Special Issue "Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, Electrical, Optical and Thermal Properties of Nanocrystalline Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Application"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Alloys and Compounds".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Raghvendra Singh Yadav
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Centre of Polymer Systems, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Trida Tomase Bati 5678, 76001 Zlin, Czech Republic
Interests: magnetic materials; dielectric materials; electrical properties; luminescent nanomaterials; micro-wave absorbing materials; ceramics; materials chemistry; soft matter; nanostructured materials; materials for energy; semiconductor materials; nano-bio composite materials; metals and alloys; nanocomposites; functional materials; optical materials; graphene; polymer nanocomposites; graphene nanocomposites; graphene quantum dots; nanoparticles; nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties; dielectric properties; electrical properties; magnetically recoverable efficient photo-catalysts; data storage; gas sensing; magnetoresistance; other physical properties; synthesis; characterization; hyperthermia cancer treatment; drug delivery; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents; magnetic refrigeration (MR); spintronic devices; ferro-fluids; anode materials for Li-ion batteries; microwave devices; water splitting for hydrogen production; paint industry; super-capacitors; elect
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Anju Anju
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Polymer Systems, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Trida Tomase Bati 5678, 76001 Zlin, Czech Republic
Interests: magnetic materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Arts and Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz Unversity, Al-Kharj 16278, Saudi Arabia
Interests: fluid dynamics; mathematical Modeling; engineering problems; numerical solutions for PDEs and ODEs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, nanocrystalline materials have established a significant attention because of its widespread technological applications, i.e., photovoltaic, solar cells, anode material for Li-ion battery, super-capacitors, light emitting diodes, displays, spintronic devices, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, drug-delivery, magnetically recoverable efficient photo-catalyst, ferrofluids, gas sensor, hyperthermia cancer treatment, magnetic refrigeration (MR), data storage devices, microwave devices, paint industry, and water splitting for hydrogen production, etc. In addition, the variation in the magnetic, dielectric, electrical, optical and thermal characteristics of nanocrystalline materials in comparison with their bulk, make them very attractive functional material. For technological applications, the performance of nanocrystalline material can be regulated by particle size, morphology, capping, surfactant, doping, and core-shell structure, etc. In addition, a nanocrystalline material of desired physical properties for specific application can be made via. a controllable nucleation and crystal growth of material during chemical synthesis approaches such as hydrothermal method, solvothermal method, coprecipitation method, microemulsion method, sol-gel method, sonochemical method, solution combustion method, microwave synthesis, etc.

The special issue on ‘‘Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, Electrical, Optical and Thermal Properties of Nanocrystalline Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Application’’ is intended to cover a broad description in the field of nanocrystalline materials, its application, synthesis, characterization including investigation of physical properties such as structural, magnetic, dielectric, electrical, optical, and thermal, etc. Researchers and academicians working in the field of nanocrystalline materials are welcome to contribute to this special issue whose scope is intended to cover multiple aspects (from chemistry to physics) of fascinating nanocrystalline material systems.

Dr. Raghvendra Singh Yadav
Miss Anju Deswal
Dr. Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • preparation
  • nucleation and crystal growth
  • properties
  • applications

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Seed-Mediated Preparation of [email protected] Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Detection of Fentanyl
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070769 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Bimetallic nanoparticles have received extensive attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties, including enhanced optical properties, chemical stability, and better catalytic activity. In this article, we have successfully achieved the controllable preparation of [email protected] nanoparticles via a seed-mediated growth method. By [...] Read more.
Bimetallic nanoparticles have received extensive attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties, including enhanced optical properties, chemical stability, and better catalytic activity. In this article, we have successfully achieved the controllable preparation of [email protected] nanoparticles via a seed-mediated growth method. By regulating the amount of seeds—silver nanospheres—we realized that [email protected] nanoparticles gradually changed from spherical to a sea-urchin-like structure. The structure and composition of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and high-angle circular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). In addition, we use the prepared [email protected] nanoparticles as a substrate material for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as the test molecule, we explored the SERS enhancement effects of [email protected] nanoparticles with different structures. Furthermore, we used [email protected] nanoparticles for SERS to detect the drug fentanyl, and realized the label-free detection of fentanyl, with the lowest detection concentration reaching 10−7 M. This research not only provides a method for preparing bimetallic [email protected] nanoparticles with different structures, but also provides a reference for the application of [email protected] nanoparticles in the field of detection technology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Crystal Growth of the Quasi-2D Quarternary Compound AgCrP2S6 by Chemical Vapor Transport
Crystals 2021, 11(5), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11050500 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
We report optimized crystal growth conditions for the quarternary compound AgCrP2S6 by chemical vapor transport. Compositional and structural characterization of the obtained crystals were carried out by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. AgCrP2S6 [...] Read more.
