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Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040051

Fluorescence and Naked-Eye Detection of Pb2+ in Drinking Water Using a Low-Cost Ionophore Based Sensing Scheme

1
Sensor Visions AB, Legendgatan 116, SE-422 55 Hisings Backa, Sweden
2
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, SE-50115 Borås, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors for Heavy Metals/Toxin Detection)
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Abstract

Drinking water contamination of lead from various environmental sources, leaching consumer products, and intrinsic water-pipe infrastructure is still today a matter of great concern. Therefore, new highly sensitive and convenient Pb2+ measurement schemes are necessary, especially for in-situ measurements at a low cost. Within this work dye/ionophore/Pb2+ co-extraction and effective water phase de-colorization was utilized for highly sensitive lead measurements and sub-ppb naked-eye detection. A low-cost ionophore Benzo-18-Crown-6-ether was used, and a simple test-tube mix and separate procedure was developed. Instrumental detection limits were in the low ppt region (LOD = 3, LOQ = 10), and naked-eye detection was 500 ppt. Note, however, that this sensing scheme still has improvement potential as concentrations of fluorophore and ionophore were not optimized. Artificial tap-water samples, leached by a standardized method, demonstrated drinking water application. Implications for this method are convenient in-situ lead ion measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead ions; fluorescence detection; ionophore; Benzo-18-Crown-6-ether; drinking water lead ions; fluorescence detection; ionophore; Benzo-18-Crown-6-ether; drinking water
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hakonen, A.; Strömberg, N. Fluorescence and Naked-Eye Detection of Pb2+ in Drinking Water Using a Low-Cost Ionophore Based Sensing Scheme. Chemosensors 2018, 6, 51.

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