Special Issue "Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alicia Esther Ares
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Misiones (IMAM), Faculty of Sciences, National University of Misiones, Posadas, Argentina
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The desired properties of surface components include the improvement of different properties, such as aesthetic appearance, oxidation resistance, wear resistance, mechanical properties, electronic or electrical properties, thermal insulation, and corrosion resistance through barriers.

These properties can be enhanced using different methods, such as by adding a coating. Nevertheless, the bulk of the material or substrate cannot be considered independent of the surface treatment.

Potential topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the full range of surface engineering aspects, i.e., surface integrity, contact mechanics, friction and wear, coatings and surface treatments, multiscale tribology, computational methods, and optimization techniques applied in surface engineering.

Contributions to this Special Issue are welcomed on all subjects of manufacturing and surface engineering. We especially welcome are papers that raise new questions and new possibilities, or examine old problems from a new angle.

Dr. Alicia Esther Ares
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Resistance of Multilayer Coatings Deposited by PVD on Inconel 718 Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060521 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
AlCrN/TiSi, AlCrN/TiCrSiN and AlCrN/AlCrN + CrN coatings were deposited on Inconel 718 alloy by physical vapour deposition (PVD). The corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated specimens was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at open circuit potential in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl and [...] Read more.
AlCrN/TiSi, AlCrN/TiCrSiN and AlCrN/AlCrN + CrN coatings were deposited on Inconel 718 alloy by physical vapour deposition (PVD). The corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated specimens was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at open circuit potential in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 2 wt.% H2SO4 solutions. The EIS data acquired were curve fitted and analysed by equivalent circuit models to calculate the pore resistance, the charge transfer resistance and the capacitance. The Nyquist diagrams of all systems showed one part of the semicircle which could relate that reaction is a one step process, except for the AlCrN/TiCrSiN and AlCrN/AlCrN + CrN coatings in H2SO4 solution, for which two semicircles related to active corrosion in substrate alloy were found. However, from the Bode plots, it was possible to identify two the time constants for all systems exposed to NaCl and H2SO4 solutions. According to electrochemical results, the corrosion resistance of the AlCrN/TiSiN coating was better in the NaCl solution, whereas the AlCrN/AlCrN + CrN coating show better performance in the Sulphuric Acid solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Evolution and Properties of Laser Cladding CoCrFeNiTiAlx High-Entropy Alloy Coatings
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040373 - 09 Apr 2020
Abstract
High-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings of CoCrFeNiTiAlx (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) were prepared on the surface of AISI1045 steel by laser cladding. The effects of the Al content on the microstructure, composition, phase constitution, and wear and corrosion resistance [...] Read more.
High-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings of CoCrFeNiTiAlx (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) were prepared on the surface of AISI1045 steel by laser cladding. The effects of the Al content on the microstructure, composition, phase constitution, and wear and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated. The results showed that when increasing the Al element content from 0 to 0.5, the phase constitution of the CoCrFeNiTiAlx coating changed from a single Face-centered cubic (FCC) phase to Body-centered cubic 1 (BCC1) and Body-centered cubic 2 (BCC2) phases, with a small amount of Laves phase, which obviously improved the friction and corrosion resistance of the coating. With further enhancing of the Al content, the amount of BCC1 phase increased, while the BCC2 phase and the Laves phase decreased. The CoCrFeNiTiAl2 HEA coating transformed into a single BCC1 phase, with retrogressive wear and corrosion resistance. It was found that the Al0.5 alloy coating exhibits excellent wear resistance, high hardness, and corrosion resistance in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Furthermore, the effect of the Al content on the microstructure, phase, and the relating properties of the CoCrFeNiTiAlx HEA coatings is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Electrode Covering Composition on the Microstructure, Wear, and Economic Feasibility of Fe-C-Cr Manual Arc-Welded Hardfacings
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030294 - 21 Mar 2020
Abstract
Manual arc-welded hardfacings are widely used for the protection of new or the restoration of worn parts in agriculture, forestry, and mining applications. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of electrode covering composition on the microstructure, wear (low, average stress abrasion; [...] Read more.
