Special Issue "Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marta Fernández-García
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Guest Editor
Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain
Interests: polymer chemistry; synthesis and modification of polymers; antimicrobial polymers; active surfaces; material characterization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain
Interests: polymer coatings; antimicrobial coatings; biointerfaces; porous surfaces; functional surfaces superhydrophobicity; bioapplications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Coro Echeverría
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Guest Editor
Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros (ICTP-CSIC) & Interdisciplinary Platform for Sustainable Plastics towards a Circular Economy, SusPlast-CSIC; Spain
Interests: polymeric micro/nanogels; smart polymers; antimicrobial polymers, rheology; cellulosic liquid crystalline polymers; natural polymers, electrospinning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue on “Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces”. Bacterial surface contamination and further biofilm formation are considered major concerns in healthcare worldwide, as they may play a crucial role in disease transmission. Medical device-related infections such as surgical site infections, urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and orthopedic implant-associated infections are supposed to be one of the main post-surgical complications and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. Similarly, in the food industry, food contact surfaces are an important potential source of bacterial colonization, affecting the safety and quality of food products. Therefore, preventing bacterial contamination on material surfaces is currently an urgent priority in many fields of application, and in this sense antibacterial and/or antifouling coatings have emerged as a very effective and attractive strategy to tackle bacterial contamination over the last years. Extended investigations have been developed on this topic, mainly following three main approaches: antifouling/repelling surfaces, contact-killing surfaces, and antibacterial agent release strategies. The aim of this Special Issue is to present recent developments in antibacterial coatings, through original research papers and review/feature articles.

In particular, topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Contact-killing coatings;
  • Antifouling/repelling coatings;
  • Release-based antibacterial coatings;
  • Smart antibacterial coatings;
  • Nanocomposites antibacterial coatings;
  • Nano and micro-structured surface with antibacterial properties.