We report optimized crystal growth conditions for the quarternary compound AgCrP2S6 by chemical vapor transport. Compositional and structural characterization of the obtained crystals were carried out by means of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. AgCrP2S6 is structurally closely related to the M2P2S6 family, which contains several compounds that are under investigation as 2D magnets. As-grown crystals exhibit a plate-like, layered morphology as well as a hexagonal habitus. AgCrP2S6 crystallizes in monoclinic symmetry in the space group P2/a (No. 13). The successful growth of large high-quality single crystals paves the way for further investigations of low dimensional magnetism and its anisotropies in the future and may further allow for the manufacturing of few-layer (or even monolayer) samples by exfoliation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Entropy Generation Incorporating γ-Nanofluids under the Influence of Nonlinear Radiation with Mixed Convection
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040400 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
Nanofluids offer the potential to improve heat transport performance. In light of this, the current exploration gives a numerical simulation of mixed convection flow (MCF) using an effective Prandtl model and comprising water- and ethylene-based γγAl2O3 particles [...] Read more.
Nanofluids offer the potential to improve heat transport performance. In light of this, the current exploration gives a numerical simulation of mixed convection flow (MCF) using an effective Prandtl model and comprising water- and ethylene-based γγAl2O3 particles over a stretched vertical sheet. The impacts of entropy along with non-linear radiation and viscous dissipation are analyzed. Experimentally based expressions of thermal conductivity as well as viscosity are utilized for γγAl2O3 nanoparticles. The governing boundary-layer equations are stimulated numerically utilizing bvp4c (boundary-value problem of fourth order). The outcomes involving flow parameter found for the temperature, velocity, heat transfer and drag force are conferred via graphs. It is determined from the obtained results that the temperature and velocity increase the function of the nanoparticle volume fraction for H2O\C2H6O2 based γγAl2O3 nanofluids. In addition, it is noted that the larger unsteady parameter results in a significant advancement in the heat transport and friction factor. Heat transfer performance in the fluid flow is also augmented with an upsurge in radiation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Method for Analyzing the Measurement Error with Respect to Azimuth and Incident Angle for the Rotating Polarizer Analyzer Ellipsometer
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040349 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
We proposed a method to study the effects of azimuth and the incident angle on the accuracy and stability of rotating polarizer analyzer ellipsometer (RPAE) with bulk Au. The dielectric function was obtained at various incident angles in a range of 55°–80° and [...] Read more.
We proposed a method to study the effects of azimuth and the incident angle on the accuracy and stability of rotating polarizer analyzer ellipsometer (RPAE) with bulk Au. The dielectric function was obtained at various incident angles in a range of 55°–80° and analyzed with the spectrum of the principal angle. The initial orientations of rotating polarizing elements were deviated by a series of angles to act as the azimuthal errors in various modes. The spectroscopic measurements were performed in a wavelength range of 300–800 nm with an interval of 10 nm. The repeatedly-measured ellipsometric parameters and determined dielectric constants were recorded monochromatically at wavelengths of 350, 550, and 750 nm. The mean absolute relative error was employed to evaluate quantitatively the performance of instrument. Apart from the RPAE, the experimental error analysis implemented in this work is also applicable to other rotating element ellipsometers. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Enhanced Properties of SAW Device Based on Beryllium Oxide Thin Films
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040332 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 469
Abstract
The present study depicts the first-ever optimized surface acoustic wave (SAW) device based on Beryllium Oxide (BeO) thin film. The feasibility of surface acoustic wave devices based on BeO/128° YX LiNbO3 layered structure has been examined theoretically. The SAW phase velocity, electromechanical [...] Read more.
