Emission Control Catalysis

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 8219

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Transportation Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN 37932, USA
Interests: low-temperature catalysis; passive NOx adsorbers; passive NOx SCR; hydrocarbon traps; oxidation catalysts; particulate filters; deactivation mechanisms; carbon capture and conversion; fuel cells and electrolysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Transportation Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN 37932, USA
Interests: three-way catalysis; low-temperature lean methane oxidation; selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx; passive NOx adsorbers; hydrocarbon oxidation; net-zero carbon/biofuel chemistry on emissions control catalysts; cold-start; aging effects on catalyst efficiency; hydrothermal stability; sulfur tolerance; catalyst characterization; wash-coating

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are excited to invite you to submit your manuscript for publication in our Special Issue on “Emissions Control Catalysis” in Catalysts.

Mobile and stationary engines such as internal combustion engines in transportation and gas turbines in power plants and distributed power generation systems, operate in conditions ranging from stoichiometric to lean to maximize efficiency, minimize fuel consumption, and meet rigorous emissions standards. Depending on the fuel, combustion mode and operating air-to-fuel ratio, engine-out emissions may contain varying levels of harmful regulated pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), unburned fuel or non-methane organic gases (NMOG), which can lead to the formation of acid rain, ground level ozone, and smog. Regulations on these criteria pollutants along with methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and particulate matter/number (PM, PN) are getting stricter as the world is moving towards near-zero emissions regulations.

Catalytic emissions abatement technologies are promising for effectively reducing pollutant emissions. However, with increasing regulations, several emissions control challenges arise, some of which are highlighted below:

  • Low exhaust temperatures causing the catalyst to cool below its optimum operating temperature range during:
    • Cold-start operation;
    • High thermal efficiency lean operation;
    • Low-load, low-speed operation.
  • Ammonia and urea-based Lean NOx control challenges below 200 °C;
  • Increasing demands on catalyst performance over its full useful life necessitating resistance to aging effects and high durability;
  • Methane slip from natural gas fueled engines used in power generation systems increase green-house gas emissions and methane oxidation under low-temperature lean conditions in the presence of water is particularly challenging;
  • Ammonia slip from selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control in stationary power sources.

We invite manuscript submissions on catalytic emissions control technologies which will address these challenges including:

  • Three-way catalysts;
  • Gasoline particulate filters;
  • Diesel particulate filters;
  • Hydrocarbon traps;
  • Passive NOx adsorbers;
  • Ammonia slip catalysts;
  • Selective catalytic reduction of NOx;
  • Low temperature methane oxidation catalysts.

Dr. Todd J. Toops
Dr. Sreshtha Sinha Majumdar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Three-way catalysts
  • Gasoline particulate filters
  • Diesel particulate filters
  • Low-temperature trap materials
  • Hydrocarbon traps
  • Passive NOx adsorbers
  • Ammonia slip catalysts
  • Selective catalytic reduction of NOx
  • Low temperature methane oxidation catalysts
  • Catalyst cold-start efficiency for net-zero carbon/biofuels
  • Hydrothermal stability
  • Sulfur tolerance
  • Aging impacts on catalyst activity
  • Catalyst deactivation mechanisms on aging