Dr. Marta Fernández-García
Dr. Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla
Dr. Coro Echeverría
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Biodegradation and Antimicrobial Properties of Zinc Oxide–Polymer Composite Materials for Urinary Stent Applications
Coatings 2020, 10(10), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10101002 - 20 Oct 2020
Abstract
Research advancements in the field of urinary stents have mainly been in the selection of materials and coatings to address commonly faced problems of encrustation and bacterial adhesion. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) and polypropylene (PP) were evaluated with zinc oxide (ZnO) [...] Read more.
Research advancements in the field of urinary stents have mainly been in the selection of materials and coatings to address commonly faced problems of encrustation and bacterial adhesion. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) and polypropylene (PP) were evaluated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coating to assess its ability to reduce or eliminate the problems of encrustation and bacteria adhesion. PLA and PP films were prepared via twin screw extrusion. ZnO microparticles were prepared using sol-gel hydrothermal synthesis. The as-prepared ZnO microparticles were combined in the form of a functional coating and deposited on both polymer substrates using a doctor blade technique. The ZnO-coated PP and PLA samples as well as their uncoated counterparts were characterized from the physicochemical standpoints, antibacterial and biodegradation properties. The results demonstrated that both the polymers preserved their mechanical and thermal properties after coating with ZnO, which showed a better adhesion on PLA than on PP. Moreover, the ZnO coating successfully enhanced the antibacterial properties with respect to bare PP/PLA substrates. All the samples were investigated after immersion in simulated body fluid and artificial urine. The ZnO layer was completely degraded following 21 days immersion in artificial urine irrespective of the substrate, with encrustations more evident in PP and ZnO-coated PP films than PLA and ZnO-coated PLA films. Overall, the addition of ZnO coating on PLA displayed better adhesion, antibacterial activity and delayed the deposition of encrustations in comparison to PP substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
The Antibacterial Effects of Quaternary Ammonium Salts in the Simulated Presence of Inhibitors in Root Canals: A Preliminary In-Vitro Study
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020181 - 16 Feb 2020
Abstract
To investigate the antibacterial effects of two newly developed quaternary ammonium salts (QAMs)-dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), in the presence of various root canal inhibitors. Streptococcus gordonii, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Actinomyces naeslundii were used. Dentine, dentine matrix [...] Read more.
To investigate the antibacterial effects of two newly developed quaternary ammonium salts (QAMs)-dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), in the presence of various root canal inhibitors. Streptococcus gordonii, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Actinomyces naeslundii were used. Dentine, dentine matrix and dead bacteria were selected as inhibitors. The antimicrobial efficacy of monomers of DMADDM and DMAHDM was tested against suspensions formed by mixtures of four bacterial species in or without the presence of inhibitors. The inhibition results were compared with chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). One-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test was performed to determine significant differences. The antibacterial effects of DMADDM and DMAHDM were variably inhibited dentine, dentine matrix and dead bacteria. CHX and NaOCl showed substantivity and they inhibited bacteria present in suspension. The concentration of compound decreased in the dentine block due to constant release. Bacterial colonies on the dentine surface and dentine tubules were significantly inhibited by DMADDM and DMAHDM. The antibacterial effects of DMADDM and DMAHDM could be inactivated by dentine, dentine matrix and dead bacteria, while DMADDM and DMAHDM could inhibit bacteria colonization on the dentine surface and kill bacteria present in dentinal tubules. The antibacterial effects of DMADDM and DMAHDM as free monomers in the presence of inhibitors was evaluated for the first time. They could help inhibit the residual bacteria on the dentine surface and in dentinal tubules that may cause persisting infection. Therefore the novel QAMs showed great potentials as root canal medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Fungicides Films of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)/Inclusion Complexes (Carvacrol and Cinnamaldehyde) Against Botrytis Cinerea
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120795 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared with the incorporation of natural agents (carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde) by the melting process. The co-precipitation method was used successfully to complex the carvacrol or trans-cinnamaldehyde with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The active compounds encapsulated in β-CD [...] Read more.
Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared with the incorporation of natural agents (carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde) by the melting process. The co-precipitation method was used successfully to complex the carvacrol or trans-cinnamaldehyde with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The active compounds encapsulated in β-CD achieved ca. 90% encapsulation efficiency (E.E.). The inclusion complex studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) found particles of different sizes, ca. 4 μm. The active compounds were added directly (1 and 5 wt %) into the polymer matrix, yielding LDPE + carvacrol and LDPE + cinnamaldehyde films. The active compounds encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were added to LDPE, yielding LDPE + β-CD-carvacrol and LDPE + β-CD-cinnamaldehyde films. The incorporation of carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde, and their corresponding inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, did not affect the thermal properties of LDPE. The microcapsules distributed in all polymer matrices had sizes of 5–20 μm as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In terms of mechanical properties, the polymers showed a slight decrease of Young’s modulus (12%) and yield stress compared (14%) to neat LDPE. This could be due to the essential oil acting as a plasticizer in the polymer matrix. The LDPE + carvacrol and LDPE + cinnamaldehyde films had the capacity to inhibit fungi by 99% compared to neat LDPE. The effectiveness against fungi of LDPE+β-CD + active agent was slower than by the direct incorporation of the essential oil in the LDPE in the same amount of active agent. The biocidal properties were related to the gradual release of active compound from the polymer. The results confirm the applicability of carvacrol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, and their corresponding inclusion complexes in active packaging, as well as their use in the food delivery industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Polymer Composition and Substrate on the Performance of Bioinspired Coatings with Antibacterial Activity
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110733 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A series of methacrylic copolymers bearing thiazolium cationic groups and catechol moieties were evaluated as antibacterial coatings on a variety of materials including aluminum and plastics such as polycarbonate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and silicone rubber. The thermal properties of the copolymers were first studied [...] Read more.
A series of methacrylic copolymers bearing thiazolium cationic groups and catechol moieties were evaluated as antibacterial coatings on a variety of materials including aluminum and plastics such as polycarbonate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and silicone rubber. The thermal properties of the copolymers were first studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The cationic copolymers were thermally stable up to 200 °C and presented glass transition temperatures values well above 100 °C; thus, an acceptable thermal behavior for typical biomedical applications. The cationic copolymers with variable content of the adhesive anchoring N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl) methacrylamide (DOMA) units were coated onto the metal and polymeric substrates by drop casting and the adhesive properties of the obtained coatings were further evaluated as a function of DOMA content and substrate. Optical profilometry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, and antimicrobial studies reveal that the coatings adhere stronger to metal substrates than to the polymeric substrates. The copolymers with higher content of DOMA, 24 mol.%, resist solvent erosion treatment when coated onto all substrates and exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus bacteria after this erosion treatment. In contrast, copolymers with low content, 9 mol.% of DOMA, only remain attached onto the aluminum metal substrate after solvent treatment, while on polymeric substrates the coatings are almost removed and do not show any efficacy against S. aureus bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
The Antibacterial Properties and Safety of a Nanoparticle-Coated Parquet Floor
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060403 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Floor antibacterial technology prevents the human body from cross-infection with bacterial diseases. The most commonly used approach to endow daily-used floors with antibacterial properties is to apply a thin film of antibacterial agents on the parquet floor surface. In the present study, five [...] Read more.
Floor antibacterial technology prevents the human body from cross-infection with bacterial diseases. The most commonly used approach to endow daily-used floors with antibacterial properties is to apply a thin film of antibacterial agents on the parquet floor surface. In the present study, five commercial antibacterial nanoparticles were first dispersed in melamine resin solution, and then applied on a floor. Afterwards, the antibacterial properties of the nanoparticle-coated floor were investigated, in which Escherichia coli was used as the target bacteria. The impact of the nanoparticle dispersing agents on the ultimate antibacterial properties of the floor were also investigated. The results showed that silver nanoparticle-loaded hydroxyl zirconium sodium phosphate (Ag-HZDP) was most suitable as the antibacterial agent of a melamine coating for parquet flooring. With the help of sodium hexametaphosphate, the antibacterial agent was able to disperse well in the melamine resin solution and was also able to disperse well on the floor surface. When the loading amount of Ag-HZDP was 1 wt % or higher, the prepared antibacterial floor was able kill almost all the bacteria cultivated on its surface. Moreover, the prepared antibacterial floor had a lower toxicity compared with a pristine cedar substrate. The present study provides an effective way to provide daily-used parquet floors with excellent antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Antibacterial Coatings for Improving the Performance of Biomaterials
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020139 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biomedical devices have become essential in the health care. Every day, an enormous number of these devices are used or implanted in humans. In this context, the bacterial contamination that could be developed in implanted devices is critical since it is estimated that [...] Read more.
Biomedical devices have become essential in the health care. Every day, an enormous number of these devices are used or implanted in humans. In this context, the bacterial contamination that could be developed in implanted devices is critical since it is estimated that infections kill more people than other medical causes. Commonly, these infections are treated with antibiotics, but the biofilm formation on implant surfaces could significantly reduce the effectiveness of these antibiotics since bacteria inside the biofilm is protected from the drug. In some cases, a complete removal of the implant is necessary in order to overcome the infection. In this context, antibacterial coatings are considered an excellent strategy to avoid biofilm formation and, therefore, mitigate the derived complications. In this review, the main biomaterials used in biomedical devices, the mechanism of biofilm formation, and the main strategies for the development of antibacterial coatings, are reviewed. Finally, the main polymer-based strategies to develop antibacterial coatings are summarized, with the aim of these coatings being to avoid the bacteria proliferation by controlling the antibacterial mechanisms involved and enhancing long-term stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Urinary Catheter Coating Modifications: The Race against Catheter-Associated Infections
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010023 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Urinary catheters are common medical devices, whose main function is to drain the bladder. Although they improve patients’ quality of life, catheter placement predisposes the patient to develop a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The catheter is used by pathogens as a platform [...] Read more.
Urinary catheters are common medical devices, whose main function is to drain the bladder. Although they improve patients’ quality of life, catheter placement predisposes the patient to develop a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The catheter is used by pathogens as a platform for colonization and biofilm formation, leading to bacteriuria and increasing the risk of developing secondary bloodstream infections. In an effort to prevent microbial colonization, several catheter modifications have been made ranging from introduction of antimicrobial compounds to antifouling coatings. In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of different coatings in preventing catheter colonization in vitro and in vivo, the challenges in fighting CAUTIs, and novel approaches targeting host–catheter–microbe interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Antibacterial and/or Antifouling Surfaces)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

planned paper 1:

Title: Antimicrobial glazed surfaces for ceramics applications

Authors: J. Reinosa1, E. Enríquez2, L. Shiquan3, J. F. Fernández2

Affiliations:

  1. Encapsulae S.L., Lituania 10, nave 2 (Edificio CIES), 12006, Castellón de la Plana, Castellón (Spain).
  2. Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain).3. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022, Shandong (China).
  3. School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, 250022, Shandong (China).

Abstract:

One of the most important threats to human health corresponds to microbes (bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) by themselves and to resistance to antimicrobial agents that they develop in addition to their easy of expansion, as COVID-19 has demonstrated. For these reasons, the formulation of new antibiotics, antimicrobial coatings and materials for different fields of application is one of the current challenges. In this sense, this work summarizes the studies about antiviral and antibacterial glass-ceramic surfaces and their antimicrobial mechanisms: existence of toxic elements, surface structures bothering microbes or the presence of crystallizations producing electric charges which unbalance microbes. The most commonly accepted normative for antimicrobial properties of surfaces is described also. Differences in obtained results from the distinct methodologies are showed. Given the pandemic situations experienced in recent years, the development of antimicrobial characteristics on common surfaces in homes and public spaces such as glass ceramic surfaces is considered necessary and useful.

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