The present study depicts the first-ever optimized surface acoustic wave (SAW) device based on Beryllium Oxide (BeO) thin film. The feasibility of surface acoustic wave devices based on BeO/128° YX LiNbO3 layered structure has been examined theoretically. The SAW phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and temperature coefficient of delay for BeO/128° YX LiNbO3 layered structure are calculated. The layered structure is found to exhibit optimum value of phase velocity (4476 ms−1) and coupling coefficient (~9.66%) at BeO over layer thickness of 0.08 λ. The BeO (0.08 λ)/128° YX LiNbO3 SAW device is made temperature stable, by integrating it with negative temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) TeO3 over layer of thickness 0.026λ. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Studies on the Characteristics of Nanostructures Produced by Sparking Discharge Process in the Ambient Atmosphere for Air Filtration Application
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020140 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Among the various methods for the preparation of nanoparticles, a sparking process at atmospheric pressure is of interest because it is a simple method for producing nanoparticles ranging from a few nanometer-sized particles to agglomerated film structures. In this research, we studied the [...] Read more.
Among the various methods for the preparation of nanoparticles, a sparking process at atmospheric pressure is of interest because it is a simple method for producing nanoparticles ranging from a few nanometer-sized particles to agglomerated film structures. In this research, we studied the effects of metal electrode properties on nanoparticle sizes. The experiments were carried out by applying a high voltage to different metal sparkling tips. The transfer of energies from positive ions and electron bombardments induced the melting and vaporization of electrode metals. Based on this research, we have developed a model to describe the formation of a nanoparticle film on the substrate, placed under the sparking gap, and the nanostructure produced by metal vapor on the sparking electrodes. The model provides a realistic tool that can be used for the design of a large-scale coating and the application of nanoparticles developed by this process for the filtration of PM2.5 mask fabric by air. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Computational Approach to Dynamic Systems through Similarity Measure and Homotopy Analysis Method for Renewable Energy
Crystals 2020, 10(12), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10121086 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
To achieve considerably high thermal conductivity, hybrid nanofluids are some of the best alternatives that can be considered as renewable energy resources and as replacements for the traditional ways of heat transfer through fluids. The subject of the present work is to probe [...] Read more.
To achieve considerably high thermal conductivity, hybrid nanofluids are some of the best alternatives that can be considered as renewable energy resources and as replacements for the traditional ways of heat transfer through fluids. The subject of the present work is to probe the heat and mass transfer flow of an ethylene glycol based hybrid nanofluid (Au-ZnO/C2H6O2) in three dimensions with homogeneous-heterogeneous chemical reactions and the nanoparticle shape factor. The applications of appropriate similarity transformations are done to make the corresponding non-dimensional equations, which are used in the analytic computation through the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Graphical representations are shown for the behaviors of the parameters and profiles. The hybrid nanofluid (Au-ZnO/C2H6O2) has a great influence on the flow, temperature, and cubic autocatalysis chemical reactions. The axial velocity and the heat transfer increase and the concentration of the cubic autocatalytic chemical reactions decreases with increasing stretching parameters. The tangential velocity and the concentration of cubic autocatalytic chemical reactions decrease and the heat transfer increases with increasing Reynolds number. A close agreement of the present work with the published study is achieved. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cationically Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose/Carboxyl-Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite Thin Film: Characterization and Potential Sensing Application
Crystals 2020, 10(10), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10100875 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
In this study, highly functional cationically modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/carboxyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots (CGQD) has been described. The surface of NCC was first modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA) before combining with CGQD. The CGQD, CTA-NCC and CTA-NCC/CGQD nanocomposites thin films were prepared using [...] Read more.
In this study, highly functional cationically modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/carboxyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots (CGQD) has been described. The surface of NCC was first modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA) before combining with CGQD. The CGQD, CTA-NCC and CTA-NCC/CGQD nanocomposites thin films were prepared using spin coating technique. The obtained nanocomposite thin films were then characterized by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the existence of hydroxyl groups, carboxyl groups and alkyl groups in CTA-NCC/CGQD. The optical properties of the thin films were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy. The absorption of CTA-NCC/CGQD was high with an optical band gap of 4.127 eV. On the other hand, the CTA-NCC/CGQD nanocomposite thin film showed positive responses towards glucose solution of different concentration using an optical method based on surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. This work suggests that the novel nanocomposite thin film has potential for a sensing application in glucose detection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mixed Convective Radiative Flow through a Slender Revolution Bodies Containing Molybdenum-Disulfide Graphene Oxide along with Generalized Hybrid Nanoparticles in Porous Media
Crystals 2020, 10(9), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10090771 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
The current framework tackles the buoyancy flow via a slender revolution bodies comprising Molybdenum-Disulfide Graphene Oxide generalized hybrid nanofluid embedded in a porous medium. The impact of radiation is also provoked. The outcomes are presented in this analysis to examine the behavior of [...] Read more.
