Special Issue "Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Larisa Lvova
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, University "Tor Vergata", Rome 00133, Italy
Interests: chemical sensors; multisensor analysis; chemometrics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The huge release of toxins into the environment and multi-metal contamination have become significant problems nowadays in many countries and entire regions. The growing industrial impact, incorrect preservation of wastes, and, as a consequence, the massive proliferation of toxic microorganisms, are the main causes of widespread environmental pollution by toxins and heavy metals. The high content of these pollutants in soil, air and drinking water cause their consecutive accumulation in humans and this phenomenon has been connected to the insurgence of allergies, tumors, and other pathologies. The necessity of careful detection and frequent analysis of heavy metals and toxins, in order to protect humans and the environment against risks caused by them, are evident.

This Special Issue on “Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection” will include the latest developments and advances in chemical sensors and related analytical methods for heavy metals and toxins assessment. New research and ideas for metallic pollutants and toxins detection, comprising novel sensing ligands and materials, functioning mechanisms, fabrication technologies, construction details, and practical applications for environmental monitoring, industrial control, clinical analysis are strongly invited to be a part of this Special Issue.

Dr. Larisa Lvova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chemical sensors
  • electrochemical methods
  • optical sensors
  • nanomaterials
  • heavy metals
  • bacterial toxins
  • environmental monitoring

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection
Chemosensors 2020, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors8010014 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
Nowadays, the huge release of pollutants into the environment has become a significant problem in many countries and entire regions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modified Diamide and Phosphine Oxide Extracting Compounds as Membrane Components for Cross-Sensitive Chemical Sensors
Chemosensors 2019, 7(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7030041 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This research is devoted to the development and study of novel cross-sensitive sensors based on modified extracting ligands. According to the previous results of liquid extraction studies, the chemical modification of membrane active components would change the analytical characteristics of a sensor comprising [...] Read more.
This research is devoted to the development and study of novel cross-sensitive sensors based on modified extracting ligands. According to the previous results of liquid extraction studies, the chemical modification of membrane active components would change the analytical characteristics of a sensor comprising them. The sensing elements of the studied sensors consisted of various derivatives of N,N,N′,N′-tetraoctyldiamide of diglycolic acid (TODGA) and di-phenyl-N,N-di-i-sobutylcarbamoylmethylen phoshine oxide (CMPO) used as neutral carriers, CCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide) as a lipophilic additive, different plasticizers, and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a polymer. TODGA-based sensors demonstrated a stable and reproducible response towards rare earth cations in acidic media (pH = 2). Changing the concentrations and ratio of neutral carriers and the lipophilic additive, it is possible to modify the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors towards the same target ions. Bonded ligands, such as cobalt dicarbollide covalently attached to TODGA and CMPO, exhibited lower selectivity and sensitivity to rare earth cations. A possibility to vary the cross-sensitivity patterns of the sensors in a wide range might be of great interest for the development of multisensor systems allowing the simultaneous determination of several analytes in multicomponent solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessArticle
Colorimetric and Fluorescence-Based Detection of Mercuric Ion Using a Benzothiazolinic Spiropyran
Chemosensors 2019, 7(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7030035 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
A merocyanine dye as a p-toluenesulfonate salt was synthesized. The structure of the dye was characterized using IR, NMR, HR-MS and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The X-ray crystallographic studies revealed the formation of a stacked aggregated structure of the merocyanine dye. The [...] Read more.
A merocyanine dye as a p-toluenesulfonate salt was synthesized. The structure of the dye was characterized using IR, NMR, HR-MS and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The X-ray crystallographic studies revealed the formation of a stacked aggregated structure of the merocyanine dye. The stacking interactions were investigated using the Crystal Explorer program, which estimated the strength of the interactions between different molecular pairs. The merocyanine dye was screened for affinity towards heavy metal ions, which revealed a color change from pink to colorless in the presence of mercuric ions, while other metal ions did not produce a similar change in color. In addition, the fluorescence spectroscopy indicated a change in the fluorescence intensity upon addition of mercuric ions. Both techniques displayed a good limit of detection value towards mercuric ions. In addition, the pixel intensity-based detection technique was also employed for the determination of limit of detection value with the help of a smartphone. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies indicated that the optical change occurred in the spectra of the receptor is due to the disaggregation of the receptor induced by mercuric ions. In addition, 1H-NMR studies were also used for investigating the mechanism of interaction between the receptor and the mercuric ions. The density functional theory (DFT) studies were used to investigate the formation of the complex at the molecular level, while time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies were used to understand the observed absorption spectra through the calculation of electronic excitation parameters, which indicated an increase in the energy difference between ground and the excited state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessArticle
Handheld Enzymatic Luminescent Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Heavy Metals in Water Samples
Chemosensors 2019, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7010016 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Enzymatic luminescent systems are a promising tool for rapid detection of heavy metals ions for water quality assessment. Nevertheless, their widespread use is limited by the lack of test procedure automation and available sensitive handheld luminometers. Herein we describe integration of disposable microfluidic [...] Read more.
Enzymatic luminescent systems are a promising tool for rapid detection of heavy metals ions for water quality assessment. Nevertheless, their widespread use is limited by the lack of test procedure automation and available sensitive handheld luminometers. Herein we describe integration of disposable microfluidic chips for bioluminescent enzyme-inhibition based assay with a handheld luminometer, which detection system is based on a thermally stabilized silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Microfluidic chips were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) by micro-milling method and sealed using a solvent bonding technique. The composition of the bioluminescent system in microfluidic chip was optimized to achieve higher luminescence intensity and storage time. Results indicate that developed device provided comparable sensitivity with bench-scale PMT-based commercial luminometers. Limit of detection for copper (II) sulfate reached 2.5 mg/L for developed biosensor. Hereby we proved the concept of handheld enzymatic optical biosensors with disposable chips for bioassay. The proposed biosensor can be used as an early warning field-deployable system for rapid detection of heavy metals salts and other toxic chemicals, which affect bioluminescent signal of enzymatic reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessCommunication
Fluorescence and Naked-Eye Detection of Pb2+ in Drinking Water Using a Low-Cost Ionophore Based Sensing Scheme
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040051 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Drinking water contamination of lead from various environmental sources, leaching consumer products, and intrinsic water-pipe infrastructure is still today a matter of great concern. Therefore, new highly sensitive and convenient Pb2+ measurement schemes are necessary, especially for in-situ measurements at a low [...] Read more.
Drinking water contamination of lead from various environmental sources, leaching consumer products, and intrinsic water-pipe infrastructure is still today a matter of great concern. Therefore, new highly sensitive and convenient Pb2+ measurement schemes are necessary, especially for in-situ measurements at a low cost. Within this work dye/ionophore/Pb2+ co-extraction and effective water phase de-colorization was utilized for highly sensitive lead measurements and sub-ppb naked-eye detection. A low-cost ionophore Benzo-18-Crown-6-ether was used, and a simple test-tube mix and separate procedure was developed. Instrumental detection limits were in the low ppt region (LOD = 3, LOQ = 10), and naked-eye detection was 500 ppt. Note, however, that this sensing scheme still has improvement potential as concentrations of fluorophore and ionophore were not optimized. Artificial tap-water samples, leached by a standardized method, demonstrated drinking water application. Implications for this method are convenient in-situ lead ion measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Optical Fiber Refractometer Based Metal Ion Sensors
Chemosensors 2019, 7(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7040063 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Research into optical fiber refractometers yielded remarkable results over the past decade. Numerous sensing schemes were proposed and demonstrated, which possessed different advantages while facing unique limitations. On top of their obvious applications in measuring refractive index changes of the ambient environment, several [...] Read more.
Research into optical fiber refractometers yielded remarkable results over the past decade. Numerous sensing schemes were proposed and demonstrated, which possessed different advantages while facing unique limitations. On top of their obvious applications in measuring refractive index changes of the ambient environment, several studies reported advanced applications of such sensors in heavy metal ion detection by means of surface coating of the refractometers with heavy metal ion sensitive materials. This paper surveys the effort these optical fiber metal ion sensors based on surface coated optical fiber refractometer, discusses different technologies and methods involved, and highlights recent notable advancements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessReview
A Perspective on Recent Advances in Piezoelectric Chemical Sensors for Environmental Monitoring and Foodstuffs Analysis
Chemosensors 2019, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7030039 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper provides a selection of the last two decades publications on the development and application of chemical sensors based on piezoelectric quartz resonators for a wide range of analytical tasks. Most of the attention is devoted to an analysis of gas and [...] Read more.
This paper provides a selection of the last two decades publications on the development and application of chemical sensors based on piezoelectric quartz resonators for a wide range of analytical tasks. Most of the attention is devoted to an analysis of gas and liquid media and to industrial processes controls utilizing single quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors, and their arrays in e-nose systems. The unique opportunity to estimate several heavy metals in natural and wastewater samples from the output of a QCM sensor array highly sensitive to changes in metal ion activity in water vapor is shown. The high potential of QCM multisensor systems for fast and cost-effective water contamination assessments “in situ” without sample pretreatment is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessReview
Heavy Metal/Toxins Detection Using Electronic Tongues
Chemosensors 2019, 7(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7030036 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The growing concern for sustainability and environmental preservation has increased the demand for reliable, fast response, and low-cost devices to monitor the existence of heavy metals and toxins in water resources. An electronic tongue (e-tongue) is a multisensory array mostly based on electroanalytical [...] Read more.
The growing concern for sustainability and environmental preservation has increased the demand for reliable, fast response, and low-cost devices to monitor the existence of heavy metals and toxins in water resources. An electronic tongue (e-tongue) is a multisensory array mostly based on electroanalytical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to facilitate information visualization in a qualitative and/or quantitative way. E-tongues are promising analytical devices having simple operation, fast response, low cost, easy integration with other systems (microfluidic, optical, etc) to enable miniaturization and provide a high sensitivity for measurements in complex liquid media, providing an interesting alternative to address many of the existing environmental monitoring challenges, specifically relevant emerging pollutants such as heavy metals and toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessReview
Low Molecular Weight Fluorescent Probes (LMFPs) to Detect the Group 12 Metal Triad
Chemosensors 2019, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7020022 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Fluorescence sensing, of d-block elements such as Cu2+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and Zn2+ has significantly increased since the beginning of the 21st century. These particular metal ions play essential roles in [...] Read more.
Fluorescence sensing, of d-block elements such as Cu2+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and Zn2+ has significantly increased since the beginning of the 21st century. These particular metal ions play essential roles in biological, industrial, and environmental applications, therefore, there has been a drive to measure, detect, and remediate these metal ions. We have chosen to highlight the low molecular weight fluorescent probes (LMFPs) that undergo an optical response upon coordination with the group 12 triad (Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+), as these metals have similar chemical characteristics but behave differently in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Electrochemical Immuno- and Aptasensors for Mycotoxin Determination
Chemosensors 2019, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors7010010 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Modern analysis of food and feed is mostly focused on development of fast and reliable portable devices intended for field applications. In this review, electrochemical biosensors based on immunological reactions and aptamers are considered in the determination of mycotoxins as one of most [...] Read more.
Modern analysis of food and feed is mostly focused on development of fast and reliable portable devices intended for field applications. In this review, electrochemical biosensors based on immunological reactions and aptamers are considered in the determination of mycotoxins as one of most common contaminants able to negatively affect human health. The characteristics of biosensors are considered from the point of view of general principles of bioreceptor implementation and signal transduction providing sub-nanomolar detection limits of mycotoxins. Moreover, the modern trends of bioreceptor selection and modification are discussed as well as future trends of biosensor development for mycotoxin determination are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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