Special Issue "Electrochemical and Electrophoretic Deposition of Bioactive Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Coatings for Biomedicine and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hicham Benhayoune
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Guest Editor
Institut de Thermique, Mécanique et Matériaux (ITheMM), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), Reims, France
Interests: electrochemical deposition; electrophoretic deposition; biomaterials; prosthetic coatings; calcium phosphates; bioactif galsses; bone substituts; electron microscopy; X-ray microanalysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Richard Drevet
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, Toulouse, France
Interests: electrochemical deposition; electrophoretic deposition; biomaterials; coatings; calcium phosphate; bone implants; electrochemistry; corrosion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, the academic and industrial research efforts to improve the lifespan of bone implant materials are growing more and more due to an increasing worldwide clinical demand in skeletal repair, particularly for orthopaedic and dental surgeries. To reach this objective, many research labs focus their works on improving the osseointegration of bone implants by modifying the surface of prosthetic alloys with bioactive coatings made of bioceramic or bioglass. These coatings support the bone cells’ growth at the surface of the implant, promoting the formation of an intimate link with the surrounding bone tissues.

The electrochemical methods, such as electrochemical deposition and electrophoretic deposition, are powerful low-temperature processes to design innovative bioactive coatings to produce new biomaterials. The deposition parameters and the experimental conditions control the thickness and the chemical composition of these coatings. Moreover, since electrochemical deposition and electrophoretic deposition take place at low temperature, the incorporation of organic components (polymers, proteins, drugs, etc.) inside the prosthetic coating is possible in order to enhance the biological and mechanical properties of the surface coating.

In that framework, this Special Issue aims at presenting the latest developments in this field.

In particular, the topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Recent developments in electrochemical deposition;
  • Recent developments in electrophoretic deposition;
  • Synthesis of functionalized prosthetic coatings;
  • Calcium phosphate coatings for bone implants;
  • Bioglass coatings for bone implants.

Prof. Dr. Hicham Benhayoune
Dr. Richard Drevet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Biocompatible Coatings Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on cp-Ti and Ti-Zr-Nb Superelastic Alloy
Coatings 2021, 11(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11040401 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The paper compares the coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on commercially pure titanium and a novel superelastic alloy Ti-18Zr-15Nb (at. %) for implant applications. The PEO coatings were produced on both alloys in the identical pulsed bipolar regime. The properties of [...] Read more.
The paper compares the coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on commercially pure titanium and a novel superelastic alloy Ti-18Zr-15Nb (at. %) for implant applications. The PEO coatings were produced on both alloys in the identical pulsed bipolar regime. The properties of the coatings were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The PEO process kinetics was modeled based on the Avrami theorem and Cottrell equation using a relaxation method. The resultant coatings contain TiO2, for both alloys, and NbO2, Nb2O5, ZrO2 for Ti-18Zr-15Nb alloy. The coating on the Ti-18Zr-15Nb alloy has a higher thickness, porosity, and roughness compared to that on cp-Ti. The values of the kinetic coefficients of the PEO process—higher diffusion coefficient and lower time constant for the processing of Ti-18Zr-15Nb—explain this effect. According to the electrochemical studies, PEO coatings on Ti-18Zr-15Nb alloy provide better corrosion protection. Higher corrosion resistance, porosity, and roughness contribute to better biocompatibility of the PEO coating on Ti-18Zr-15Nb alloy compared to cp-Ti. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical and Electrophoretic Deposition of Bioactive Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrophoretic Deposition of 45S5 Bioglass® Coatings on the Ti6Al4V Prosthetic Alloy with Improved Mechanical Properties
Coatings 2020, 10(12), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10121192 - 06 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
In this paper, 45S5 Bioglass® coatings were elaborated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An adequate grinding protocol was developed to obtain a stable suspension of submicrometric particles in isopropanol. The voltage and the deposition time of EPD were [...] Read more.
In this paper, 45S5 Bioglass® coatings were elaborated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. An adequate grinding protocol was developed to obtain a stable suspension of submicrometric particles in isopropanol. The voltage and the deposition time of EPD were optimized. An optimal voltage of 30 V and two deposition times (30 and 90 s) were chosen to obtain two different coatings with thicknesses of 21 and 85 µm, respectively. The as-deposited coatings were thermally treated following a two-step protocol: one hour at 120 °C followed by one hour at 450 °C. The surface morphology and the chemical analysis of the 45S5 Bioglass® coatings were assessed, before and after heat treatment, by scanning electron microscopy associated to X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDXS). Their structural analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A scratch test study was developed for mechanical properties analysis. The obtained results revealed that the obtained coatings were homogeneous, weakly crystallized with an important compactness. An increase in the critical load LC associated with the cohesive limit of the film (from Lc = 3.39 N to Lc = 5.18 N) was observed when the coating thickness was decreased from 85 to 21 µm. After the thermal treatment, the chemical composition of the coatings was not altered, and their mechanical properties were improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical and Electrophoretic Deposition of Bioactive Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Calcium Phosphate Based Bioactive Ceramic Layers on Implant Materials Preparation, Properties, and Biological Performance
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090823 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Calcium phosphate based bioactive ceramics (CPCs) can be successfully applied as implant coatings since they are chemically similar to the inorganic constituent of hard tissues (bones, teeth). Nowadays, in orthopedic surgeries, it is still common to use metallic implants. However, the biological response [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate based bioactive ceramics (CPCs) can be successfully applied as implant coatings since they are chemically similar to the inorganic constituent of hard tissues (bones, teeth). Nowadays, in orthopedic surgeries, it is still common to use metallic implants. However, the biological response of the human body to these foreign materials can be adverse, causing the failure of implant materials. This disadvantage can be avoided by bioactive coatings on the surface of implants. CPCs can be prepared by different routes that provide coatings of different quality and properties. In our paper, we compared the morphological, chemical, and biological properties of CPC coatings prepared by the pulse current electrochemical method. The size and thickness of the pulse current deposited platelets largely depended on the applied parameters such as the length of ton and the current density. The decrease in the ton/toff ratio resulted in thinner, more oriented platelets, while the increase in current density caused a significant decrease in grain size. The higher pH value and the heat treatment favored the phase transformation of CPCs from monetite to hydroxyapatite. The contact angle measurements showed increased hydrophilicity of the CPC sample as well as better biocompatibility compared to the uncoated implant material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical and Electrophoretic Deposition of Bioactive Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of Functional Coatings Based on an Antibacterial Gallium (III)-Chitosan Complex
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050483 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Despite their broad biomedical applications in orthopedics and dentistry, metallic implants are still associated with failures due to their lack of surface biofunctionality, leading to prosthesis-related microbial infections. In order to address this issue, the current study focuses on the fabrication and characterization [...] Read more.
Despite their broad biomedical applications in orthopedics and dentistry, metallic implants are still associated with failures due to their lack of surface biofunctionality, leading to prosthesis-related microbial infections. In order to address this issue, the current study focuses on the fabrication and characterization of a novel type of antibacterial coating based on gallium (III)-chitosan (Ga (III)-CS) complex layers deposited on metallic substrates via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Aiming for the production of homogeneous and monophasic coatings, a two step-procedure was applied: the first step involved the synthesis of the Ga (III)-CS complex, followed by EPD from suitable solutions in an acetic acid–aqueous solvent. The influence of Ga (III) concentration on the stability of the suspensions was evaluated in terms of zeta potential. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analyses indicated the chelation of CS with Ga (III) within the coatings, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that no additional metallic gallium deposited during EPD. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the wettability, mechanical properties, swelling ability, and enzymatic degradation of the coatings were affected by the quantity of Ga (III) ions. Colony forming unit (CFU) tests showed a strong synergistic effect between CS and Ga (III) in inhibiting Escherichia coli strain growth compared to control CS samples. An in vitro study with MG-63 cells showed that Ga (III)-containing coatings were not toxic after 24 h of incubation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical and Electrophoretic Deposition of Bioactive Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Curcumin-Containing Orthopedic Implant Coatings Deposited on Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone/Bioactive Glass/Hexagonal Boron Nitride Layers by Electrophoretic Deposition
Coatings 2019, 9(9), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090572 - 08 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce a multilayer coatings system based on chitosan/curcumin coatings on poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK)/bioactive glass (BG)/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers (previously deposited by EPD on 316L stainless steel) to yield bioactive and antibacterial coatings intended for orthopedic implants. Initially, [...] Read more.
Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to produce a multilayer coatings system based on chitosan/curcumin coatings on poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK)/bioactive glass (BG)/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers (previously deposited by EPD on 316L stainless steel) to yield bioactive and antibacterial coatings intended for orthopedic implants. Initially, PEEK/BG/h-BN coatings developed on 316L stainless steel (SS) substrates were analyzed for wear studies. Then, the EPD of chitosan/curcumin was optimized on 316L SS for suspension stability, thickness, and homogeneity of the coatings. Subsequently, the optimized EPD parameters were applied to produce chitosan/curcumin coatings on the PEEK/BG/h-BN layers. The multilayered coatings produced by EPD were characterized in terms of composition, microstructure, drug release kinetics, antibacterial activity, and in vitro bioactivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the deposition of chitosan/curcumin on the multilayer coating system. The release of curcumin upon immersion of multilayer coatings in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was confirmed by ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial effect of chitosan/curcumin as the top coating was determined by turbidity tests (optical density measurements). Moreover, the multilayer coating system formed an apatite-like layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), which is similar in composition to the hydroxyapatite component of bone, confirming the possibility of achieving close bonding between bone and the coating surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical and Electrophoretic Deposition of Bioactive Coatings)
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