The current framework tackles the buoyancy flow via a slender revolution bodies comprising Molybdenum-Disulfide Graphene Oxide generalized hybrid nanofluid embedded in a porous medium. The impact of radiation is also provoked. The outcomes are presented in this analysis to examine the behavior of hybrid nanofluid flow (HNANF) through the cone, the paraboloid, and the cylinder-shaped bodies. The opposing flow (OPPF) as well as the assisting flow (ASSF) is discussed. The leading flow equations of generalized hybrid nanoliquid are worked out numerically by utilizing bvp4c solver. This sort of the problem may meet in the automatic industries connected to geothermal and geophysical applications where the sheet heat transport occurs. The impacts of engaging controlled parameters of the transmuted system on the drag force and the velocity profile are presented through the graphs and tables. The achieved outcomes suggest that the velocity upsurges due to the dimensionless radius of the slender body parameter in case of the assisting flow and declines in the opposing flow. Additionally, an increment is observed owing to the shaped bodies as well as in type A nanofluid and type B hybrid nanofluid. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Triple Solutions and Stability Analysis of Micropolar Fluid Flow on an Exponentially Shrinking Surface
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040283 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
In this article, we reconsidered the problem of Aurangzaib et al., and reproduced the results for triple solutions. The system of governing equations has been transformed into the system of non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using exponential similarity transformation. The system of [...] Read more.
In this article, we reconsidered the problem of Aurangzaib et al., and reproduced the results for triple solutions. The system of governing equations has been transformed into the system of non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using exponential similarity transformation. The system of ODEs is reduced to initial value problems (IVPs) by employing the shooting method before solving IVPs by the Runge Kutta method. The results reveal that there are ranges of multiple solutions, triple solutions, and a single solution. However, Aurangzaib et al., only found dual solutions. The effect of the micropolar parameter, suction parameter, and Prandtl number on velocity, angular velocity, and temperature profiles have been taken into account. Stability analysis of triple solutions is performed and found that a physically possible stable solution is the first one, while all leftover solutions are not stable and cannot be experimentally seen. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Zn Doped α-Fe2O3: An Efficient Material for UV Driven Photocatalysis and Electrical Conductivity
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040273 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with varying concentrations (pure, 2%, 4% and 6%) were synthesized via sol-gel method. The influence of divalent Zn ions on structural, optical and dielectric behavior of hematite were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern [...] Read more.
Zinc (Zn) doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with varying concentrations (pure, 2%, 4% and 6%) were synthesized via sol-gel method. The influence of divalent Zn ions on structural, optical and dielectric behavior of hematite were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of synthesized samples were indexed to rhombohedral R3c space group of hematite with 14–21 nm crystallite size. The lattice parameter (a and c) values increase upto Zn 4% and decrease afterwards. The surface morphology of prepared nanoparticles were explored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The band gap measured from Tauc’s plot, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, showed reduction in its values upto Zn 4% and the reverse trend was obtained in higher concentrations. The dielectric properties of pure and Zn doped hematite were investigated at room temperature and followed the same trends as that of XRD parameters and band gap. Photocatalytic properties of nanoparticles were performed for hazardous Rose bengal dye and showed effective degradation in the presence of UV light. Hence, Zn2+ doped hematite can be considered as an efficient material for the potential applications in the domain of photocatalysis and also higher value of dielectric constant at room temperature makes them applicable in high energy storage devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
A Review on Metamaterials for Device Applications
Crystals 2021, 11(5), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11050518 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Metamaterials are the major type of artificially engineered materials which exhibit naturally unobtainable properties according to how their microarchitectures are engineered. Owing to their unique and controllable effective properties, including electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, the metamaterials play a vital role in the [...] Read more.
Metamaterials are the major type of artificially engineered materials which exhibit naturally unobtainable properties according to how their microarchitectures are engineered. Owing to their unique and controllable effective properties, including electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, the metamaterials play a vital role in the development of meta-devices. Therefore, the recent research has mainly focused on shifting towards achieving tunable, switchable, nonlinear, and sensing functionalities. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in terahertz, microwave electromagnetic, and photonic metamaterials, and their applications. The review also encompasses the role of metamaterials in the advancement of microwave sensors, photonic devices, antennas, energy harvesting, and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop