in PCa diagnosis, progression, aggressiveness, recurrence, and treatment response. The vast majority of studies report biomarkers with the ability to distinguish malignant from benign prostate tissue with a few studies investigating biomarkers associated with disease progression, treatment response or tumour recurrence. In general, these studies report high dimensional datasets and the number of analysed metabolites often significantly exceeded the number of available samples. Hence, observed multivariate differences between case and control samples in the datasets might potentially also be associated with pre-analytical, technical, statistical and confounding factors. Giving the technical and methodological hurdles, there are nevertheless a number of metabolites and pathways repeatedly reported across various technical approaches, cohorts and sample types that appear to play a predominant role in PCa tumour biology, progression and recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
Imaging as a Personalized Biomarker for Prostate Cancer Risk Stratification
Diagnostics 2018, 8(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8040080
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Biomarkers provide objective data to guide clinicians in disease management. Prostate-specific antigen serves as a biomarker for screening of prostate cancer but has come under scrutiny for detection of clinically indolent disease. Multiple imaging techniques demonstrate promising results for diagnosing, staging, and determining [...] Read more.
Biomarkers provide objective data to guide clinicians in disease management. Prostate-specific antigen serves as a biomarker for screening of prostate cancer but has come under scrutiny for detection of clinically indolent disease. Multiple imaging techniques demonstrate promising results for diagnosing, staging, and determining definitive management of prostate cancer. One such modality, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), detects more clinically significant disease while missing lower volume and clinically insignificant disease. It also provides valuable information regarding tumor characteristics such as location and extraprostatic extension to guide surgical planning. Information from mpMRI may also help patients avoid unnecessary biopsies in the future. It can also be incorporated into targeted biopsies as well as following patients on active surveillance. Other novel techniques have also been developed to detect metastatic disease with advantages over traditional computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which primarily rely on defined size criteria. These new techniques take advantage of underlying biological changes in prostate cancer tissue to identify metastatic disease. The purpose of this review is to present literature on imaging as a personalized biomarker for prostate cancer risk stratification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessReview
Genome-Based Classification and Therapy of Prostate Cancer
Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030062
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the past decade, multi-national and multi-center efforts were launched to sequence prostate cancer genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes with the aim of discovering the molecular underpinnings of tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and therapy resistance. Multiple biological markers and pathways have been discovered to be [...] Read more.
In the past decade, multi-national and multi-center efforts were launched to sequence prostate cancer genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes with the aim of discovering the molecular underpinnings of tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and therapy resistance. Multiple biological markers and pathways have been discovered to be tumor drivers, and a molecular classification of prostate cancer is emerging. Here, we highlight crucial findings of these genome-sequencing projects in localized and advanced disease. We recapitulate the utility and limitations of current clinical practices to diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy, and we provide examples of insights generated by the molecular profiling of tumors. Novel treatment concepts based on these molecular alterations are currently being addressed in clinical trials and will lead to an enhanced implementation of precision medicine strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
RNAs as Candidate Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers of Prostate Cancer—From Cell Line Models to Liquid Biopsies
Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030060
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The treatment landscape of prostate cancer has evolved rapidly over the past five years. The explosion in treatment advances has been witnessed in parallel with significant progress in the field of molecular biomarkers. The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled the molecular profiling [...] Read more.
The treatment landscape of prostate cancer has evolved rapidly over the past five years. The explosion in treatment advances has been witnessed in parallel with significant progress in the field of molecular biomarkers. The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled the molecular profiling of the genomic and transcriptomic architecture of prostate and other cancers. Coupled with this, is a renewed interest in the role of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) in prostate cancer biology. ncRNA consists of several different classes including small non-coding RNA (sncRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA). These families are under active investigation, given their essential roles in cancer initiation, development and progression. This review focuses on the evidence for the role of RNAs in prostate cancer, and their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers, and targets for treatment in this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
Promise and Implementation of Proteomic Prostate Cancer Biomarkers
Diagnostics 2018, 8(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030057
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
PDF Full-text (1435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in men. Despite the broad use of prostate-specific antigen test that resulted in an increase in number of diagnosed cases, disease management needs to be [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in men. Despite the broad use of prostate-specific antigen test that resulted in an increase in number of diagnosed cases, disease management needs to be improved. Proteomic biomarkers alone and or in combination with clinical and pathological risk calculators are expected to improve on decreasing the unnecessary biopsies, stratify low risk patients, and predict response to treatment. To this end, significant efforts have been undertaken to identify novel biomarkers that can accurately discriminate between indolent and aggressive cancer forms and indicate those men at high risk for developing prostate cancer that require immediate treatment. In the era of “big data” and “personalized medicine” proteomics-based biomarkers hold great promise to provide clinically applicable tools, as proteins regulate all biological functions, and integrate genomic information with the environmental impact. In this review article, we aim to provide a critical assessment of the current proteomics-based biomarkers for prostate cancer and their actual clinical applicability. For that purpose, a systematic review of the literature published within the last 10 years was performed using the Web of Science Database. We specifically discuss the potential and prospects of use for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive proteomics-based biomarkers, including both body fluid- and tissue-based markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Other

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Open AccessViewpoint
Liquid Biopsy Potential Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer
Diagnostics 2018, 8(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8040068
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
PDF Full-text (1112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide with an incidence of 14.8% and a mortality of 6.6%. Shortcomings in comprehensive medical check-ups in low- and middle-income countries lead to delayed detection of PCa and are causative of high [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide with an incidence of 14.8% and a mortality of 6.6%. Shortcomings in comprehensive medical check-ups in low- and middle-income countries lead to delayed detection of PCa and are causative of high numbers of advanced PCa cases at first diagnosis. The performance of available biomarkers is still insufficient and limited applicability, including logistical and financial burdens, impedes comprehensive implementation into health care systems. There is broad agreement on the need of new biomarkers to improve (i) early detection of PCa, (ii) risk stratification, (iii) prognosis, and (iv) treatment monitoring. This review focuses on liquid biopsy tests distinguishing high-grade significant (Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7) from low-grade indolent PCa. Available biomarkers still lack performance in risk stratification of biopsy naïve patients. However, biomarkers with highly negative predictive values may help to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Risk calculators using integrative scoring systems clearly improve decision-making for invasive prostate biopsy. Emerging biomarkers have the potential to substitute PSA and improve the overall performance of risk calculators. Until then, PSA should be used and may be replaced whenever enough evidence has accumulated for better performance of a new biomarker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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