Special Issue "Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Nelson K. Akafuah Website E-Mail
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0503, USA
Phone: 8592180702
Interests: surface protection/preservation; coating appearance & integrity (thickness & adhesion); atomization; droplet transport; flow visualization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Automotive coatings have two important purposes—to protect the underlying metal or synthetic body panels from the harsh environment to which they are exposed, and to improve the appearance quality. The coating achieves these objects with only approximately 0.1 mm of coating film thickness. Factors, such as the chemistry and material composition of the paint, influence the quality of the coating. The appearance (color, gloss, and texture) of a coated surface greatly affects a customer’s perception of product quality. Appearance is very important in judging the quality of a car, and color is one of the most important considerations in determining appearance. Coating composition, together with the application procedures, paint film formation processes, and coated surface characteristics determine the appearance of a coating film. Automotive coating processes represent the cutting edge of application technology and paint formulation. However, the process remains very expensive, energy and time intensive, and highly wasteful (in terms of material). There are also associated environmental impacts to consider. New and emerging technologies must introduce sustainable multi-functional products, while improving the above shortcomings. Such innovations must streamline the coating process and reduce manufacturing costs.

Dr. Nelson K. Akafuah
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • multifunctional coatings
  • self-cleaning/healing coatings
  • energy generating coatings
  • paintshop dust/dirt control methods
  • low energy usage ovens
  • automated surface finish inspection methods
  • low cost cleaning methods and/or materials for paint booths, conveyors, and fixtures
  • new paint atomization technology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Nucleation and Growth of Intermetallic Compounds Formed in Boron Steel Hot-Dipped in Al–Ni alloy
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110195 - 10 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The formation mechanism of intermetallic compounds formed in boron steel hot-dipped in Al–7Ni (wt %) at 690 °С for 10–120 s was studied by identifying the intermetallic phases and investigating the growth process. Initially, a Fe3O4 oxide layer formed on [...] Read more.
The formation mechanism of intermetallic compounds formed in boron steel hot-dipped in Al–7Ni (wt %) at 690 °С for 10–120 s was studied by identifying the intermetallic phases and investigating the growth process. Initially, a Fe3O4 oxide layer formed on the steel. The oxide layer separated into multiple layers sporadically; following this, the Al–Ni molten alloy permeated into the region of the oxide layer breakdown and formed the Al9FeNi (T, monoclinic, space group: P21/c) phase on the steel surfaces. The Al9FeNi (T) phase formed from the reaction between the Al–Ni molten alloy and Fe eluted from the steel; this phase not only acts as an Al interdiffusion channel, but also as a barrier for Fe; and facilitates only grain growth without a significant change in thickness. Inside the steel, the Fe2Al5 (η, orthorhombic, space group: Cmcm) phase grows along the c-axis in the [001] direction; and has a long columnar structure. The Fe3AlC (κ, Cubic, space group: Pm3m) phase is formed owing to a reduction in the Al concentration and the simultaneous diffusion and discharge of C toward the steel interface, as C cannot dissolve in the Fe2Al5 (η) phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Formation of Reaction Phase to Si Addition in Boron Steel Hot-Dipped in Al–7Ni Alloy
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110186 - 04 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
In order to reduce the intermetallic compounds formed during the application of an Al–7Ni wt % hot-dip multifunctional coating on boron steel, developed for Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) and hot stamping, 2–6 wt % Si was added to the coating to change the [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the intermetallic compounds formed during the application of an Al–7Ni wt % hot-dip multifunctional coating on boron steel, developed for Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) and hot stamping, 2–6 wt % Si was added to the coating to change the reaction layer. The coating was run at 690 °C for 120 s. Al9FeNi phases were formed on the steel interface, Fe2Al5 was formed on the steel, FeAl3 was generated between the existing layers, and flake-type Al2Fe3Si3 was formed in the Fe2Al5 phase, depending on the Si content. In addition, as Si was added to the coating, the thickness of the Fe2Al5 phase decreased and the thickness of the Al9FeNi phase and Al2Fe3Si3 increased. The decrease in the thickness of the Fe2Al5 phase was mainly due to the effect of the Si solid solution and the Al2Fe3Si3 formation in the Fe2Al5 phase. The reason for the growth of Al9FeNi is that the higher the Si content in the coating, the more the erosion of the interface of the steel material due to the coating solution. Therefore, the outflow of Fe into the coating liquid increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Electrodeposited Ni-B/Y2O3 Composite Coatings with Improved Properties
Coatings 2017, 7(10), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7100161 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Ni-B/Y2O3 composite coatings were developed through an electrodeposition process to study the effect of addition of Y2O3 particles on structure, surface, thermal, mechanical, and anticorrosion properties of Ni-B coatings. It is revealed that parent crystal structure of [...] Read more.
Ni-B/Y2O3 composite coatings were developed through an electrodeposition process to study the effect of addition of Y2O3 particles on structure, surface, thermal, mechanical, and anticorrosion properties of Ni-B coatings. It is revealed that parent crystal structure of Ni-B matrix is preserved by addition of Y2O3, however, a noticeable improvement in crystallinity is observed. The analysis of the surface exhibits formation of dense and nodular deposits in the two types of coatings, but incorporation of Y2O3 particles in Ni-B matrix has resulted in a noteworthy change in grain size and surface roughness. Thermal analysis of the surfaces indicates that Ni-B-Y2O3 composite coatings demonstrate superior thermal stability compared to Ni-B coatings. The nanoindentation analysis shows a significant enhancement in the mechanical characteristics of the Ni-B matrix by addition of Y2O3 particles. This may be contemplated as the result of grain refinement and dispersion hardening of the Ni-B matrix by the presence of hard Y2O3 particles. A decent improvement in the corrosion protection efficiency (73.6%) is also observed by addition of Y2O3 particles into Ni-B matrix. Simultaneous improvement of mechanical and anticorrosion properties suggests potential applications of Ni-B-Y2O3 coatings in oil and gas, automobile, and many other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Trajectory Optimization of Electrostatic Spray Painting Robots on Curved Surface
Coatings 2017, 7(10), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7100155 - 25 Sep 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this paper, a new practical electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) cumulative rate model of painting is derived, and an experimental study on painting is carried out. First, the experimental method is used to obtain the radial thickness profile function of the spatial paint [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new practical electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) cumulative rate model of painting is derived, and an experimental study on painting is carried out. First, the experimental method is used to obtain the radial thickness profile function of the spatial paint distribution of static spray. Then, a spatial trajectory-planning scheme for a spray-painting robot based on a rectangular model is presented. This method designs the spatial path of the spray-painting robot by using the cuboid model method after the optimal value is taken as the width d of the overlapping area of the two spray-painting strokes in the plane. The experimental results illustrate that the paint thickness basically meets the requirements, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the trajectory optimization method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Bell Speed and Flow Rate on Evaporation of Water Spray from a Rotary Bell Atomizer
Coatings 2015, 5(2), 186-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5020186 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 4
Abstract
A phase doppler anemometer (PDA) was used to determine the effects of evaporation on water spray for three rotary bell atomizer operational variable parameters: shaping air, bell speed and liquid flow. Shaping air was set at either 200 standard liters per minute (L/min) [...] Read more.
A phase doppler anemometer (PDA) was used to determine the effects of evaporation on water spray for three rotary bell atomizer operational variable parameters: shaping air, bell speed and liquid flow. Shaping air was set at either 200 standard liters per minute (L/min) or 300 L/min, bell speed was set to 30, 40 or 50 thousand rotations per minute (krpm) and water flow rate was varied between 100, 200 or 300 cubic centimeters per minute (cm3/min). The total evaporation between 22.5 and 37.5 cm from the atomizer (cm3/s) was calculated for all the combinations of those variables. Evaporation rate increased with higher flow rate and bell speed but no statistically significant effects were obtained for variable shaping air on interactions between parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020024 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 39
Abstract
Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error [...] Read more.
Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a) aesthetic characteristics; (b) corrosion protection; (c) mass production; (d) cost and environmental requirements; and (e) appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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