Special Issue "Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Neonates and Infants: Etiology, Diagnosis and Management"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 14379

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Kathy J. Jenkins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
Interests: pulmonary vein stenosis; Pediatrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Progressive obliteration of the pulmonary vein lumen, known as pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS), is a rare condition that typically occurs in infants and very young children. PVS can be present at birth, but more commonly develops later in association with congenital heart disease or pulmonary conditions, especially in premature infants, and rarely in isolation. Unlike other congenital heart defects, a hallmark feature of the disease is the rapid recurrence of obstruction even after successful anatomic intervention. When PVS develops in multiple vessels, it rapidly leads to pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, and infant death.

We now know that lumen obliteration occurs from overactivity of myofibroblast-like cells in the neointima of the pulmonary veins, though the inciting etiology is not known. Much progress has been made over the past decade to understand the biology of PVS, refine surgical and catheter-based treatment, reduce cellular activity, and improve survival, towards the elusive goal of PVS prevention.

This Special Issue focuses on the underlying biology that leads to PVS, a deeper understanding of how vessels are affected including pathophysiology and prognosis, diagnostic and treatment strategies, and long-term consequences for the new population of survivors. We welcome original articles and reviews that explore these issues from basic science, clinical, or epidemiologic perspectives. Exploratory papers with leading ideas about causal mechanisms are encouraged.

Codifying what is currently known about PVS, etiology, and treatment is an important step towards improving survival for the growing population of infants affected by this devastating disease.

Prof. Dr. Kathy J. Jenkins
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pulmonary vein stenosis
  • myofibroblast
  • congenital heart defect
  • prematurity
  • infant

Published Papers (19 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Editorial
The Brightest Rainbow Follows the Darkest Storm
Children 2020, 7(11), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7110223 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 663
Abstract
A parent’s perspective on pulmonary vein stenosis through the experience of two children with the disease. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Article
Lung and Pleural Findings of Children with Pulmonary Vein Stenosis with and without Aspiration: MDCT Evaluation
Children 2022, 9(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9040543 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Purpose: To retrospectively compare the lung and pleural findings in children with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) with and without aspiration on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods: All consecutive children (≤18 years old) with PVS who underwent thoracic MDCT studies from August [...] Read more.
Purpose: To retrospectively compare the lung and pleural findings in children with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) with and without aspiration on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods: All consecutive children (≤18 years old) with PVS who underwent thoracic MDCT studies from August 2004 to December 2021 were categorized into two groups: children with PVS with aspiration (Group 1) and children with PVS without aspiration (Group 2). Two independent pediatric radiologists retrospectively evaluated thoracic MDCT studies for the presence of lung and pleural abnormalities as follows: (1) in the lung (ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, nodule, mass, cyst(s), interlobular septal thickening, and fibrosis) and (2) in the pleura (thickening, effusion, and pneumothorax). Interobserver agreement between the two reviewers was evaluated by the proportion of agreement and the Kappa statistic. Results: The final study population consisted of 64 pediatric patients (36 males (56.3%) and 43 females (43.7%); mean age, 1.7 years; range, 1 day–17 years). Among these 64 patients, 19 patients (29.7%) comprised Group 1 and the remaining 45 patients (70.3%) comprised Group 2. In Group 1 (children with PVS with aspiration), the detected lung and pleural MDCT abnormalities were: GGO (17/19; 89.5%), pleural thickening (17/19; 89.5%), consolidation (16/19; 84.5%), and septal thickening (16/19; 84.5%). The lung and pleural MDCT abnormalities observed in Group 2 (children with PVS without aspiration) were: GGO (37/45; 82.2%), pleural thickening (37/45; 82.2%), septal thickening (36/45; 80%), consolidation (3/45; 6.7%), pleural effusion (1/45; 2.2%), pneumothorax (1/45; 2.2%), and cyst(s) (1/45; 2.2%). Consolidation was significantly more common in pediatric patients with both PVS and aspiration (Group 1) (p < 0.001). There was high interobserver agreement between the two independent reviewers for detecting lung and pleural abnormalities on thoracic MDCT studies (Kappa = 0.98; CI = 0.958, 0.992). Conclusion: Aspiration is common in pediatric patients with PVS who undergo MDCT and was present in nearly 30% of all children with PVS during our study period. Consolidation is not a typical radiologic finding of PVS in children without clinical evidence of aspiration. When consolidation is present on thoracic MDCT studies in pediatric patients with PVS, the additional diagnosis of concomitant aspiration should be considered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pleuropulmonary MDCT Findings: Comparison between Children with Pulmonary Vein Stenosis and Prematurity-Related Lung Disease
Children 2022, 9(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9030355 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 495
Abstract
Purpose: To retrospectively compare the pleuropulmonary MDCT findings in children with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) and prematurity-related lung disease (PLD). Materials and Methods: All consecutive infants and young children (≤18 years old) who underwent thoracic MDCT studies from July 2004 to November 2021 [...] Read more.