Manual arc-welded hardfacings are widely used for the protection of new or the restoration of worn parts in agriculture, forestry, and mining applications. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of electrode covering composition on the microstructure, wear (low, average stress abrasion; erosion at 30, 50, and 80 m s−1), and economic feasibility of Fe–C–Cr manual arc-welded hardfacings. Hardfacings were produced with the carbon and chrome contents varied in the ranges of 0.87–2.95 and 1.3–33.2 wt.%, respectively. The major phases composing the microstructures of the hardfacings were austenite, perlite, ledeburite, and various carbides, including eutectic M7C3. Technical and economic analyses were performed to assess the economic feasibility of hardfacings and reference wear-resistant steel Hardox 400. A wear and economic feasibility map was created to specify various types and facilitate the selection of optimal hardfacings for specific conditions. The produced Fe–C–Cr coatings were the most effective in low-stress abrasive conditions (up to 7.8 times greater than Hardox 400) and quite effective in erosive conditions (up to 2.9 times greater than Hardox 400). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing Errors of Concrete Cover as a Reason of Reinforcement Corrosion in a Precast Element—Case Study
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110702 - 27 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The article concerns the assessment of technical condition of the precast loggia wall in a large panel building after 25 years of use as well as the cause of its damage. As a result of the study, cracks and losses of the concrete [...] Read more.
The article concerns the assessment of technical condition of the precast loggia wall in a large panel building after 25 years of use as well as the cause of its damage. As a result of the study, cracks and losses of the concrete cover were found. Corrosion products were visible on exposed reinforcing rods. The reinforcement distribution and concrete cover thickness in loggia wall were estimated using a rebar detector. The corrosion assessment of reinforcement was performed using a semi non-destructive galvanostatic pulse method that allows the location of areas of corrosion and estimate the reinforcement corrosion activity. The phase composition of the concrete cover was analyzed. The test results showed an insufficient thickness of the concrete cover as the main cause of loggia wall damage. The research indicated that manufacturing errors made in the prefabrication plants affect the technical condition of precast elements and may lead to the damage of the structure well before the expected of its service life. In the case of manufacturing errors causing the implementation of an element with a concrete cover that does not meet the standard requirements for thickness and tightness, it is recommended to use protective coatings to increase the element’s durability to the designed level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Formation of a Double-Layer Ultrafine Crystal Structure for High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam-Treated Al–20Si–5Mg Alloy
Coatings 2019, 9(7), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9070413 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) on the microstructure refinement of an Al–20Si–5Mg alloy in the cross-section modified zone was studied, and a double-layer ultrafine crystal structure of the Al–20Si–5Mg alloy was formed. It was found that the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) on the microstructure refinement of an Al–20Si–5Mg alloy in the cross-section modified zone was studied, and a double-layer ultrafine crystal structure of the Al–20Si–5Mg alloy was formed. It was found that the cross-section modified zone was divided into three zones, namely, the remelted layer, the heat-affected zone, and the thermal stress wave-affected zone after HCPEB treatment. For the remelted layer, metastable structures were formed due to the rapid heating and cooling rates. For the heat-affected zone, the grain of the aluminum phase was refined due to the cooperative effects of shock wave (formed during an eruption event of the brittle phase), thermal-stress wave (formed during thermal expansion of the alloy surface), and quasi-static thermal stress (formed as a result of an unevenly distributed temperature gradient in the inner material) at high temperatures. For the thermal stress wave-affected zone, the grain refinement was not obvious due to the decreasing energy of the shock wave and the thermal-stress wave at low temperatures. In addition, firm evidence for the tracing of shock waves in the heat-affected zone was demonstrated for the first time and verified for the founding of the broken acicular eutectic silicon. Through this experiment, the mechanical properties of Al–20Si–5Mg alloy materials in both the remelted layer and heat-affected zone were significantly improved after HCPEB treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Direct Current Electro-Deposition of Copper Nanowires in Anodic Alumina Membrane Pores
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060378 - 11 Jun 2019
Abstract
Aluminum alloy plays an important role in industrial applications, but has a high friction coefficient and a high wear rate. On the basis of anodic oxidation treatment on an aluminum alloy surface, copper nanowires are deposited into the anodic alumina membrane pores by [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloy plays an important role in industrial applications, but has a high friction coefficient and a high wear rate. On the basis of anodic oxidation treatment on an aluminum alloy surface, copper nanowires are deposited into the anodic alumina membrane pores by direct current (DC) electrolytic treatment to prepare a composite alumina membrane, which significantly improves the tribological properties of the aluminum alloy surface. In this process, in order to obtain a highly-ordered nanoporous alumina membrane with a thin enough barrier layer for further processing, after the first anodic oxidation in phosphoric acid (0.3 mol/L), the obtained alumina membrane is modified by anodizing it in a phosphoric acid-ammonium hexafluorosilicate bath, in combination with a step-by-step voltage drop without oxide removal. By this method, the resistance of the modified alumina membrane is also reduced greatly, which facilitates the deposition of copper nanowires in the sulfate bath. It is found that the composite alumina membrane filled with copper nanowires has a low friction coefficient of about 0.25 and effectively improves the friction condition, giving the surface a self-lubricating property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Evolution and Lifetime Extension Mechanism of Sn-Added Fe-Based Pre-Alloy Brazing Coating in Diamond Tools
Coatings 2019, 9(6), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9060364 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effect of Sn content added in pre-alloy powder on the microstructure, porosity, hardness and bending strength of hot pressing sintering of a diamond matrix was investigated. The results show that with the increase of Sn content in the pre-alloy powder, a reduction [...] Read more.
The effect of Sn content added in pre-alloy powder on the microstructure, porosity, hardness and bending strength of hot pressing sintering of a diamond matrix was investigated. The results show that with the increase of Sn content in the pre-alloy powder, a reduction in grain size and porosity as well as an increase in hardness is observed. As a result of the reduction in porosity, the flexural strength increases with the increase in the Sn content in the pre-alloy powder. However, with the increase of Sn content, the bending strength decreases owing to the formation of Cu5.6Sn in the matrix. The properties of the diamond matrix are improved, and the lifetime of the diamond matrix is prolonged when the Sn content is 4 wt.%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrodeposition of Co-B/SiC Composite Coatings: Characterization and Evaluation of Wear Volume and Hardness
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040279 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this research work, Co-B/SiC composite coatings were synthesized by electrochemical deposition from colloidal suspensions with different content of SiC. The Co-B/SiC films obtained were heat treatment at 350 °C. The composition, morphology, and structure of the Co-B/SiC composite coatings were analyzed using [...] Read more.
In this research work, Co-B/SiC composite coatings were synthesized by electrochemical deposition from colloidal suspensions with different content of SiC. The Co-B/SiC films obtained were heat treatment at 350 °C. The composition, morphology, and structure of the Co-B/SiC composite coatings were analyzed using glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness and tribological properties were also studied. The results showed that an increase in the SiC concentration in the colloidal suspensions resulted in both an increase in the SiC content and a decrease in the B content in the obtained Co-B/SiC coatings. The Co-B/SiC coatings were adherent, glossy, and soft, and exhibited a homogeneous composition in all thicknesses. Besides, an increase in the SiC particle content of the Co-B/SiC composite coating from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC reduced the hardness of the film from 680 to 360 HV and decreased the wear volume values from 1180 to 23 μm3 N−1 m−1, respectively (that is, the wear resistance increased). Moreover, when the Co-B/SiC coatings with SiC content ranging from 0 to 2.56 at.% SiC were subjected to a heat treatment process, the obtained coating hardness values were in the range of 1200 to 1500 HV, and the wear volume values were in the range of 382 to 19 μm3 N−1 m−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Assembled Monolayers on Highly Porous Low-k Dielectrics by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane Treatment
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040246 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Highly porous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) dielectric materials with a dielectric constant (k) less than 2.50 are needed for 32 nm and beyond technological nodes. In this study, a highly porous low-k dielectric film with a k value of 2.25, open [...] Read more.
Highly porous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) dielectric materials with a dielectric constant (k) less than 2.50 are needed for 32 nm and beyond technological nodes. In this study, a highly porous low-k dielectric film with a k value of 2.25, open porosity of 32.0%, and pore diameter of 1.15 nm were treated by 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) in wet solution in order to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) onto it. The effects of the formation SAMs on the electrical characteristics and reliability of highly porous low-k dielectric films were characterized. As SAMs were formed onto the highly porous low-k dielectric film by APTMS treatment, the dielectric breakdown field and the failure time were significantly improved, but at the expense of the increases in the dielectric constant and leakage current. Moreover, the formation SAMs enhanced the Cu barrier performance for highly porous low-k dielectric films. Therefore, the SAMs derived from APTMS treatment are promising for highly porous low-k dielectric films to ensure better integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthesis and Morphological Characterization of Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Films by Using a Single Anodization Step
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020115 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films play an important role in nanotechnology due to their easily adjustable morphological properties and wide range of applications. Thus, a deep and systematic characterization of the morphological properties of these coatings is essential. The most important variables [...] Read more.
Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films play an important role in nanotechnology due to their easily adjustable morphological properties and wide range of applications. Thus, a deep and systematic characterization of the morphological properties of these coatings is essential. The most important variables in the synthesis of nanoporous AAO films include the anodization voltage, nature, concentration and temperature of the electrolyte, which, combined, result in pores of different sizes and geometries. In the present work, AA 1050 alloy was used to synthesize AAO films, using 0.3 and 0.9 M oxalic acid as the electrolyte and combining different electrolyte temperatures (20, 30 and 40 °C) and anodizing voltages (30, 40 and 60 V), with the aim to correlate the morphological properties of the coatings with the synthesis parameters of a single anodization step. The coatings obtained were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, determining pore diameter, interpore distance, pore density and coating thickness. The results showed that, by varying the anodic synthesis conditions, it is possible to obtain coatings with a pore diameter between 21 and 97 nm, an interpore distance between 59 and 138 nm, pore density between 2.8 × 1010 and 5.4 × 109 pores/cm2 and thicknesses between 15 and 145 µm. In this way, the right combination of synthesis variables allows synthesizing AAO coatings with morphological characteristics best suited to each particular application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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Open AccessArticle
Perspectives of the Friction Mechanism of Hydrogenated Diamond-Like Carbon Film in Air by Varying Sliding Velocity
Coatings 2018, 8(10), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8100331 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The purpose of the present work is to probe the friction mechanism of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) film in air by varying sliding velocity (25–1000 mm/s). Friction tests of Al2O3 ball against H-DLC film were conducted with a rotational ball-on-disk [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present work is to probe the friction mechanism of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) film in air by varying sliding velocity (25–1000 mm/s). Friction tests of Al2O3 ball against H-DLC film were conducted with a rotational ball-on-disk tribometer. As the sliding velocity increases, both the friction coefficient and the surface wear of H-DLC film decrease, reach the minimum values, and then increase in the high sliding velocity region. Based on the observed results, three main friction mechanisms of H-DLC film—namely graphitization mechanism, transfer layer mechanism, and passivation mechanism—are discussed. Raman analysis indicates that the graphitization of worn surface on the H-DLC film has a negligible contribution to the variation of the friction coefficient and the surface wear. The origin of the sliding velocity dependence is due to the synergistic interaction between the graphitized transfer layer formation and the surface passivation. The present study will not only enrich the understanding of friction mechanism of H-DLC films in air, but will also help to promote their practical engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Surface Engineering II)
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