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

14 pages, 5918 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Ecological Parameters of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled by Diesel Oil with an Eco Fuel Shot Liquid Catalyst
by Tomasz Osipowicz, Adam Koniuszy, Viktar Taustyka, Karol Franciszek Abramek and Łukasz Mozga
Catalysts 2023, 13(12), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13121513 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 966
Abstract
This article discusses the potential applications of the Fuel Shot liquid catalyst in compression ignition (CI) engines for reducing toxic substances in exhaust gases. Incorporating catalysts into fuel can optimize the combustion process, consequently reducing the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere. [...] Read more.
This article discusses the potential applications of the Fuel Shot liquid catalyst in compression ignition (CI) engines for reducing toxic substances in exhaust gases. Incorporating catalysts into fuel can optimize the combustion process, consequently reducing the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere. Toxic compounds, such as nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons, adversely affect flora and fauna. Various methods are known for reducing their concentration in engine exhaust gases, one of which is the Fuel Shot liquid catalyst. The authors conducted experiments on a Fiat 1.3 JTD engine with a Common Rail system. The results indicate that the application of the liquid catalyst reduces the content of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases and slightly decreases fuel consumption. Additionally, investigations were carried out on the engine’s injection apparatus, which was fueled with modified fuel. The findings demonstrate that the fuel additive does not affect the wear of precision parts of fuel injectors and high-pressure pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emission Control Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4503 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Application of SnO2@rGO Nanocomposite for Selective Catalytic Reduction of Exhaust Emission in Internal Combustion Engines
by Subramanian Premkumar, Kothalam Radhakrishnan, Ramji Kalidoss, Jothi Vinoth Kumar, Natarajan Abirami and Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020381 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
In this experimental investigation, a procreation approach was used to produce a catalyst based on SnO2@rGO nanocomposite for use in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Plastic waste oil is one such alternative that helps to ensure the survival of fossil [...] Read more.
In this experimental investigation, a procreation approach was used to produce a catalyst based on SnO2@rGO nanocomposite for use in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Plastic waste oil is one such alternative that helps to ensure the survival of fossil fuels and also lessens the negative impacts of improper waste disposal. The SnO2@rGO nanocomposite was prepared by fine dispersion of SnO2 nanoparticles on monolayer-dispersed reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and carefully investigated for its potential in adsorbing CO, CO2, NOX, and hydrocarbon (HC). The as-synthesized SnO2@rGO nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and surface area analyses. Then, the impact of catalysts inside the exhaust engine system was evaluated in a realistic setting with a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine. As a result, the catalysts reduced harmful pollution emissions while marginally increasing brake-specific fuel consumption. The nanocomposite was shown to exhibit higher NOX adsorption efficiencies when working with different toxic gases. Maximum reductions in the emission of NOX, hydrocarbons, and CO were achieved at a rate of 78%, 62%, and 15%, respectively. These harmful pollutants were adsorbed on the active sites of catalyst and are converted to useful fuel gases through catalytic reduction thereby hindering the trajectory of global warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emission Control Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5273 KiB  
Article
Challenging Conditions for Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs)
by Barouch Giechaskiel, Anastasios Melas, Victor Valverde, Marcos Otura and Giorgio Martini
Catalysts 2022, 12(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12010070 - 09 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
The emission limit of non-volatile particles (i.e., particles that do not evaporate at 350 °C) with size >23 nm, in combination with the real driving emissions (RDE) regulation in 2017, resulted in the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in all light-duty vehicles [...] Read more.
The emission limit of non-volatile particles (i.e., particles that do not evaporate at 350 °C) with size >23 nm, in combination with the real driving emissions (RDE) regulation in 2017, resulted in the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in all light-duty vehicles with gasoline direct injection engines in Europe. Even though there are studies that have examined the particulate emissions at or beyond the current RDE boundary conditions, there is a lack of studies combining most or all worst cases (i.e., conditions that increase the emissions). In this study, we challenged a fresh (i.e., no accumulation of soot or ash) “advanced” prototype GPF at different temperatures (down to −9 °C), aggressive drive cycles and hard accelerations (beyond the RDE limits), high payload (up to 90%), use of all auxiliaries (air conditioning, heating of the seats and the rear window), and cold starts independently or simultaneously. Under hot engine conditions, the increase of the particulate emissions due to higher payload and lower ambient temperature was 30–90%. The cold start at low ambient temperature, however, had an effect on the emissions of up to a factor of 20 for particles >23 nm or 300 when considering particles <23 nm. We proposed that the reason for these high emissions was the incomplete combustion and the low efficiency of the three-way oxidation catalyst. This resulted in a high concentration of species that were in the gaseous phase at the high temperature of the close-coupled GPF and thus could not be filtered by the GPF. As the exhaust gas cooled down, these precursor species formed particles that could not be evaporated at 350 °C (the temperature of the particle number system). These results highlight the importance of the proper calibration of the engine out emissions at all conditions, even when a GPF is installed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emission Control Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6436 KiB  
Article
Impact of Primary and Secondary ZDDP and Ionic Liquid as Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance and Physicochemical Properties of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts
by Daekun Kim, Todd J. Toops, Ke Nguyen, Michael J. Lance and Jun Qu
Catalysts 2021, 11(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080878 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
In the present study, two industry primary and secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate standards, ZDDP1 and ZDDP2, respectively, are evaluated for their impact on the performance of Pd-based three-way catalyst and bench-marked against two mixed lubricant additives formed from either ZDDP1 or ZDDP2 with a [...] Read more.
In the present study, two industry primary and secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate standards, ZDDP1 and ZDDP2, respectively, are evaluated for their impact on the performance of Pd-based three-way catalyst and bench-marked against two mixed lubricant additives formed from either ZDDP1 or ZDDP2 with a second-generation oil-miscible phosphoric-containing ionic liquid (IL). The three-way catalysts (TWCs) are exposed to the lubricant additives in an engine bench under four different scenarios: a base case with no additive (NA), ZDDP1, IL+ZDDP1, ZDDP2, and IL+ZDDP2. The engine-aged TWC samples are characterized through a variety of analytical techniques, including evaluation of catalyst reactivity in a bench-flow reactor. With respect to the water–gas shift reaction and the oxygen storage capacity, the ZDDP2- and IL+ZDDP2-aged TWC samples are more degraded than the ZDDP1- and IL+ZDDP1-aged TWC samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that phosphorus in the form of CePO4 was found to be present in the washcoat of all TWC samples, with the highest amount found in the ZDDP2-aged TWC sample. The results obtained from XRD are further confirmed by those from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which show that more phosphorus is detected in the washcoat of ZDDP2- and IL+ZDDP2-aged TWC samples than in the ZDDP1- and IL+ZDDP1-aged TWC samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emission Control Catalysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop