Special Issue "Perspectives in Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation, and Catalytic Fast Hydropyrolysis"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Inés Moreno García
Website
Guest Editor
Chemical and Environmental Engineering Group, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28933, Móstoles, Madrid, Spain
Interests: catalysis; biomass; micro/mesoporous materials; hierarchical zeolites; pyrolysis; hydrodeoxygenation; bio-refineries

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomass coming from lignocellulose (crops and forest residues) as well as municipal wastes is currently considered the most readily available alternative carbon source for advanced biofuel and raw chemicals production because of its abundance, low cost, and the fact that it does not compete with the food sector. Several processes have been developed to convert biomass into a liquid energy carrier, known as bio-oil, and fast pyrolysis is one of the most efficient and cost-effective alternatives. Pyrolysis bio-oil can be used for heating, electricity generation, and chemicals production. However, its direct use as transport fuel is limited as a consequence of its high content of water and oxygenated organic compounds (carboxylic acids, phenolic derivatives, aldehydes, sugars, lignin oligomers, etc.), which results in some undesirable properties, such as low heating value, high corrosivity and viscosity, and a significant tendency to polymerize during storage. For that, pyrolysis bio-oils should undergo an upgrading process to achieve transportation fuel specifications. In this context, catalytic fast pyrolysis, catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and catalytic fast hydropyrolysis are considered the most promising technologies to obtain high quality products from biomass. With this background, the present Special Issue covers new advances of research in the described areas, including novel catalysts development, catalyst deactivation/regeneration studies, new upgrading chemistry and reactors design, large scale implementation, etc., and all manuscripts with outstanding results in this fields are welcome to be submitted.

Dr. Inés Moreno García
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Lignocellulose
  • Municipal wastes
  • Pyrolysis
  • Catalyst
  • Bio-oil
  • Hydropyrolysis
  • Hydrodeoxygenration
  • Advanced biofuels
  • Biochemicals

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass into Aromatic Hydrocarbons over Mo-Modified ZSM-5 Catalysts
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10091051 - 12 Sep 2020
Abstract
Mo-modified ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared and used to produce aromatic hydrocarbons during catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass. The composition and distribution of aromatics were investigated on pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The reaction factors, such as the Mo content, the reaction temperature and [...] Read more.
Mo-modified ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared and used to produce aromatic hydrocarbons during catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass. The composition and distribution of aromatics were investigated on pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The reaction factors, such as the Mo content, the reaction temperature and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio, were also optimized. It was found that the 10Mo/ZSM-5 catalyst displayed the best activity in improving the production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) and decreasing the yield of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 600 °C and with a catalyst/biomass ratio of 10. Furthermore, according to catalyst characterization and the experiment results, the aromatics formation mechanism over Mo/ZSM-5 catalysts was also summarized and proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Performance and Sustainable Copper-Modified Hydroxyapatite Catalysts for Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10091045 - 11 Sep 2020
Abstract
Designing and developing non-noble metal-based heterogeneous catalysts have a substantial importance in biomass conversion. Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley (MPV) reaction is a significant pathway for eco-friendly catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of biomass derived furfural into furfuryl alcohol. In this work, a series of copper-supported hydroxyapatite (HAp) [...] Read more.
Designing and developing non-noble metal-based heterogeneous catalysts have a substantial importance in biomass conversion. Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley (MPV) reaction is a significant pathway for eco-friendly catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of biomass derived furfural into furfuryl alcohol. In this work, a series of copper-supported hydroxyapatite (HAp) catalysts with different copper loadings (2–20 wt.%) were prepared by a facile impregnation method and tested in the reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol using 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. The structural and chemical properties of the synthesised catalysts were analysed by using various techniques (XRD, N2 sorption, SEM, TEM, UV-DRS, ICP, FTIR, TPR, TPD-CO2 and N2O titration). The effect of copper loading was found to be significant on the total performance of the catalysts. The results demonstrate that 5CuHAp catalyst possess highly dispersed copper particles and high basicity compared to all other catalysts. Overall, 5CuHAp exhibited highest conversion (96%) and selectivity (100%) at 140 °C at 4 h time on stream. The optimised reaction conditions were also determined to gain the high activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrocarbon Production from Catalytic Pyrolysis-GC/MS of Sacha Inchi Residues Using SBA-15 Derived from Coal Fly Ash
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10091031 - 08 Sep 2020
Abstract
In this work, Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) residues were used as biomass feedstocks in catalytic upgrading pyrolysis with SBA-15, which is a substance synthesized from coal fly ash (CFA), using alkali fusion, followed by hydrothermal treatment (SBA-15-FA). The catalytic activity of [...] Read more.
In this work, Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) residues were used as biomass feedstocks in catalytic upgrading pyrolysis with SBA-15, which is a substance synthesized from coal fly ash (CFA), using alkali fusion, followed by hydrothermal treatment (SBA-15-FA). The catalytic activity of fly ash-derived SBA-15 was investigated through the fast pyrolysis of Sacha inchi residues for upgrading the pyrolysis vapors using the analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) technique. The pyrolysis temperature was set at 500 °C and held for 30 s while maintaining the Sacha inchi residues to catalyst ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10. In addition, the SBA-15s synthesized from chemical reagent and commercial SBA-15 were evaluated for comparison. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis of Sacha inchi (SI) mainly consisted of fatty acids (46%), including chiefly linoleic acid (C18:2). Other compounds present were hydrocarbon (26%) and nitrogen-containing compounds (8.7%), esters (9.0%), alcohols (6.4%), and furans (3.6%). The study results suggested that the SBA-15-FA showcased a high ability to improve aliphatic selectivity (mainly C5–C20) and was found to be almost 80% at the biomass to catalyst ratio of 1:5. Moreover, the increase in catalyst contents affected the enhancement of hydrocarbons yields and tended to promote the deoxygenation reaction. Interestingly, the catalytic performance of SBA-15 derived from fly ash could be compared to that of the commercial SBA-15 in terms of producing hydrocarbon compounds as well as reducing oxygenated compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Counteracting Rapid Catalyst Deactivation by Concomitant Temperature Increase during Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors Using Solid Acid Catalysts
Catalysts 2020, 10(7), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10070748 - 06 Jul 2020
Abstract
The treatment of biomass-derived fast pyrolysis vapors with solid acid catalysts (in particular HZSM-5 zeolite) improves the quality of liquid bio-oils. However, due to the highly reactive nature of the oxygenates, the catalysts deactivate rapidly due to coking. Within this study, the deactivation [...] Read more.
The treatment of biomass-derived fast pyrolysis vapors with solid acid catalysts (in particular HZSM-5 zeolite) improves the quality of liquid bio-oils. However, due to the highly reactive nature of the oxygenates, the catalysts deactivate rapidly due to coking. Within this study, the deactivation and product yields using steam-treated phosphorus-modified HZSM-5/γ-Al2O3 and bare γ-Al2O3 was studied with analytical Py-GC. While at a fixed catalyst temperature of 450 °C, a rapid breakthrough of oxygenates was observed with increased biomass feeding, this breakthrough was delayed and slower at higher catalyst temperatures (600 °C). Nevertheless, at all (constant) temperatures, there was a continuous decrease in the yield of oxygen-free hydrocarbons with increased biomass feeding. Raising the reaction temperature during the vapor treatment could successfully compensate for the loss in activity and allowed a more stable production of oxygen-free hydrocarbons. Since more biomass could be fed over the same amount of catalyst while maintaining good deoxygenation performance, this strategy reduces the frequency of regeneration in parallel fixed bed applications and provides a more stable product yield. The approach appears particularly interesting for catalysts that are robust under hydrothermal conditions and warrants further investigations at larger scales for the collection and analysis of liquid bio-oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Valeric Acid by Selective Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060692 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
The electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) is a promising strategy to synthetize fine chemicals under ambient conditions by replacing the thermocatalytic hydrogenation at high temperature and high pressure. Herein, various metallic electrodes were investigated in the ECH of LA in [...] Read more.
The electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) is a promising strategy to synthetize fine chemicals under ambient conditions by replacing the thermocatalytic hydrogenation at high temperature and high pressure. Herein, various metallic electrodes were investigated in the ECH of LA in a H-type divided cell. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration, reactant concentration, and temperature on catalytic performance and Faradaic efficiency were systematically explored. The high conversion of LA (93%) and excellent “apparent” selectivity to valeric acid (VA) (94%) with a Faradaic efficiency of 46% can be achieved over a metallic lead electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte containing 0.2 M LA at an applied voltage of −1.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 4 h. The combination of adsorbed LA and adsorbed hydrogen (Hads) on the surface of the metallic lead electrode is key to the formation of VA. Interestingly, the reaction performance did not change significantly after eight cycles, while the surface of the metallic lead cathode became rough, which may expose more active sites for the ECH of LA to VA. However, there was some degree of corrosion for the metallic lead cathode in this strong acid environment. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the leaching-resistance of the cathode for the ECH of LA in future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Liquids from Biomass by Mild Catalytic Hydrotreatment: Model Compound Study
Catalysts 2020, 10(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10040402 - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Repolymerization is a huge problem in the storage and processing of biomass pyrolysis liquid (PL). Herein, to solve the problem of repolymerization, mild catalytic hydrotreatment of PL was conducted to convert unstable PL model compounds (hydroxyacetone, furfural, and phenol) into stable alcohols. An [...] Read more.
Repolymerization is a huge problem in the storage and processing of biomass pyrolysis liquid (PL). Herein, to solve the problem of repolymerization, mild catalytic hydrotreatment of PL was conducted to convert unstable PL model compounds (hydroxyacetone, furfural, and phenol) into stable alcohols. An Ni/SiO2 catalyst was synthesized by the deposition-precipitation method and used in a mild hydrotreatment process. The mild hydrotreatment of the single model compound was studied to determine the reaction pathways, which provided guidance for improving the selectivity of stable intermediate alcohols through the control of reaction conditions. More importantly, the mild hydrotreatment of mixed model compounds was evaluated to simulate the PL more factually. In addition, the effect of the interaction between hydroxyacetone, furfural, and phenol during the catalytic hydrotreatment was also explored. There was a strange phenomenon observed in that phenol was not converted in the initial stage of the hydrotreatment of mixed model compounds. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Ultraviolet-Raman (UV-Raman), and Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET) characterization of catalysts used in the hydrotreatment of single and mixed model compounds demonstrated that this phenomenon did not mainly arise from the irreversible deactivation of catalysts caused by carbon deposition, but the competitive adsorption among hydroxyacetone, furfural, and phenol during the mild hydrotreatment of mixed model compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol on the ZrO2-TiO2 Supported Pt-WOx Catalyst
Catalysts 2020, 10(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030312 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A series of Pt/WOx-ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts with different Ti/Zr molar ratios was prepared by an evaporation induced self-assembly method, and used to efficient hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1-PO and 1,3-PDO. BET, XRD, Raman, TEM, XPS and Py-IR were employed to characterize [...] Read more.
A series of Pt/WOx-ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts with different Ti/Zr molar ratios was prepared by an evaporation induced self-assembly method, and used to efficient hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1-PO and 1,3-PDO. BET, XRD, Raman, TEM, XPS and Py-IR were employed to characterize the physicochemical properties of the catalysts. The structural and acidic properties of the catalysts were affected by the Ti/Zr ratio of the support ZrO2-TiO2. Two new crystalline phases of ZrTiO4 and Ti2ZrO6 and the amount of acid sites were detected in the Pt/WOx-ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts. 1-PO is dominant in all products of glycerol hydrogenolysis over the supported Pt-WOx catalysts, which is attributed to more Lewis acid sites on the catalyst surface. The Pt/WOx-ZrO2-TiO2 catalyst with a Ti/Zr ratio of 7/3 showed the highest 1,3-PDO yield (25.3%) and 1-PO yield (42.3%), due to its more acid sites including Brønsted and Lewis, and higher concentration of surface Pt0. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Mechanisms of Guaiacol Pyrolysis Based on Free Radicals Detection Technology
Catalysts 2020, 10(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030295 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to understand the reaction mechanism of lignin pyrolysis, the pyrolysis process of guaiacol (o-methoxyphenol) as a lignin model compound was studied by free radical detection technology (electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) in this paper. It was proven that the pyrolysis reaction of [...] Read more.
In order to understand the reaction mechanism of lignin pyrolysis, the pyrolysis process of guaiacol (o-methoxyphenol) as a lignin model compound was studied by free radical detection technology (electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) in this paper. It was proven that the pyrolysis reaction of guaiacol is a free radical reaction, and the free radicals which can be detected mainly by EPR are methyl radicals. This paper proposes a process in which four free radicals (radicals 1- C6H4(OH)O*, radicals 5- C6H4(OCH3)O*, methyl radicals, and hydrogen radicals) are continuously rearranged during the pyrolysis of guaiacol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodeoxygenation of Levulinic Acid Dimers on a Zirconia-Supported Ruthenium Catalyst
Catalysts 2020, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10020200 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of levulinic acid (LA) aldol condensation product dimers was studied between 250 and 300 °C and 50 bar H2 in a batch reactor with Ru catalyst supported on mesoporous zirconia. During the reaction, the unsaturated dimers, which contained ketone [...] Read more.
The hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of levulinic acid (LA) aldol condensation product dimers was studied between 250 and 300 °C and 50 bar H2 in a batch reactor with Ru catalyst supported on mesoporous zirconia. During the reaction, the unsaturated dimers, which contained ketone groups and double bonds, were hydrogenated to saturated dimers. A greater degree of deoxygenation was achieved at higher temperatures, and oxygen was removed as water and CO2. Oxygen removal was evidenced by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy, in which the C=O peak decreased with increasing temperature. A drawback of high reaction temperature (300 °C) was a minor degree of oligomerization. The formation of aromatics was also observed at the higher temperatures. Aside from the saturated dimers, volatile products were obtained at all temperatures, including ketones, acids, and esters. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of LA dimers as a sustainable route from lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biocomponents. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis Impact on Pyrolyzed Cellulose to Produce Bio-Oil
Catalysts 2020, 10(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10020178 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Effectively utilizing catalytic pyrolysis to upgrade bio-oil products prepared from biomass has many potential benefits for the environment. In this paper, cellulose (a major component of plants and a biomass model compound) is pyrolyzed and catalyzed with different catalysts: Ni2Fe3 [...] Read more.
Effectively utilizing catalytic pyrolysis to upgrade bio-oil products prepared from biomass has many potential benefits for the environment. In this paper, cellulose (a major component of plants and a biomass model compound) is pyrolyzed and catalyzed with different catalysts: Ni2Fe3, ZSM-5, and Ni2Fe3/ZSM-5. Two different pyrolysis processes are investigated to compare homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis influence on the products. The results indicate that the Ni2Fe3 cluster catalyst shows the best activity as a homogeneous catalysis. It can also be recycled repeatedly, increases the yield of bio-oil, and improves the quality of the bio-oil by decreasing the sugar concentration. Furthermore, it also catalyzes the formation of a small amount of hydrocarbon compounds. In the case of Ni2Fe3/ZSM-5 catalyst, it shows a lower yield of bio-oil but also decreases the sugar concentration significantly. Ni2Fe3, not only can it be used as homogeneous catalysis mixed with cellulose but also shows catalytic activity as a supported catalyst on ZSM-5, with higher catalytic activity than ZSM-5. These results indicate that the Ni2Fe3 catalyst has significant activity for potential use in industry to produce high quality bio-oil from biomass. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Catalytic Pyrolysis of Dilaurin in the Presence of Sodium Carbonate Alone or Combined with Alumina
Catalysts 2019, 9(12), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9120993 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective of this work was to study the fast pyrolysis of a diglyceride intermediate compound during the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acids, esters and/or hydrocarbons. Dilaurin was selected as a model compound. Pyrolysis was conducted in a micro-pyrolyzer coupled to GC-MS [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to study the fast pyrolysis of a diglyceride intermediate compound during the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acids, esters and/or hydrocarbons. Dilaurin was selected as a model compound. Pyrolysis was conducted in a micro-pyrolyzer coupled to GC-MS equipment at 500, 550 and 600 °C for 15 s in the presence of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as the catalyst. Results were compared to pyrolysis data using γ-Al2O3 as a catalyst. At 600 °C with Na2CO3 almost total conversion of diglyceride was obtained, with the formation of 41.3% hydrocarbons (C3 to C13). In the same conditions using alumina as a catalyst 68.5% of hydrocarbons were obtained. Na2CO3 presented itself as an efficient feedstock modifier, allowing pre-cracking and partial deoxygenation of the load. The use of the Na2CO3 and γ-Al2O3 conjugated system in layers reduced the fatty acid content in the products, increasing both the reagent conversion and the hydrocarbon variety (C3 to C23). This work suggests that the use of a double bed catalytic reactor is suitable for performing a deoxygenating pretreatment and producing hydrocarbons compatible with current liquid fuels, being potentially useful for more complex raw materials such as those from biomass treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Using a γ-Al2O3 Catalyst with Compound Modification of ZrO2 and CeO2
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100849 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To investigate the catalytic pyrolysis performance of complex metal oxide catalysts for biomass, γ-Al2O3 was prepared through the precipitation method, and then ZrO2 and γ-Al2O3 were blended in the proportion of 2:8 using the co-precipitation method. [...] Read more.
To investigate the catalytic pyrolysis performance of complex metal oxide catalysts for biomass, γ-Al2O3 was prepared through the precipitation method, and then ZrO2 and γ-Al2O3 were blended in the proportion of 2:8 using the co-precipitation method. Next, CeO2 was loaded on the surface of the catalyst for further modification. The three catalysts, A, ZA and CZA, were obtained. The specific surface and acidity of the catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption–desorption and NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (NH3-TPD) respectively. The catalytic pyrolysis performance of catalysts for bamboo residues was investigated by Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Chromatograms were analyzed for identification of the pyrolysis products and the relative amounts of each component were calculated. Experimental results indicated that catalyst A had a good catalytic activity for the fast pyrolysis of bamboo residues. The addition of ZrO2 and CeO2 could continuously enhance the acidity of the catalyst and further promote the pyrolysis of macromolecular compounds and deoxidation of oxygen-containing compounds. Finally, catalyst CZA, obtained by compound modification, could not only dramatically reduce the relative content of phenol, acid and aldehyde and other oxygen-containing compounds, but also achieved the maximum hydrocarbon yield of 23.38%. The catalytic performance of catalyst CZA improved significantly compared with catalyst A. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Biomass Pyrolysis Technology by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis, Catalytic Co-Pyrolysis and Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis: A Review
Catalysts 2020, 10(7), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10070742 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
With the aggravation of the energy crisis and environmental problems, biomass resource, as a renewable carbon resource, has received great attention. Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) is a promising technology, which can convert solid biomass into high value liquid fuel, bio-char and syngas. Catalyst [...] Read more.
With the aggravation of the energy crisis and environmental problems, biomass resource, as a renewable carbon resource, has received great attention. Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) is a promising technology, which can convert solid biomass into high value liquid fuel, bio-char and syngas. Catalyst plays a vital role in the rapid pyrolysis, which can increase the yield and selectivity of aromatics and other products in bio-oil. In this paper, the traditional zeolite catalysts and metal modified zeolite catalysts used in CFP are summarized. The influence of the catalysts on the yield and selectivity of the product obtained from pyrolysis was discussed. The deactivation and regeneration of the catalyst were discussed. Catalytic co-pyrolysis (CCP) and microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) are new technologies developed in traditional pyrolysis technology. CCP improves the problem of hydrogen deficiency in the biomass pyrolysis process and raises the yield and character of pyrolysis products, through the co-feeding of biomass and hydrogen-rich substances. The pyrolysis reactions of biomass and polymers (plastics and waste tires) in CCP were reviewed to obtain the influence of co-pyrolysis on composition and selectivity of pyrolysis products. The catalytic mechanism of the catalyst in CCP and the reaction path of the product are described, which is very important to improve the understanding of co-pyrolysis technology. In addition, the effects of biomass pretreatment, microwave adsorbent, catalyst and other reaction conditions on the pyrolysis products of MAP were reviewed, and the application of MAP in the preparation of high value-added biofuels, activated carbon and syngas was introduced. Full article

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass and Waste: A Critical Review
Authors:
Mai Attia, Jamal Chaouki and Sherif FARAG

Title: Hydrodeoxygenation of Levulinic Acid Dimers on a Zirconia-Supported Ruthenium Catalyst
Authors: Eveliina Mäkelä *, José Luis González Escobedo , Marina Lindblad , Mats Käldström , Heidi Meriö-Talvio , Riikka L. Puurunen and Reetta Karinen
Affiliation: Aalto University, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, P.O. Box 16100, 00076 Aalto, Finland; Neste Corporation, P.O. Box 310, 06101 Porvoo, Finland; Present Adress: Walki Group, P.O.Box 121, 68601 Pietarsaari, Finland
Corresponding Author: Eveliina Mäkelä. E-mail: [email protected] Tel.: +358 505019330
Abstract: Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of levulinic acid aldol condensation products (dimers) was studied with Ru catalyst supported on mesoporous zirconia between 250 and 300 °C and 50 bar H2 in a batch reactor. During the reaction, the unsaturated dimers (containing ketone group and double bonds) were hydrogenated to saturated dimers. A greater degree of deoxygenation was achieved at higher temperatures, and oxygen was removed as water and CO2. Oxygen removal was evidenced by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy, in which the C=O peak decreased with increasing temperature. The drawback of high reaction temperature (300 °C) was the minor degree of oligomerization through condensation. Moreover, formation of aromatics was also observed at the higher temperatures. Aside of the saturated dimers, volatile products were obtained at all temperatures, including ketones, acids and esters. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of LA dimers as a route from lignocellulosic biomass to sustainable biofuels and biocomponents.

Title: The Interaction of Bio-oil with Pillared Clay Supported Nickel-molybdenum Catalysts
Authors: Indri B. Adilina 1,*, Fauzan Aulia 1, Muhammad A. Fitriady 1, Ferensa Oemry 1, Gavin B. G. Stenning 2 and Stewart F. Parker 2
Affiliation: 1 Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten, Indonesia 15314; 2 ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom
Correspondence: [email protected]

 

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