Purpose: To retrospectively compare the pleuropulmonary MDCT findings in children with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) and prematurity-related lung disease (PLD). Materials and Methods: All consecutive infants and young children (≤18 years old) who underwent thoracic MDCT studies from July 2004 to November 2021 were categorized into two groups—children with PVS (Group 1) and children with PLD without PVS (Group 2). Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated thoracic MDCT studies for the presence of pleuropulmonary abnormalities as follows—(1) in the lung (ground-glass opacity (GGO), triangular/linear plaque-like opacity (TLO), consolidation, nodule, mass, cyst(s), interlobular septal thickening, and fibrosis); (2) in the airway (bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis); and (3) in the pleura (thickening, effusion, and pneumothorax). Interobserver agreement between the two reviewers was evaluated with the Kappa statistic. Results: There were a total of 103 pediatric patients (60 males (58.3%) and 43 females (41.7%); mean age, 1.7 years; range, 2 days–7 years). Among these 103 patients, 49 patients (47.6%) comprised Group 1 and the remaining 54 patients (52.4%) comprised Group 2. In Group 1, the observed pleuropulmonary MDCT abnormalities were—pleural thickening (44/49; 90%), GGO (39/49; 80%), septal thickening (39/49; 80%), consolidation (4/49; 8%), and pleural effusion (1/49; 2%). The pleuropulmonary MDCT abnormalities seen in Group 2 were—GGO (45/54; 83%), TLO (43/54; 80%), bronchial wall thickening (33/54; 61%), bronchiectasis (30/54; 56%), cyst(s) (5/54; 9%), pleural thickening (2/54; 4%), and pleural effusion (2/54; 4%). Septal thickening and pleural thickening were significantly more common in pediatric patients with PVS (Group 1) (p < 0.001). TLO, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis were significantly more frequent in pediatric patients with PLD without PVS (Group 2) (p < 0.001). There was high interobserver kappa agreement between the two independent reviewers for detecting pleuropulmonary abnormalities on thoracic MDCT angiography studies (k = 0.99). Conclusion: Pleuropulmonary abnormalities seen on thoracic MDCT can be helpful for distinguishing PVS from PLD in children. Specifically, the presence of septal thickening and pleural thickening raises the possibility of PVS, whereas the presence of TLO, bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis suggests PLD in the pediatric population. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Aspiration Is Associated with Poor Treatment Response in Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Children 2021, 8(9), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8090783 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
Intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis is a disease with significant morbidity and mortality, though recent progress has been made using multimodal therapy with antiproliferative agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between aspiration and poor treatment response in patients with [...] Read more.
Intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis is a disease with significant morbidity and mortality, though recent progress has been made using multimodal therapy with antiproliferative agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between aspiration and poor treatment response in patients with intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis. A retrospective, single-center cohort analysis was performed of patients treated with a combination of imatinib mesylate and multimodal anatomic relief between March 2009 and November 2019. Analysis focused on 2-ventricle patients due to small numbers and clinical heterogeneity of single ventricle patients. Among the 84 patients included, 15 had single ventricle physiology and 69 had 2-ventricle physiology. Among the 2-ventricle group, multivariable analysis revealed that patients with clinical aspiration had nearly five times higher odds of poor treatment response than patients without aspiration (OR 4.85, 95% CI [1.37, 17.2], p = 0.014). Furthermore, male patients had higher odds of poor treatment response than their female counterparts (OR 3.67, 95% CI [1.04, 12.9], p = 0.043). Aspiration is a novel, potentially modifiable risk factor for poor treatment response in pediatric multi-vessel intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis in patients with 2-ventricle physiology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Secondary Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Due to Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Repair in Children: Extravascular MDCT Findings
Children 2021, 8(9), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8090726 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate extravascular findings on thoracic MDCT angiography in secondary pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) due to total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) repair in children. Materials and Methods: All patients aged ≤18 years with a known diagnosis of secondary PVS after TAPVC [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate extravascular findings on thoracic MDCT angiography in secondary pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) due to total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) repair in children. Materials and Methods: All patients aged ≤18 years with a known diagnosis of secondary PVS after TAPVC repair, confirmed by echocardiography, conventional angiography, and/or surgery, who underwent thoracic MDCT angiography studies between July 2008 and April 2021 were included. Two pediatric radiologists independently examined MDCT angiography studies for the presence of extravascular thoracic abnormalities in the lung, pleura, and mediastinum. The location and distribution of each abnormality (in relation to the location of PVS) were also evaluated. Interobserver agreement between the two independent pediatric radiology reviewers was studied using kappa statistics. Results: The study group consisted of 20 consecutive pediatric patients (17 males, 3 females) with secondary PVS due to TAPVC repair. Age ranged from 2 months to 8 years (mean, 16.1 months). In children with secondary PVS due to TAPVC repair, the characteristic extravascular thoracic MDCT angiography findings were ground-glass opacity (19/20; 95%), septal thickening (7/20; 35%), pleural thickening (17/20; 85%), and a poorly defined, mildly heterogeneously enhancing, non-calcified soft tissue mass (17/20; 85%) which followed the contours of affected pulmonary veins outside the lung. There was excellent interobserver kappa agreement between two independent reviewers for detecting extravascular abnormalities on thoracic MDCT angiography studies (k = 0.99). Conclusion: Our study characterizes the extravascular thoracic MDCT angiography findings in secondary pediatric PVS due to TAPVC repair. In the lungs and pleura, ground-glass opacity, interlobular septal thickening, and pleural thickening are common findings. Importantly, the presence of a mildly heterogeneously enhancing, non-calcified mediastinal soft tissue mass in the distribution of the PVS is a novel characteristic thoracic MDCT angiography finding seen in pediatric secondary PVS due to TAPVC repair. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Extravascular MDCT Findings of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children with Cardiac Septal Defect
Children 2021, 8(8), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8080667 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Purpose: To retrospectively investigate the extravascular thoracic MDCT angiography findings of pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in children with a cardiac septal defect. Materials and Methods: Pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years) with cardiac septal defect and PVS, confirmed by echocardiogram and/or conventional [...] Read more.
Purpose: To retrospectively investigate the extravascular thoracic MDCT angiography findings of pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in children with a cardiac septal defect. Materials and Methods: Pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years) with cardiac septal defect and PVS, confirmed by echocardiogram and/or conventional angiography, who underwent thoracic MDCT angiography studies from April 2009 to April 2021 were included. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated thoracic MDCT angiography studies for the presence of extravascular thoracic abnormalities in: (1) lung and airway (ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, pulmonary nodule, mass, cyst, septal thickening, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis); (2) pleura (pleural thickening, pleural effusion, and pneumothorax); and (3) mediastinum (mass and lymphadenopathy). Interobserver agreement between the two independent pediatric radiology reviewers was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: The final study group consisted of 20 thoracic MDCT angiography studies from 20 consecutive individual pediatric patients (13 males (65%) and 7 females (35%); mean age: 7.5 months; SD: 12.7; range: 2 days to 7 months) with cardiac septal defect and PVS. The characteristic extravascular thoracic MDCT angiography findings were GGO (18/20; 90%), septal thickening (9/20; 45%), pleural thickening (16/20; 80%), and ill-defined, mildly heterogeneously enhancing, non-calcified soft tissue mass (9/20; 45%) following the contours of PVS in the mediastinum. There was a high interobserver kappa agreement between two independent reviewers for detecting extravascular abnormalities on thoracic MDCT angiography studies (k = 0.99). Conclusion: PVS in children with a cardiac septal defect has a characteristic extravascular thoracic MDCT angiography finding. In the lungs and pleura, GGO, septal thickening, and pleural thickening are frequently seen in children with cardiac septal defect and PVS. In the mediastinum, a mildly heterogeneously enhancing, non-calcified soft tissue mass in the distribution of PVS in the mediastinum is seen in close to half of the pediatric patients with cardiac septal defect and PVS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prognostic Significance of Computed Tomography Findings in Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Children 2021, 8(5), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050402 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
(1) Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) can be a severe, progressive disease with lung involvement. We aimed to characterize findings by computed tomography (CT) and identify factors associated with death; (2) Veins and lung segments were classified into five locations: right upper, middle, and [...] Read more.
(1) Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) can be a severe, progressive disease with lung involvement. We aimed to characterize findings by computed tomography (CT) and identify factors associated with death; (2) Veins and lung segments were classified into five locations: right upper, middle, and lower; and left upper and lower. Severity of vein stenosis (0–4 = no disease–atresia) and lung segments (0–3 = unaffected–severe) were scored. A PVS severity score (sum of all veins + 2 if bilateral disease; maximum = 22) and a total lung severity score (sum of all lung segments; maximum = 15) were reported; (3) Of 43 CT examinations (median age 21 months), 63% had bilateral disease. There was 30% mortality by 4 years after CT. Individual-vein PVS severity was associated with its corresponding lung segment severity (p < 0.001). By univariate analysis, PVS severity score >11, lung cysts, and total lung severity score >6 had higher hazard of death; and perihilar induration had lower hazard of death; (4) Multiple CT-derived variables of PVS severity and lung disease have prognostic significance. PVS severity correlates with lung disease severity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Outcomes in Establishing Individual Vessel Patency for Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Children 2021, 8(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030210 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine what patient and pulmonary vein characteristics at the diagnosis of intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) are predictive of individual vein outcomes. A retrospective, single-center, cohort sub-analysis of individual pulmonary veins of patients enrolled in the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine what patient and pulmonary vein characteristics at the diagnosis of intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) are predictive of individual vein outcomes. A retrospective, single-center, cohort sub-analysis of individual pulmonary veins of patients enrolled in the clinical trial NCT00891527 using imatinib mesylate +/− bevacizumab as adjunct therapy for the treatment of multi-vessel pediatric PVS between March 2009 and December 2014 was performed. The 72-week outcomes of the individual veins are reported. Among the 48 enrolled patients, 46 patients and 182 pulmonary veins were included in the study. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients with veins without distal disease at baseline (odds ratio, OR 3.69, 95% confidence interval, CI [1.52, 8.94], p = 0.004), location other than left upper vein (OR 2.58, 95% CI [1.07, 6.19], p = 0.034), or veins in patients ≥ 1 y/o (OR 5.59, 95% CI [1.81, 17.3], p = 0.003) were at higher odds of having minimal disease at the end of the study. Veins in patients who received a higher percentage of eligible drug doses required fewer reinterventions (IRR 0.76, 95% CI [0.68, 0.85], p < 0.001). The success of a multi-modal treatment approach to aggressive PVS depends on the vein location, disease severity, and drug dose intensity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: A Rare Disease with a Global Reach
Children 2021, 8(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030198 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, but high mortality and resource intensive disease caused by mechanical obstruction or intraluminal myofibroproliferation, which can be post-surgical or idiopathic. There are increasing options for management including medications, cardiac catheterization procedures, and surgery. We queried the [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, but high mortality and resource intensive disease caused by mechanical obstruction or intraluminal myofibroproliferation, which can be post-surgical or idiopathic. There are increasing options for management including medications, cardiac catheterization procedures, and surgery. We queried the International Quality Improvement Collaborative for Congenital Heart Disease (IQIC) database for cases of PVS and described the cohort including additional congenital lesions and surgeries as well as infectious and mortality outcomes. IQIC is a quality improvement project in low-middle-income countries with the goal of reducing mortality after congenital heart surgery. Three cases were described in detail with relevant images. We identified 57 cases of PVS surgery, with similar mortality to higher income countries. PVS should be recognized as a global disease. More research and collaboration are needed to understand the disease, treatments, and outcomes, and to devise treatment approaches for low resource environments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Correlation of Intravascular Ultrasound with Histology in Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Children 2021, 8(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030193 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Preliminary intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images of suspected pediatric intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) demonstrate wall thickening. It is unclear how the IVUS-delineated constituents of wall thickening correlate with the histology. We analyzed six postmortem formalin-fixed heart/lung specimens and four live patients with PVS [...] Read more.
Preliminary intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images of suspected pediatric intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) demonstrate wall thickening. It is unclear how the IVUS-delineated constituents of wall thickening correlate with the histology. We analyzed six postmortem formalin-fixed heart/lung specimens and four live patients with PVS as well as control pulmonary veins using IVUS and light microscopic examination. In PVS veins, IVUS demonstrated wall thickening with up to two layers of variable echogenicity, often with indistinct borders. Histologically, the veins showed fibroblastic proliferation with areas rich in myxoid matrix as well as areas with abundant collagen and elastic fibers. Discrete vein layers were obscured by scarring and elastic degeneration. A lower reflective periluminal layer by IVUS corresponded with hyperplasia of myofibroblast-like cells in abundant myxoid matrix. The hyper-reflective layer by IVUS extended to the outer edge of the vessel and corresponded to a less myxoid area with more collagen, smooth muscle and elastic fibers. The outer less reflective edge of the IVUS image correlated with a gradual transition into adventitia. Normal veins had a thin wall, correlating with histologically normal cellular and extracellular components, without intimal proliferation. IVUS may provide further understanding of the anatomy and mechanisms of pediatric pulmonary vein obstruction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Clinical Syndromic Phenotypes and the Potential Role of Genetics in Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Children 2021, 8(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020128 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, frequently lethal disease with heterogeneous phenotypes and an unclear etiology. Limited studies have reported associations between PVS and congenital heart disease (CHD), chronic lung disease (CLD), and/or prematurity; however, to date, there have been no studies [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, frequently lethal disease with heterogeneous phenotypes and an unclear etiology. Limited studies have reported associations between PVS and congenital heart disease (CHD), chronic lung disease (CLD), and/or prematurity; however, to date, there have been no studies that report detailed clinical syndromic phenotypes and the potential role of genetics in PVS. An existing registry of multivessel PVS patients seen at Boston Children’s Hospital (BCH) was queried between August 2006 and January 2017 for all existing genetic testing data on these patients. PVS was defined as an intraluminal pulmonary venous obstruction in ≥2 vessels with mean pressure gradients > 4 mmHg. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven patients (46% female, with a median age at PVS diagnosis of 3 months) formed the cohort. Seventy-one (45%) patients had available genetic testing information. Of the 71 patients, a likely genetic diagnosis was found in 23 (32%) patients: 13 (57%) were diagnosed with Trisomy 21 (T21), five (22%) with Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome, five (22%) had other pathologic genetic disease, and 24 (33%) had variants of unknown significance. The majority of 13 patients with T21 and PVS had common atrioventricular canal (CAVC) (10, 77%) and all had severe pulmonary hypertension (PHTN), which led to their PVS diagnosis. In our study, PVS was associated with T21, the majority of whom also had CAVC and PHTN. Therefore, complete assessment of the pulmonary veins should be considered for all T21 patients, especially those with CAVC presenting with PHTN. Furthermore, prospective standardized genetic testing with detailed clinical phenotyping may prove informative about potential genetic etiologies of PVS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Longer Exposure to Left-to-Right Shunts Is a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Patients with Trisomy 21
Children 2021, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010019 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
We conducted a study to determine whether patients born with Trisomy 21 and left-to-right shunts who develop pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) have a longer exposure to shunt physiology compared to those who do not develop PVS. We included patients seen at Boston Children’s [...] Read more.
We conducted a study to determine whether patients born with Trisomy 21 and left-to-right shunts who develop pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) have a longer exposure to shunt physiology compared to those who do not develop PVS. We included patients seen at Boston Children’s Hospital between 15 August 2006 and 31 August 2017 born with Trisomy 21 and left-to-right shunts who developed PVS within 24 months of age. We conducted a retrospective 3:1 matched case–control study. The primary predictor was length of exposure to shunt as defined as date of birth to the first echocardiogram showing mild or no shunt. Case patients with PVS were more likely to have a longer exposure to shunt than patients in the control group (6 vs. 3 months, p-value 0.002). Additionally, PVS patients were also more likely to have their initial repair ≥ 4 months of age (81% vs. 42%, p-value 0.003) and have a gestational age ≤ 35 weeks (48% vs. 13%, p-value 0.003). Time exposed to shunts may be an important modifiable risk factor for PVS in patients with Trisomy 21. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Review
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis—Evolving Surgical Management of a Challenging Disease
Children 2021, 8(8), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8080631 - 25 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an extremely challenging clinical problem in congenital heart disease. It has traditionally required multimodal therapy given its complex underlying pathophysiology. As with other modalities, surgical therapy has undergone tremendous evolution since the 1950s. These evolving strategies have been [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an extremely challenging clinical problem in congenital heart disease. It has traditionally required multimodal therapy given its complex underlying pathophysiology. As with other modalities, surgical therapy has undergone tremendous evolution since the 1950s. These evolving strategies have been based upon an improved understanding of the substrates that cause PVS and recurrent vein obstruction. More recent anatomic-based surgical strategies have focused on the pulmonary vein course, and how adjacent mediastinal structures can create a fulcrum effect on the pulmonary veins as they pass from the lung parenchyma to the left atrium. The consequent angulation of pulmonary veins creates altered wall shear stress and likely serves as a nidus for recurrent PVS. Encouraging early results suggest that eliminating pulmonary vein angulation and shortening/straightening the pulmonary vein course may prove effective in surgically managing PVS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Concept Paper
Progress in Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Lessons from Success in Treating Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Children 2022, 9(6), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060799 - 29 May 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare and poorly understood condition that can be classified as primary, acquired, status-post surgical repair of PVS, and/or associated with developmental lung disease. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that obstruction of the large (extrapulmonary) pulmonary veins is associated with [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare and poorly understood condition that can be classified as primary, acquired, status-post surgical repair of PVS, and/or associated with developmental lung disease. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that obstruction of the large (extrapulmonary) pulmonary veins is associated with the neointimal proliferation of myofibroblasts. This rare disorder is likely multifactorial with a spectrum of pathobiology. Treatments have been historically surgical, with an increasing repetitive interventional approach. Understanding the biology of these disorders is in its infancy; thus, medical management has lagged behind. Throughout medical history, an increased understanding of the underlying biology of a disorder has led to significant improvements in care and outcomes. One example is the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH shares several common themes with PVS. These include the spectrum of disease and biological alterations, such as vascular remodeling and vasoconstriction. Over the past two decades, an exponential increase in the understanding of the pathobiology of PAH has led to a dramatic increase in medical therapies that have changed the landscape of the disease. We believe that a similar approach to PVS can generate novel medical therapeutic targets that will markedly improve the outcome of these vulnerable patients. Full article
Case Report
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Associated with Germline PIK3CA Mutation
Children 2022, 9(5), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050671 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare and frequently lethal childhood disease. There are few known genetic associations, and the pathophysiology is not well known. Current treatments include surgery, interventional cardiac catheterization, and more recently, medications targeting cell proliferation, which are not uniformly effective. [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare and frequently lethal childhood disease. There are few known genetic associations, and the pathophysiology is not well known. Current treatments include surgery, interventional cardiac catheterization, and more recently, medications targeting cell proliferation, which are not uniformly effective. We present a patient with PVS and a PIK3CA mutation, who demonstrated a good response to the targeted inhibitor, alpelisib. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
The Role of Elevated Wall Shear Stress in Progression of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Evidence from Two Case Studies
Children 2021, 8(9), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8090729 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 610
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a serious condition characterized by restriction or blockage due to fibrotic tissue ingrowth that develops in the pulmonary veins of infants or children. It is often progressive and can lead to severe pulmonary hypertension and death. Efforts to halt [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a serious condition characterized by restriction or blockage due to fibrotic tissue ingrowth that develops in the pulmonary veins of infants or children. It is often progressive and can lead to severe pulmonary hypertension and death. Efforts to halt or reverse disease progression include surgery and catheter-based balloon dilation and stent implantation. Its cause and mechanism of progression are unknown. In this pilot study, we propose and explore the hypothesis that elevated wall shear stress at discrete pulmonary venous sites triggers stenosis. To assess this theory, we retrospectively analyzed cardiac catheterization, lung scan, and X-ray computed tomography data to estimate wall shear stress in the pulmonary veins at multiple time points during disease progression in two patients. Results are consistent with the existence of a level of elevated wall shear stress above which the disease is progressive and below which progression is halted. The analysis also suggests the possibility of predicting the target lumen size necessary in a given vein to reduce wall shear stress to normal levels and remove the trigger for stenosis progression. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Perspective
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children: A Programmatic Approach Employing Primary and Anatomic Therapy
Children 2021, 8(8), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8080663 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a difficult condition to treat due to recurrence and progression. In 2017, we developed a comprehensive PVS Program at our center to address the multidisciplinary needs of these patients. We discuss the components of our program and our [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a difficult condition to treat due to recurrence and progression. In 2017, we developed a comprehensive PVS Program at our center to address the multidisciplinary needs of these patients. We discuss the components of our program and our approach to these patients, using a combination of primary (medical) therapy in addition to anatomic therapy to preserve vessel patency. A multidisciplinary approach to treating these challenging patients is critical. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Patient and Family-Centered Care for Pediatric Intraluminal Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Case of a 3 Year Old Patient with Focus on Nurse Practitioner Role
Children 2021, 8(7), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8070567 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
A nurse practitioner’s experience in managing children with intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis. A case study of a 3-year-old patient with multi–vessel intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Opinion
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Incremental Knowledge Gains to Improve Outcomes
Children 2021, 8(6), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8060481 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
Pulmonary vein stenosis remains a considerable clinical challenge, with high mortality still present in children with progressive disease. In this review, we discuss the clinical spectrum of pulmonary vein stenosis and what is known about the etiology and potential modifying and contributing factors [...] Read more.
Pulmonary vein stenosis remains a considerable clinical challenge, with high mortality still present in children with progressive disease. In this review, we discuss the clinical spectrum of pulmonary vein stenosis and what is known about the etiology and potential modifying and contributing factors in progressive pulmonary vein stenosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop